Abstract

The French Laser Megajoule (LMJ) is designed and constructed by the French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Its amplifying section needs highly reflective multilayer mirrors for the flash lamps. To monitor and improve the coating process, the reflectors have to be characterized to high accuracy. The described spectrophotometer is designed to measure normal specular reflectance with high repeatability by using a small spot size of 100 μm. Results are compared with ellipsometric measurements. The instrument can also perform spatial characterization to detect coating nonuniformity.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. L. André, “The French Megajoule Laser Project (LMJ),” Fusion Eng. Des. 44, 43-49 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. I. Moses, “The National Ignition Facility high-energy ultraviolet laser system,” Opt. Mater. 26, 515-521 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Sabary, D. Marteau, P. Hamel, and H. Piombini, “High reflectivity protected silver coatings on stainless steel and aluminium substrates,” presented at the Society of Vacuum Coaters 47th Annual Technical Conference, Dallas, Texas (April 2004).
  4. H. H. Cary, “Double folded-ζ-configuration monochromator,” U.S. patent 3,098,408 (23 July 1963).
  5. J. Strong, Procedures in Experimental Physics (Prentice-Hall, 1938), p. 376.
  6. H. E. Bennett and W. F. Koehler, “Precision measurement of absolute specular reflectance with minimized systematic errors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1-5 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. D. Mielenz, K. L. Eckerle, R. P. Madden, and J. Reader, “New reference spectrophotometer,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1630-1641 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. C. Zwinkels and D. S. Gignac, “Design and testing of a new high-accuracy ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectrophotometer,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1557-1567 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Allen and M. Nadal, “Facilities,” http://physics.nist.gov/Divisions/Div844/facilities/specphoto/facilities.html.
  10. P. Y. Barnes, E. A. Early, and A. C. Parr, “NIST measurement services: spectral reflectance,” Optical Technology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology Publication 250-48, (March 1998).
  11. J. E. Proctor and P. Y. Barnes, “NIST high accuracy reference reflectometer-spectrophotometer,”J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 619-627 (1996).
  12. D. Enard and H. Visser, “Universal spectrophotometer for determining the efficiency of optical-components and systems,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4459-4464 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. E. Norton, C. L. Mallory, H. V. Pham, and P. Rasmussen, “Broadband microspectroreflectometer,” U.S. patent 5,747,813 (5 May 1998).
  14. P. G. Borden, J. Li, and J. Madsen, “Calibration as well as measurement on the same workpiece during fabrication,” U.S. patent 6,940,592 (6 September 2005).
  15. P. Voarino, S. Petitrenaud, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, “High-precision measurements of reflectance,” Proc. SPIE 6342, 63421Z (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Petitenaud, P. Voarino, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, “High-precision measurements of the LMJ's reflectors,” presented at the Optical Fabrication and Testing Conference, Rochester, New York, 9-11 October 2006.
  17. P. Voarino, S. Petitrenaud, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, “Spectrophotometer for high-precision measurements of heterogeneities,” presented at the EOS Annual Meeting 2006, Paris, France, 16-19 October 2006.
  18. H. Piombini and P. Voarino, “Dispositif et procédé de mesure de caractérisation par réflectométrie,” French patent 0651951 (30 May 2006).
  19. H. Piombini and P. Voarino, “Apparatus designed for very accurate measurement of optical reflections,” Appl. Opt. 46, 8609-8618 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants (Academic, 1985).
  21. F. Abelès, “Methods for determining optical parameters of thin films,”Ann. Phys. 5, 596, 706 (1950).

2007

2006

P. Voarino, S. Petitrenaud, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, “High-precision measurements of reflectance,” Proc. SPIE 6342, 63421Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

E. I. Moses, “The National Ignition Facility high-energy ultraviolet laser system,” Opt. Mater. 26, 515-521 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. L. André, “The French Megajoule Laser Project (LMJ),” Fusion Eng. Des. 44, 43-49 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. E. Proctor and P. Y. Barnes, “NIST high accuracy reference reflectometer-spectrophotometer,”J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 619-627 (1996).

1992

J. C. Zwinkels and D. S. Gignac, “Design and testing of a new high-accuracy ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectrophotometer,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1557-1567 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants (Academic, 1985).

1982

D. Enard and H. Visser, “Universal spectrophotometer for determining the efficiency of optical-components and systems,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4459-4464 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

K. D. Mielenz, K. L. Eckerle, R. P. Madden, and J. Reader, “New reference spectrophotometer,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1630-1641 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1960

H. E. Bennett and W. F. Koehler, “Precision measurement of absolute specular reflectance with minimized systematic errors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1-5 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1950

F. Abelès, “Methods for determining optical parameters of thin films,”Ann. Phys. 5, 596, 706 (1950).

1938

J. Strong, Procedures in Experimental Physics (Prentice-Hall, 1938), p. 376.

Abelès, F.

F. Abelès, “Methods for determining optical parameters of thin films,”Ann. Phys. 5, 596, 706 (1950).

Allen, D.

D. Allen and M. Nadal, “Facilities,” http://physics.nist.gov/Divisions/Div844/facilities/specphoto/facilities.html.

André, M. L.

M. L. André, “The French Megajoule Laser Project (LMJ),” Fusion Eng. Des. 44, 43-49 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, P. Y.

P. Y. Barnes, E. A. Early, and A. C. Parr, “NIST measurement services: spectral reflectance,” Optical Technology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology Publication 250-48, (March 1998).

J. E. Proctor and P. Y. Barnes, “NIST high accuracy reference reflectometer-spectrophotometer,”J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 619-627 (1996).

Bennett, H. E.

H. E. Bennett and W. F. Koehler, “Precision measurement of absolute specular reflectance with minimized systematic errors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1-5 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Borden, P. G.

P. G. Borden, J. Li, and J. Madsen, “Calibration as well as measurement on the same workpiece during fabrication,” U.S. patent 6,940,592 (6 September 2005).

Cary, H. H.

H. H. Cary, “Double folded-ζ-configuration monochromator,” U.S. patent 3,098,408 (23 July 1963).

Early, E. A.

P. Y. Barnes, E. A. Early, and A. C. Parr, “NIST measurement services: spectral reflectance,” Optical Technology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology Publication 250-48, (March 1998).

Eckerle, K. L.

K. D. Mielenz, K. L. Eckerle, R. P. Madden, and J. Reader, “New reference spectrophotometer,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1630-1641 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enard, D.

D. Enard and H. Visser, “Universal spectrophotometer for determining the efficiency of optical-components and systems,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4459-4464 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gignac, D. S.

J. C. Zwinkels and D. S. Gignac, “Design and testing of a new high-accuracy ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectrophotometer,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1557-1567 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamel, P.

F. Sabary, D. Marteau, P. Hamel, and H. Piombini, “High reflectivity protected silver coatings on stainless steel and aluminium substrates,” presented at the Society of Vacuum Coaters 47th Annual Technical Conference, Dallas, Texas (April 2004).

Koehler, W. F.

H. E. Bennett and W. F. Koehler, “Precision measurement of absolute specular reflectance with minimized systematic errors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1-5 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

P. G. Borden, J. Li, and J. Madsen, “Calibration as well as measurement on the same workpiece during fabrication,” U.S. patent 6,940,592 (6 September 2005).

Madden, R. P.

K. D. Mielenz, K. L. Eckerle, R. P. Madden, and J. Reader, “New reference spectrophotometer,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1630-1641 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madsen, J.

P. G. Borden, J. Li, and J. Madsen, “Calibration as well as measurement on the same workpiece during fabrication,” U.S. patent 6,940,592 (6 September 2005).

Mallory, C. L.

A. E. Norton, C. L. Mallory, H. V. Pham, and P. Rasmussen, “Broadband microspectroreflectometer,” U.S. patent 5,747,813 (5 May 1998).

Marteau, D.

F. Sabary, D. Marteau, P. Hamel, and H. Piombini, “High reflectivity protected silver coatings on stainless steel and aluminium substrates,” presented at the Society of Vacuum Coaters 47th Annual Technical Conference, Dallas, Texas (April 2004).

S. Petitenaud, P. Voarino, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, “High-precision measurements of the LMJ's reflectors,” presented at the Optical Fabrication and Testing Conference, Rochester, New York, 9-11 October 2006.

P. Voarino, S. Petitrenaud, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, “High-precision measurements of reflectance,” Proc. SPIE 6342, 63421Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Voarino, S. Petitrenaud, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, “Spectrophotometer for high-precision measurements of heterogeneities,” presented at the EOS Annual Meeting 2006, Paris, France, 16-19 October 2006.

Mielenz, K. D.

K. D. Mielenz, K. L. Eckerle, R. P. Madden, and J. Reader, “New reference spectrophotometer,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1630-1641 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moses, E. I.

E. I. Moses, “The National Ignition Facility high-energy ultraviolet laser system,” Opt. Mater. 26, 515-521 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nadal, M.

D. Allen and M. Nadal, “Facilities,” http://physics.nist.gov/Divisions/Div844/facilities/specphoto/facilities.html.

Norton, A. E.

A. E. Norton, C. L. Mallory, H. V. Pham, and P. Rasmussen, “Broadband microspectroreflectometer,” U.S. patent 5,747,813 (5 May 1998).

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants (Academic, 1985).

Parr, A. C.

P. Y. Barnes, E. A. Early, and A. C. Parr, “NIST measurement services: spectral reflectance,” Optical Technology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology Publication 250-48, (March 1998).

Petitenaud, S.

S. Petitenaud, P. Voarino, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, “High-precision measurements of the LMJ's reflectors,” presented at the Optical Fabrication and Testing Conference, Rochester, New York, 9-11 October 2006.

Petitrenaud, S.

P. Voarino, S. Petitrenaud, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, “High-precision measurements of reflectance,” Proc. SPIE 6342, 63421Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Voarino, S. Petitrenaud, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, “Spectrophotometer for high-precision measurements of heterogeneities,” presented at the EOS Annual Meeting 2006, Paris, France, 16-19 October 2006.

Pham, H. V.

A. E. Norton, C. L. Mallory, H. V. Pham, and P. Rasmussen, “Broadband microspectroreflectometer,” U.S. patent 5,747,813 (5 May 1998).

Piombini, H.

F. Sabary, D. Marteau, P. Hamel, and H. Piombini, “High reflectivity protected silver coatings on stainless steel and aluminium substrates,” presented at the Society of Vacuum Coaters 47th Annual Technical Conference, Dallas, Texas (April 2004).

S. Petitenaud, P. Voarino, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, “High-precision measurements of the LMJ's reflectors,” presented at the Optical Fabrication and Testing Conference, Rochester, New York, 9-11 October 2006.

H. Piombini and P. Voarino, “Dispositif et procédé de mesure de caractérisation par réflectométrie,” French patent 0651951 (30 May 2006).

H. Piombini and P. Voarino, “Apparatus designed for very accurate measurement of optical reflections,” Appl. Opt. 46, 8609-8618 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Voarino, S. Petitrenaud, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, “High-precision measurements of reflectance,” Proc. SPIE 6342, 63421Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Voarino, S. Petitrenaud, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, “Spectrophotometer for high-precision measurements of heterogeneities,” presented at the EOS Annual Meeting 2006, Paris, France, 16-19 October 2006.

Proctor, J. E.

J. E. Proctor and P. Y. Barnes, “NIST high accuracy reference reflectometer-spectrophotometer,”J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 619-627 (1996).

Rasmussen, P.

A. E. Norton, C. L. Mallory, H. V. Pham, and P. Rasmussen, “Broadband microspectroreflectometer,” U.S. patent 5,747,813 (5 May 1998).

Reader, J.

K. D. Mielenz, K. L. Eckerle, R. P. Madden, and J. Reader, “New reference spectrophotometer,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1630-1641 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sabary, F.

F. Sabary, D. Marteau, P. Hamel, and H. Piombini, “High reflectivity protected silver coatings on stainless steel and aluminium substrates,” presented at the Society of Vacuum Coaters 47th Annual Technical Conference, Dallas, Texas (April 2004).

S. Petitenaud, P. Voarino, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, “High-precision measurements of the LMJ's reflectors,” presented at the Optical Fabrication and Testing Conference, Rochester, New York, 9-11 October 2006.

P. Voarino, S. Petitrenaud, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, “High-precision measurements of reflectance,” Proc. SPIE 6342, 63421Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Voarino, S. Petitrenaud, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, “Spectrophotometer for high-precision measurements of heterogeneities,” presented at the EOS Annual Meeting 2006, Paris, France, 16-19 October 2006.

Strong, J.

J. Strong, Procedures in Experimental Physics (Prentice-Hall, 1938), p. 376.

Visser, H.

D. Enard and H. Visser, “Universal spectrophotometer for determining the efficiency of optical-components and systems,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4459-4464 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voarino, P.

S. Petitenaud, P. Voarino, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, “High-precision measurements of the LMJ's reflectors,” presented at the Optical Fabrication and Testing Conference, Rochester, New York, 9-11 October 2006.

H. Piombini and P. Voarino, “Dispositif et procédé de mesure de caractérisation par réflectométrie,” French patent 0651951 (30 May 2006).

H. Piombini and P. Voarino, “Apparatus designed for very accurate measurement of optical reflections,” Appl. Opt. 46, 8609-8618 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Voarino, S. Petitrenaud, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, “High-precision measurements of reflectance,” Proc. SPIE 6342, 63421Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Voarino, S. Petitrenaud, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, “Spectrophotometer for high-precision measurements of heterogeneities,” presented at the EOS Annual Meeting 2006, Paris, France, 16-19 October 2006.

Zwinkels, J. C.

J. C. Zwinkels and D. S. Gignac, “Design and testing of a new high-accuracy ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectrophotometer,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1557-1567 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Phys.

F. Abelès, “Methods for determining optical parameters of thin films,”Ann. Phys. 5, 596, 706 (1950).

Appl. Opt.

K. D. Mielenz, K. L. Eckerle, R. P. Madden, and J. Reader, “New reference spectrophotometer,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1630-1641 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Zwinkels and D. S. Gignac, “Design and testing of a new high-accuracy ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectrophotometer,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1557-1567 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Enard and H. Visser, “Universal spectrophotometer for determining the efficiency of optical-components and systems,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4459-4464 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Fusion Eng. Des.

M. L. André, “The French Megajoule Laser Project (LMJ),” Fusion Eng. Des. 44, 43-49 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

H. E. Bennett and W. F. Koehler, “Precision measurement of absolute specular reflectance with minimized systematic errors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1-5 (1960).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.

J. E. Proctor and P. Y. Barnes, “NIST high accuracy reference reflectometer-spectrophotometer,”J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 619-627 (1996).

Opt. Mater.

E. I. Moses, “The National Ignition Facility high-energy ultraviolet laser system,” Opt. Mater. 26, 515-521 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

P. Voarino, S. Petitrenaud, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, “High-precision measurements of reflectance,” Proc. SPIE 6342, 63421Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Petitenaud, P. Voarino, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, “High-precision measurements of the LMJ's reflectors,” presented at the Optical Fabrication and Testing Conference, Rochester, New York, 9-11 October 2006.

P. Voarino, S. Petitrenaud, H. Piombini, F. Sabary, and D. Marteau, “Spectrophotometer for high-precision measurements of heterogeneities,” presented at the EOS Annual Meeting 2006, Paris, France, 16-19 October 2006.

H. Piombini and P. Voarino, “Dispositif et procédé de mesure de caractérisation par réflectométrie,” French patent 0651951 (30 May 2006).

A. E. Norton, C. L. Mallory, H. V. Pham, and P. Rasmussen, “Broadband microspectroreflectometer,” U.S. patent 5,747,813 (5 May 1998).

P. G. Borden, J. Li, and J. Madsen, “Calibration as well as measurement on the same workpiece during fabrication,” U.S. patent 6,940,592 (6 September 2005).

F. Sabary, D. Marteau, P. Hamel, and H. Piombini, “High reflectivity protected silver coatings on stainless steel and aluminium substrates,” presented at the Society of Vacuum Coaters 47th Annual Technical Conference, Dallas, Texas (April 2004).

H. H. Cary, “Double folded-ζ-configuration monochromator,” U.S. patent 3,098,408 (23 July 1963).

J. Strong, Procedures in Experimental Physics (Prentice-Hall, 1938), p. 376.

D. Allen and M. Nadal, “Facilities,” http://physics.nist.gov/Divisions/Div844/facilities/specphoto/facilities.html.

P. Y. Barnes, E. A. Early, and A. C. Parr, “NIST measurement services: spectral reflectance,” Optical Technology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology Publication 250-48, (March 1998).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants (Academic, 1985).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) (a) Diagram of the amplifying section with the L-Turn and two amplifying units. (b) Bundle of eight beams in each amplifier assembly. (c) Photograph presents a doped neodymium glass slab with its flash lamps. (d) Photograph of prototypes of reflectors having different shapes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Pattern and typical response of the treatment developed in CEA∕Le Ripault.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Schematic representation of the experimental setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Repeatability of our instrument: study of the standard deviation (σ) versus wavelength.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Repeatability of self-focusing during a mapping of a dielectric mirror.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Summary of 30 measurements on a dielectric mirror named Ocli n°2: first, 15th, and last measurements and the curves “mini,” “maxi,” “average” that are obtained by taking the minimum value, the maximum value, and the average value measured for each wavelength.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) (a) Schema of the different locations of measurements made by our system and by traditional spectrophotometer. (b) Specular reflectance of the different measurements defined on the diagram versus the wavelength.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) (a) Schema of the different locations of measurements in two perpendicular directions with 1 mm spacing. (b) The difference of specular reflectance versus location for the uniform direction (vertical axis).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) (a) Difference of normalized specular reflectance versus location at 500 and 633 nm for the nonuniform direction (horizontal axis). (b) Measurements of the protective layer SiO2 with an ellipsometer in the visible range.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) (a) Schema showing the cause of nonuniformity thickness that is linked to the mode of deposit: the films are deposited with substrate rotation. (b) Comparison between measurements with our system (at 500 nm) and calculations made using data from ellipsometry and fit. The correlation coefficient between our system and the ellipsometer is 0.92.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Two reflectance maps of a reflector over an area of 40 m m × 40 m m and their difference.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Reflectance of a Silicon Wafer Given by Palik [20] and Measured by an Ellipsometer, a Commercial Spectrophotometer, and Our System for Six Wavelengths from 450 to 900 nm

Metrics