Abstract

MgF2 films with a columnar microstructure are obliquely deposited on glass substrates by resistive heating evaporation. The columnar angles of the films increases with the deposition angle. Anisotropic stress does not develop in the films with tilted columns. The residual stresses in the films depend on the deposition and columnar angles in a columnar microstructure.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2006 (3)

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, "Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027-5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure-related properties at 193 nm of MgF2 and GdF3 films deposited by a resistive-heating boat," Appl. Opt. 45, 1368-1374 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Lee, H. C. Chen, and C. C. Jaing, "Investigation of thermal annealing of optical properties and residual stress of ion-beam-assisted TiO2 thin films with different substrate temperatures," Appl. Opt. 45, 3091-3096 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

G. N. Strauss, "Mechanical stress in optical coatings," in Optical Interference Coatings, N. Kaiser and H. K. Pulker, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2003), pp. 207-229.

N. Kaiser, "Some fundamentals of optical thin film growth," in Optical Interference Coatings, N. Kaiser and H. K. Pulker, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2003), pp. 59-80.

2002 (2)

K. D. Harris, D. Vick, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Column angle variations in porous chevron thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 2062-2067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Ye, Y. P. Zhao, G. R. Yang, Y. G. Zhao, G. C. Wang, and T. M. Lu, "Manipulating the column tilt angles of nanocolumnar films by glancing-angle deposition," Nanotechnology 13, 615-618 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, and C. L. Tien, "Making parabolic mirrors by electron-beam gun evaporation method with ion-assisted deposition," Appl. Surf. Sci. 170, 654-657 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, "An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128-2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, "Ion-beam control of thin film microstructural columnar angle," Mod. Phys. Lett. B 15, 1328-1331 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Academic, 2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. Vick, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, M. J. Brett, K. Robbie, M. Seto, and T. Smy, "Self-shadowing and surface diffusion effects in obliquely deposited thin films," Thin Solid Films 339, 88-94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, Birefringent Thin Films and Polarizing Elements (World Scientific, 1998).

P. I. Rovira, R. A. Yarussi, R. W. Collins, V. C. Venugopal, A. Lakhtakia, R. Messier, K. Robbie, and M. J. Brett, "Rotating-compensator multichannel transmission ellipsometry of a thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic medium," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 373-378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Advanced techniques for glancing angle deposition," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 1115-1122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, and J. Hazel, "Empirical equations for the principal refractive indices and column angle of obliquely deposited films of tantalum oxide, titanium oxide, and zirconium oxide," Appl. Opt. 37, 2653-2659 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

L. Abelmann and C. Lodder, "Oblique evaporation and surface diffusion," Thin Solid Films 305, 1-21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, "Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: growth mechanics and applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1460-1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Messier, T. Gehrke, C. Frankel, V. C. Venugopal, W. Otano, and A. Lakhtakia, "Engineered sculptured nematic thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 2148-2152 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032-1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Modelling and characterization of columnar growth in evaporated films," Thin Solid Films 226, 196-201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

M. Ohring, The Materials Science of Thin Films (Academic, 1992).

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Structural anisotropy in oblique incidence thin metal films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 1518-1521 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

1984 (2)

1977 (1)

A. G. Dirks and H. J. Leamy, "Columnar microstructure in vapor-deposited thin films," Thin Solid Films 47, 219-233 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

J. M. Nieuwenhuizen and H. B. Haanstra, "Microfractography of thin films," Philips Tech. Rev. 27, 87-91 (1966).

1909 (1)

G. G. Stoney, "The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 172-175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Abelmann, L.

L. Abelmann and C. Lodder, "Oblique evaporation and surface diffusion," Thin Solid Films 305, 1-21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brett, M. J.

K. D. Harris, D. Vick, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Column angle variations in porous chevron thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 2062-2067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Vick, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, M. J. Brett, K. Robbie, M. Seto, and T. Smy, "Self-shadowing and surface diffusion effects in obliquely deposited thin films," Thin Solid Films 339, 88-94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Advanced techniques for glancing angle deposition," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 1115-1122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Rovira, R. A. Yarussi, R. W. Collins, V. C. Venugopal, A. Lakhtakia, R. Messier, K. Robbie, and M. J. Brett, "Rotating-compensator multichannel transmission ellipsometry of a thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic medium," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 373-378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, "Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: growth mechanics and applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1460-1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032-1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Modelling and characterization of columnar growth in evaporated films," Thin Solid Films 226, 196-201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Structural anisotropy in oblique incidence thin metal films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 1518-1521 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. C.

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, "Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027-5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, H. C. Chen, and C. C. Jaing, "Investigation of thermal annealing of optical properties and residual stress of ion-beam-assisted TiO2 thin films with different substrate temperatures," Appl. Opt. 45, 3091-3096 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cockayne, D. J. H.

Collins, R. W.

P. I. Rovira, R. A. Yarussi, R. W. Collins, V. C. Venugopal, A. Lakhtakia, R. Messier, K. Robbie, and M. J. Brett, "Rotating-compensator multichannel transmission ellipsometry of a thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic medium," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 373-378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Craighead, H. G.

Dew, S. K.

D. Vick, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, M. J. Brett, K. Robbie, M. Seto, and T. Smy, "Self-shadowing and surface diffusion effects in obliquely deposited thin films," Thin Solid Films 339, 88-94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032-1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dirks, A. G.

A. G. Dirks and H. J. Leamy, "Columnar microstructure in vapor-deposited thin films," Thin Solid Films 47, 219-233 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Eiju, T.

Frankel, C.

R. Messier, T. Gehrke, C. Frankel, V. C. Venugopal, W. Otano, and A. Lakhtakia, "Engineered sculptured nematic thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 2148-2152 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Friedrich, L. J.

D. Vick, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, M. J. Brett, K. Robbie, M. Seto, and T. Smy, "Self-shadowing and surface diffusion effects in obliquely deposited thin films," Thin Solid Films 339, 88-94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032-1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gehrke, T.

R. Messier, T. Gehrke, C. Frankel, V. C. Venugopal, W. Otano, and A. Lakhtakia, "Engineered sculptured nematic thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 2148-2152 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, U. J.

Haanstra, H. B.

J. M. Nieuwenhuizen and H. B. Haanstra, "Microfractography of thin films," Philips Tech. Rev. 27, 87-91 (1966).

Hariharan, P.

Harris, K. D.

K. D. Harris, D. Vick, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Column angle variations in porous chevron thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 2062-2067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hazel, J.

Hodgkinson, I. J.

I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, "Ion-beam control of thin film microstructural columnar angle," Mod. Phys. Lett. B 15, 1328-1331 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, Birefringent Thin Films and Polarizing Elements (World Scientific, 1998).

I. J. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, and J. Hazel, "Empirical equations for the principal refractive indices and column angle of obliquely deposited films of tantalum oxide, titanium oxide, and zirconium oxide," Appl. Opt. 37, 2653-2659 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, J. C.

C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, and C. L. Tien, "Making parabolic mirrors by electron-beam gun evaporation method with ion-assisted deposition," Appl. Surf. Sci. 170, 654-657 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jaing, C. C.

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, "Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027-5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, H. C. Chen, and C. C. Jaing, "Investigation of thermal annealing of optical properties and residual stress of ion-beam-assisted TiO2 thin films with different substrate temperatures," Appl. Opt. 45, 3091-3096 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, and C. L. Tien, "Making parabolic mirrors by electron-beam gun evaporation method with ion-assisted deposition," Appl. Surf. Sci. 170, 654-657 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, "An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128-2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

N. Kaiser, "Some fundamentals of optical thin film growth," in Optical Interference Coatings, N. Kaiser and H. K. Pulker, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2003), pp. 59-80.

Kaneko, M.

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure-related properties at 193 nm of MgF2 and GdF3 films deposited by a resistive-heating boat," Appl. Opt. 45, 1368-1374 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennemore III, C. M.

Lakhtakia, A.

P. I. Rovira, R. A. Yarussi, R. W. Collins, V. C. Venugopal, A. Lakhtakia, R. Messier, K. Robbie, and M. J. Brett, "Rotating-compensator multichannel transmission ellipsometry of a thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic medium," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 373-378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Messier, T. Gehrke, C. Frankel, V. C. Venugopal, W. Otano, and A. Lakhtakia, "Engineered sculptured nematic thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 2148-2152 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leamy, H. J.

A. G. Dirks and H. J. Leamy, "Columnar microstructure in vapor-deposited thin films," Thin Solid Films 47, 219-233 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. C.

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure-related properties at 193 nm of MgF2 and GdF3 films deposited by a resistive-heating boat," Appl. Opt. 45, 1368-1374 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Lee, H. C. Chen, and C. C. Jaing, "Investigation of thermal annealing of optical properties and residual stress of ion-beam-assisted TiO2 thin films with different substrate temperatures," Appl. Opt. 45, 3091-3096 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, "Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027-5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, and C. L. Tien, "Making parabolic mirrors by electron-beam gun evaporation method with ion-assisted deposition," Appl. Surf. Sci. 170, 654-657 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, "An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128-2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, "Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027-5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M. C.

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, "Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027-5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure-related properties at 193 nm of MgF2 and GdF3 films deposited by a resistive-heating boat," Appl. Opt. 45, 1368-1374 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lodder, C.

L. Abelmann and C. Lodder, "Oblique evaporation and surface diffusion," Thin Solid Films 305, 1-21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. J.

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, "Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027-5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. M.

D. X. Ye, Y. P. Zhao, G. R. Yang, Y. G. Zhao, G. C. Wang, and T. M. Lu, "Manipulating the column tilt angles of nanocolumnar films by glancing-angle deposition," Nanotechnology 13, 615-618 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Academic, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. J.

Mckenzie, D. R.

Messier, R.

P. I. Rovira, R. A. Yarussi, R. W. Collins, V. C. Venugopal, A. Lakhtakia, R. Messier, K. Robbie, and M. J. Brett, "Rotating-compensator multichannel transmission ellipsometry of a thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic medium," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 373-378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Messier, T. Gehrke, C. Frankel, V. C. Venugopal, W. Otano, and A. Lakhtakia, "Engineered sculptured nematic thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 2148-2152 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakahira, K.

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure-related properties at 193 nm of MgF2 and GdF3 films deposited by a resistive-heating boat," Appl. Opt. 45, 1368-1374 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Netterfield, R. P.

Nieuwenhuizen, J. M.

J. M. Nieuwenhuizen and H. B. Haanstra, "Microfractography of thin films," Philips Tech. Rev. 27, 87-91 (1966).

Ohring, M.

M. Ohring, The Materials Science of Thin Films (Academic, 1992).

Oreb, B. F.

Otano, W.

R. Messier, T. Gehrke, C. Frankel, V. C. Venugopal, W. Otano, and A. Lakhtakia, "Engineered sculptured nematic thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 2148-2152 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pulker, H. K.

H. K. Pulker, Coating on Glass (Elsevier, 1984).

H. K. Pulker, "Mechanical properties of optical thin films," in Thin Films for Optical Systems, F. R. Flory, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 1995), pp. 455-473.

Robbie, K.

D. Vick, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, M. J. Brett, K. Robbie, M. Seto, and T. Smy, "Self-shadowing and surface diffusion effects in obliquely deposited thin films," Thin Solid Films 339, 88-94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Advanced techniques for glancing angle deposition," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 1115-1122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Rovira, R. A. Yarussi, R. W. Collins, V. C. Venugopal, A. Lakhtakia, R. Messier, K. Robbie, and M. J. Brett, "Rotating-compensator multichannel transmission ellipsometry of a thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic medium," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 373-378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, "Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: growth mechanics and applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1460-1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032-1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rovira, P. I.

P. I. Rovira, R. A. Yarussi, R. W. Collins, V. C. Venugopal, A. Lakhtakia, R. Messier, K. Robbie, and M. J. Brett, "Rotating-compensator multichannel transmission ellipsometry of a thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic medium," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 373-378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sainty, W. G.

Seto, M.

D. Vick, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, M. J. Brett, K. Robbie, M. Seto, and T. Smy, "Self-shadowing and surface diffusion effects in obliquely deposited thin films," Thin Solid Films 339, 88-94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, W. S.

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, "An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128-2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shiao, M. H.

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, "Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027-5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sie, S. H.

Sit, J. C.

K. Robbie, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Advanced techniques for glancing angle deposition," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 1115-1122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smy, T.

K. D. Harris, D. Vick, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Column angle variations in porous chevron thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 2062-2067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Vick, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, M. J. Brett, K. Robbie, M. Seto, and T. Smy, "Self-shadowing and surface diffusion effects in obliquely deposited thin films," Thin Solid Films 339, 88-94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032-1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Modelling and characterization of columnar growth in evaporated films," Thin Solid Films 226, 196-201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Structural anisotropy in oblique incidence thin metal films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 1518-1521 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stoney, G. G.

G. G. Stoney, "The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 172-175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Strauss, G. N.

G. N. Strauss, "Mechanical stress in optical coatings," in Optical Interference Coatings, N. Kaiser and H. K. Pulker, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2003), pp. 207-229.

Tait, R. N.

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Modelling and characterization of columnar growth in evaporated films," Thin Solid Films 226, 196-201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Structural anisotropy in oblique incidence thin metal films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 1518-1521 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Takano, Y.

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure-related properties at 193 nm of MgF2 and GdF3 films deposited by a resistive-heating boat," Appl. Opt. 45, 1368-1374 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tien, C. L.

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, "An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128-2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, and C. L. Tien, "Making parabolic mirrors by electron-beam gun evaporation method with ion-assisted deposition," Appl. Surf. Sci. 170, 654-657 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Venugopal, V. C.

P. I. Rovira, R. A. Yarussi, R. W. Collins, V. C. Venugopal, A. Lakhtakia, R. Messier, K. Robbie, and M. J. Brett, "Rotating-compensator multichannel transmission ellipsometry of a thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic medium," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 373-378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Messier, T. Gehrke, C. Frankel, V. C. Venugopal, W. Otano, and A. Lakhtakia, "Engineered sculptured nematic thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 2148-2152 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vick, D.

K. D. Harris, D. Vick, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Column angle variations in porous chevron thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 2062-2067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Vick, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, M. J. Brett, K. Robbie, M. Seto, and T. Smy, "Self-shadowing and surface diffusion effects in obliquely deposited thin films," Thin Solid Films 339, 88-94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. C.

D. X. Ye, Y. P. Zhao, G. R. Yang, Y. G. Zhao, G. C. Wang, and T. M. Lu, "Manipulating the column tilt angles of nanocolumnar films by glancing-angle deposition," Nanotechnology 13, 615-618 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wood, O. R.

Wu, Q. H.

I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, "Ion-beam control of thin film microstructural columnar angle," Mod. Phys. Lett. B 15, 1328-1331 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, Birefringent Thin Films and Polarizing Elements (World Scientific, 1998).

I. J. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, and J. Hazel, "Empirical equations for the principal refractive indices and column angle of obliquely deposited films of tantalum oxide, titanium oxide, and zirconium oxide," Appl. Opt. 37, 2653-2659 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. R.

D. X. Ye, Y. P. Zhao, G. R. Yang, Y. G. Zhao, G. C. Wang, and T. M. Lu, "Manipulating the column tilt angles of nanocolumnar films by glancing-angle deposition," Nanotechnology 13, 615-618 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yarussi, R. A.

P. I. Rovira, R. A. Yarussi, R. W. Collins, V. C. Venugopal, A. Lakhtakia, R. Messier, K. Robbie, and M. J. Brett, "Rotating-compensator multichannel transmission ellipsometry of a thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic medium," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 373-378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ye, D. X.

D. X. Ye, Y. P. Zhao, G. R. Yang, Y. G. Zhao, G. C. Wang, and T. M. Lu, "Manipulating the column tilt angles of nanocolumnar films by glancing-angle deposition," Nanotechnology 13, 615-618 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. G.

D. X. Ye, Y. P. Zhao, G. R. Yang, Y. G. Zhao, G. C. Wang, and T. M. Lu, "Manipulating the column tilt angles of nanocolumnar films by glancing-angle deposition," Nanotechnology 13, 615-618 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. P.

D. X. Ye, Y. P. Zhao, G. R. Yang, Y. G. Zhao, G. C. Wang, and T. M. Lu, "Manipulating the column tilt angles of nanocolumnar films by glancing-angle deposition," Nanotechnology 13, 615-618 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure-related properties at 193 nm of MgF2 and GdF3 films deposited by a resistive-heating boat," Appl. Opt. 45, 1368-1374 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Lee, H. C. Chen, and C. C. Jaing, "Investigation of thermal annealing of optical properties and residual stress of ion-beam-assisted TiO2 thin films with different substrate temperatures," Appl. Opt. 45, 3091-3096 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

C. C. Jaing, C. C. Lee, J. C. Hsu, and C. L. Tien, "Making parabolic mirrors by electron-beam gun evaporation method with ion-assisted deposition," Appl. Surf. Sci. 170, 654-657 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (4)

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, "Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: growth mechanics and applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1460-1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032-1035 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Harris, D. Vick, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Column angle variations in porous chevron thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20, 2062-2067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Structural anisotropy in oblique incidence thin metal films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 1518-1521 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

K. Robbie, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Advanced techniques for glancing angle deposition," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 1115-1122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

R. Messier, T. Gehrke, C. Frankel, V. C. Venugopal, W. Otano, and A. Lakhtakia, "Engineered sculptured nematic thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 2148-2152 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. C. Jaing, M. H. Shiao, C. C. Lee, C. J. Lu, M. C. Liu, C. H. Lee, and H. C. Chen, "Effects of ion assistance and substrate temperature on optical characteristics and microstructure of MgF2 films formed by electron-beam evaporation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5027-5029 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mod. Phys. Lett. B (1)

I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, "Ion-beam control of thin film microstructural columnar angle," Mod. Phys. Lett. B 15, 1328-1331 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

D. X. Ye, Y. P. Zhao, G. R. Yang, Y. G. Zhao, G. C. Wang, and T. M. Lu, "Manipulating the column tilt angles of nanocolumnar films by glancing-angle deposition," Nanotechnology 13, 615-618 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Philips Tech. Rev. (1)

J. M. Nieuwenhuizen and H. B. Haanstra, "Microfractography of thin films," Philips Tech. Rev. 27, 87-91 (1966).

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

G. G. Stoney, "The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 172-175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, "An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128-2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (5)

D. Vick, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, M. J. Brett, K. Robbie, M. Seto, and T. Smy, "Self-shadowing and surface diffusion effects in obliquely deposited thin films," Thin Solid Films 339, 88-94 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Tait, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Modelling and characterization of columnar growth in evaporated films," Thin Solid Films 226, 196-201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Rovira, R. A. Yarussi, R. W. Collins, V. C. Venugopal, A. Lakhtakia, R. Messier, K. Robbie, and M. J. Brett, "Rotating-compensator multichannel transmission ellipsometry of a thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic medium," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 373-378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Abelmann and C. Lodder, "Oblique evaporation and surface diffusion," Thin Solid Films 305, 1-21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Dirks and H. J. Leamy, "Columnar microstructure in vapor-deposited thin films," Thin Solid Films 47, 219-233 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, Birefringent Thin Films and Polarizing Elements (World Scientific, 1998).

N. Kaiser, "Some fundamentals of optical thin film growth," in Optical Interference Coatings, N. Kaiser and H. K. Pulker, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2003), pp. 59-80.

H. K. Pulker, Coating on Glass (Elsevier, 1984).

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Academic, 2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohring, The Materials Science of Thin Films (Academic, 1992).

H. K. Pulker, "Mechanical properties of optical thin films," in Thin Films for Optical Systems, F. R. Flory, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 1995), pp. 455-473.

G. N. Strauss, "Mechanical stress in optical coatings," in Optical Interference Coatings, N. Kaiser and H. K. Pulker, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2003), pp. 207-229.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic deposition of M g F 2 films.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometry for radius of curvature of a substrate due to the deposition of a film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic phase-shifting Twyman–Green interferometer for measuring film stress.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross-sectional morphology of M g F 2 films made at deposition angles of (a) 20° and (b) 70° with respect to the substrate normal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Solid curve represents columnar angles β in a columnar microstructure of M g F 2 films deposited at deposition angles θ from 20° to 70°. Dotted curves represent tan β = C tan θ , where C = 0.4 , 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Interferograms of M g F 2 films deposited at the deposition angles of 20° (a) before deposition and (b) after deposition and of 50° (c) before deposition and (d) after deposition.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Residual stress in M g F 2 films prepared at deposition angles and corresponding columnar angles in columnar microstructures.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Values of C and Columnar Angles β of MgF2 Films Deposited at Deposition Angles θ from 20° to 70° with Respect to the Substrate Normal

Equations (1)

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σ f = E S t S 2 6 ( 1 ν S ) t f R ,

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