Abstract

This investigation proposes the use of the shadow moiré method (SMM) to measure stress in a thin film that is coated on a flexible substrate. The technique defines the profile of the sample by contour lines without the application of an external force, and the radius of curvature is calculated from these contour lines. The SMM is insensitive to environmental noise and has the same advantages as the interference method, such as being nondestructive and easy to use. For Al film with a thickness of 120nm coated on a polyimide substrate by a DC magnetron sputtering system (800 W, room temperature), the stress is 0.45±0.042GPa.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. Z. Suo, E. Y. Ma, H. Gleskova, and S. Wagner, “Mechanics of rollable and foldable film-on-foil electronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1177-1179 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Gleskova, I-Chun Cheng, S. Wagner, and Z. Suo, “Thermomechanical criteria for overlay alignment in flexible thin film electronic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011905 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. I. Hsu, H. Gleskova, M. Huang, Z. Suo, S. Wagner, and J. C. Sturm, “Amorphous Si TFTs on plastically deformed spherical domes,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 1355-1359 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I.-C. Cheng, A. Kattamis, K. Long, J. C. Sturm, and S. Wagner, “Stress control for overlay registration in a-Si:H TFTs on flexible organic-polymer-foil substrates,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 563-568 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. P. Crawford, “Mechanic of TFT technology on flexible substrates,” in Flexible Flat Panel Displays (Wiley, 2005), pp. 1-20.
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. H. Won, J. K. Chung, C. B. Lee, H. C. Nam, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “Effect of mechanical and electrical stresses on the performance of an a-Si:H TFT on plastic substrate,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G167-G170 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Pereira, D. Brida, E. Fortunato, I. Ferreira, H. Águas, V. Silva, M. F. M. Costa, V. Teixeira, and R. Martins, “a-Si:H interface optimisation for thin film position sensitive detectors produced on polymeric substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 1289-1294 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Takasaki, “Moire topography,” Appl. Opt. 9, 1467-1472 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  10. K. Suzuki and I. Shimoyama, “Insect-model based microrobot with elastic hinges,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 3, 4-9 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

H. Gleskova, I-Chun Cheng, S. Wagner, and Z. Suo, “Thermomechanical criteria for overlay alignment in flexible thin film electronic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

I.-C. Cheng, A. Kattamis, K. Long, J. C. Sturm, and S. Wagner, “Stress control for overlay registration in a-Si:H TFTs on flexible organic-polymer-foil substrates,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 563-568 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Crawford, “Mechanic of TFT technology on flexible substrates,” in Flexible Flat Panel Displays (Wiley, 2005), pp. 1-20.
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. H. Won, J. K. Chung, C. B. Lee, H. C. Nam, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “Effect of mechanical and electrical stresses on the performance of an a-Si:H TFT on plastic substrate,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G167-G170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

L. Pereira, D. Brida, E. Fortunato, I. Ferreira, H. Águas, V. Silva, M. F. M. Costa, V. Teixeira, and R. Martins, “a-Si:H interface optimisation for thin film position sensitive detectors produced on polymeric substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 1289-1294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Hsu, H. Gleskova, M. Huang, Z. Suo, S. Wagner, and J. C. Sturm, “Amorphous Si TFTs on plastically deformed spherical domes,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 1355-1359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Z. Suo, E. Y. Ma, H. Gleskova, and S. Wagner, “Mechanics of rollable and foldable film-on-foil electronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1177-1179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

K. Suzuki and I. Shimoyama, “Insect-model based microrobot with elastic hinges,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 3, 4-9 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

Águas, H.

L. Pereira, D. Brida, E. Fortunato, I. Ferreira, H. Águas, V. Silva, M. F. M. Costa, V. Teixeira, and R. Martins, “a-Si:H interface optimisation for thin film position sensitive detectors produced on polymeric substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 1289-1294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brida, D.

L. Pereira, D. Brida, E. Fortunato, I. Ferreira, H. Águas, V. Silva, M. F. M. Costa, V. Teixeira, and R. Martins, “a-Si:H interface optimisation for thin film position sensitive detectors produced on polymeric substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 1289-1294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, I.-C.

I.-C. Cheng, A. Kattamis, K. Long, J. C. Sturm, and S. Wagner, “Stress control for overlay registration in a-Si:H TFTs on flexible organic-polymer-foil substrates,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 563-568 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, I-Chun

H. Gleskova, I-Chun Cheng, S. Wagner, and Z. Suo, “Thermomechanical criteria for overlay alignment in flexible thin film electronic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chung, J. K.

S. H. Won, J. K. Chung, C. B. Lee, H. C. Nam, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “Effect of mechanical and electrical stresses on the performance of an a-Si:H TFT on plastic substrate,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G167-G170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Costa, M. F. M.

L. Pereira, D. Brida, E. Fortunato, I. Ferreira, H. Águas, V. Silva, M. F. M. Costa, V. Teixeira, and R. Martins, “a-Si:H interface optimisation for thin film position sensitive detectors produced on polymeric substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 1289-1294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, G. P.

G. P. Crawford, “Mechanic of TFT technology on flexible substrates,” in Flexible Flat Panel Displays (Wiley, 2005), pp. 1-20.
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, I.

L. Pereira, D. Brida, E. Fortunato, I. Ferreira, H. Águas, V. Silva, M. F. M. Costa, V. Teixeira, and R. Martins, “a-Si:H interface optimisation for thin film position sensitive detectors produced on polymeric substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 1289-1294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fortunato, E.

L. Pereira, D. Brida, E. Fortunato, I. Ferreira, H. Águas, V. Silva, M. F. M. Costa, V. Teixeira, and R. Martins, “a-Si:H interface optimisation for thin film position sensitive detectors produced on polymeric substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 1289-1294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Freund, L. B.

L. B. Freund and S. Suresh, “Film stress and substrate curvature,” in Thin Film Materials: Stress, Defect Formation and Surface Evolution (Cambridge U. Press, 2003), pp. 86-153.

Gleskova, H.

H. Gleskova, I-Chun Cheng, S. Wagner, and Z. Suo, “Thermomechanical criteria for overlay alignment in flexible thin film electronic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Hsu, H. Gleskova, M. Huang, Z. Suo, S. Wagner, and J. C. Sturm, “Amorphous Si TFTs on plastically deformed spherical domes,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 1355-1359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Suo, E. Y. Ma, H. Gleskova, and S. Wagner, “Mechanics of rollable and foldable film-on-foil electronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1177-1179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, P. I.

P. I. Hsu, H. Gleskova, M. Huang, Z. Suo, S. Wagner, and J. C. Sturm, “Amorphous Si TFTs on plastically deformed spherical domes,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 1355-1359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

P. I. Hsu, H. Gleskova, M. Huang, Z. Suo, S. Wagner, and J. C. Sturm, “Amorphous Si TFTs on plastically deformed spherical domes,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 1355-1359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hur, J. H.

S. H. Won, J. K. Chung, C. B. Lee, H. C. Nam, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “Effect of mechanical and electrical stresses on the performance of an a-Si:H TFT on plastic substrate,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G167-G170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.

S. H. Won, J. K. Chung, C. B. Lee, H. C. Nam, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “Effect of mechanical and electrical stresses on the performance of an a-Si:H TFT on plastic substrate,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G167-G170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kattamis, A.

I.-C. Cheng, A. Kattamis, K. Long, J. C. Sturm, and S. Wagner, “Stress control for overlay registration in a-Si:H TFTs on flexible organic-polymer-foil substrates,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 563-568 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. B.

S. H. Won, J. K. Chung, C. B. Lee, H. C. Nam, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “Effect of mechanical and electrical stresses on the performance of an a-Si:H TFT on plastic substrate,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G167-G170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Long, K.

I.-C. Cheng, A. Kattamis, K. Long, J. C. Sturm, and S. Wagner, “Stress control for overlay registration in a-Si:H TFTs on flexible organic-polymer-foil substrates,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 563-568 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ma, E. Y.

Z. Suo, E. Y. Ma, H. Gleskova, and S. Wagner, “Mechanics of rollable and foldable film-on-foil electronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1177-1179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martins, R.

L. Pereira, D. Brida, E. Fortunato, I. Ferreira, H. Águas, V. Silva, M. F. M. Costa, V. Teixeira, and R. Martins, “a-Si:H interface optimisation for thin film position sensitive detectors produced on polymeric substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 1289-1294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nam, H. C.

S. H. Won, J. K. Chung, C. B. Lee, H. C. Nam, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “Effect of mechanical and electrical stresses on the performance of an a-Si:H TFT on plastic substrate,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G167-G170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, L.

L. Pereira, D. Brida, E. Fortunato, I. Ferreira, H. Águas, V. Silva, M. F. M. Costa, V. Teixeira, and R. Martins, “a-Si:H interface optimisation for thin film position sensitive detectors produced on polymeric substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 1289-1294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shimoyama, I.

K. Suzuki and I. Shimoyama, “Insect-model based microrobot with elastic hinges,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 3, 4-9 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Silva, V.

L. Pereira, D. Brida, E. Fortunato, I. Ferreira, H. Águas, V. Silva, M. F. M. Costa, V. Teixeira, and R. Martins, “a-Si:H interface optimisation for thin film position sensitive detectors produced on polymeric substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 1289-1294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, J. C.

I.-C. Cheng, A. Kattamis, K. Long, J. C. Sturm, and S. Wagner, “Stress control for overlay registration in a-Si:H TFTs on flexible organic-polymer-foil substrates,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 563-568 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Hsu, H. Gleskova, M. Huang, Z. Suo, S. Wagner, and J. C. Sturm, “Amorphous Si TFTs on plastically deformed spherical domes,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 1355-1359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Suo, Z.

H. Gleskova, I-Chun Cheng, S. Wagner, and Z. Suo, “Thermomechanical criteria for overlay alignment in flexible thin film electronic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Hsu, H. Gleskova, M. Huang, Z. Suo, S. Wagner, and J. C. Sturm, “Amorphous Si TFTs on plastically deformed spherical domes,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 1355-1359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Suo, E. Y. Ma, H. Gleskova, and S. Wagner, “Mechanics of rollable and foldable film-on-foil electronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1177-1179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suresh, S.

L. B. Freund and S. Suresh, “Film stress and substrate curvature,” in Thin Film Materials: Stress, Defect Formation and Surface Evolution (Cambridge U. Press, 2003), pp. 86-153.

Suzuki, K.

K. Suzuki and I. Shimoyama, “Insect-model based microrobot with elastic hinges,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 3, 4-9 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Takasaki, H.

Teixeira, V.

L. Pereira, D. Brida, E. Fortunato, I. Ferreira, H. Águas, V. Silva, M. F. M. Costa, V. Teixeira, and R. Martins, “a-Si:H interface optimisation for thin film position sensitive detectors produced on polymeric substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 1289-1294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, S.

H. Gleskova, I-Chun Cheng, S. Wagner, and Z. Suo, “Thermomechanical criteria for overlay alignment in flexible thin film electronic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I.-C. Cheng, A. Kattamis, K. Long, J. C. Sturm, and S. Wagner, “Stress control for overlay registration in a-Si:H TFTs on flexible organic-polymer-foil substrates,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 563-568 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Hsu, H. Gleskova, M. Huang, Z. Suo, S. Wagner, and J. C. Sturm, “Amorphous Si TFTs on plastically deformed spherical domes,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 1355-1359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Suo, E. Y. Ma, H. Gleskova, and S. Wagner, “Mechanics of rollable and foldable film-on-foil electronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1177-1179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Won, S. H.

S. H. Won, J. K. Chung, C. B. Lee, H. C. Nam, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “Effect of mechanical and electrical stresses on the performance of an a-Si:H TFT on plastic substrate,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G167-G170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Z. Suo, E. Y. Ma, H. Gleskova, and S. Wagner, “Mechanics of rollable and foldable film-on-foil electronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1177-1179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Gleskova, I-Chun Cheng, S. Wagner, and Z. Suo, “Thermomechanical criteria for overlay alignment in flexible thin film electronic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

S. H. Won, J. K. Chung, C. B. Lee, H. C. Nam, J. H. Hur, and J. Jang, “Effect of mechanical and electrical stresses on the performance of an a-Si:H TFT on plastic substrate,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G167-G170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

K. Suzuki and I. Shimoyama, “Insect-model based microrobot with elastic hinges,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 3, 4-9 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

L. Pereira, D. Brida, E. Fortunato, I. Ferreira, H. Águas, V. Silva, M. F. M. Costa, V. Teixeira, and R. Martins, “a-Si:H interface optimisation for thin film position sensitive detectors produced on polymeric substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 1289-1294 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Hsu, H. Gleskova, M. Huang, Z. Suo, S. Wagner, and J. C. Sturm, “Amorphous Si TFTs on plastically deformed spherical domes,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299-302, 1355-1359 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

I.-C. Cheng, A. Kattamis, K. Long, J. C. Sturm, and S. Wagner, “Stress control for overlay registration in a-Si:H TFTs on flexible organic-polymer-foil substrates,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 563-568 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

G. P. Crawford, “Mechanic of TFT technology on flexible substrates,” in Flexible Flat Panel Displays (Wiley, 2005), pp. 1-20.
[CrossRef]

L. B. Freund and S. Suresh, “Film stress and substrate curvature,” in Thin Film Materials: Stress, Defect Formation and Surface Evolution (Cambridge U. Press, 2003), pp. 86-153.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Shadow moiré of a cylindrical body with a vertically symmetric axis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic drawing of the SMM. The CCD is placed at an angle β to the grating (Ref) normal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for the SMM.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Because of the biaxial stress, the film–substrate system is cylindrically symmetric. The center of the sample is assumed to be at ( x 0 , y 0 ) , the first bright fringe is at ( x 1 , y 1 ) , the second at ( x 2 , y 2 ) and the third at ( x 3 , y 3 ) .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic drawing of a DC magnetron sputtering system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Geometry of the incident light and grating.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Interferogram of the SMM. There are five fringes presented. The peaks (dots) of bright fringes are adjudged to determine the spacing of these fringes.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mechanical Properties of PI Substrate and Al Film

Equations (13)

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δ = P tan ( α ) + tan ( β ) .
σ f = ( Y s t s 2 Y f t f 2 ) 2 + 4 Y s Y f t s t f ( t s + t f ) 2 6 ( 1 + v ) Y s Y f t s t f ( t s + t f ) Y f * 1 + ( Y f * t f / Y s * t s ) × ( 1 R 1 R 0 ) ,
( x 1 x 0 ) 2 + ( y 0 y 1 ) 2 = R 2 ,
( x 2 x 0 ) 2 + ( y 0 y 2 ) 2 = R 2 ,
( x 3 x 0 ) 2 + ( y 0 y 3 ) 2 = R 2 .
( x 2 x 0 ) = ( L 1 2 + L 2 2 + 2 δ 2 ) 2 ( L 2 L 1 ) ,
( y 0 y 2 ) = ( L 1 + L 2 ) ( L 1 L 2 + δ 2 ) 2 δ ( L 2 L 1 ) .
  R = [ ( L 1 2 + L 2 2 + 2 δ 2 ) 2 ( L 2 L 1 ) ] 2 + [ ( L 1 + L 2 ) ( L 1 L 2 + δ 2 ) 2 δ ( L 2 L 1 ) ] 2 ,
Δ R = ( R L 1 ) 2 ( Δ L 1 ) 2 + ( R L 2 ) 2 ( Δ L 2 ) 2 .
Δ R 2 ( R L 1 ) 2 ( Δ L 1 ) 2 = 2 ( 1 2 R R 2 L 1 ) ( Δ L 1 ) = 1 2 R [ L 1 ( L 1 2 + L 2 2 + 2 δ 2 ) ( L 1 L 2 ) 2 ( L 1 2 + L 2 2 + 2 δ 2 ) 2 ( L 1 L 2 ) 3 + ( L 1 + L 2 ) ( L 1 L 2 + δ 2 ) 2 2 ( L 1 L 2 ) 2 δ 2 + L 2 ( L 1 + L 2 ) 2 ( L 1 L 2 + δ 2 ) 2 ( L 1 L 2 ) 2 δ 2 ( L 1 + L 2 ) 2 ( L 1 L 2 + δ 2 ) 2 2 ( L 1 L 2 ) 3 δ 2 ] Δ L 1 .
t A = Rect ( x / W ) Comb ( x / P ) ,
F [ t A ] W P S inc ( W F x ) Comb ( P F x ) | F x = x / λ z ,
Δ σ f = ( Y s t s 2 Y f t f 2 ) 2 + 4 Y s Y f t s t f ( t s + t f ) 2 6 ( 1 + v ) Y s Y f t s t f ( t s + t f ) × Y f * 1 + ( Y f * t f / Y s * t s ) [ ( Δ R R 2 ) 2 + ( Δ R 0 R 0 2 ) 2 ] 1 / 2 .

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