Abstract

We have investigated the influence of the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-blend-poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) layer on the short-circuit current density (Jsc) of single planar heterojunction organic solar cells based on a copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)-buckminsterfullerene (C60) active layer. Complete optical and electrical modeling of the cell has been performed taking into account optical interferences and exciton diffusion. Comparison of experimental and simulated external quantum efficiency has allowed us to estimate the exciton diffusion length to be 37 nm for the CuPc and 19 nm for the C60. The dependence of short-circuit current densities versus the thickness of the PEDOT:PSS layer is analyzed and compared with experimental data. It is found that the variation in short-circuit current densities could be explained by optical interferences.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. J. Brabec, "Organic photovoltaics: technology and market," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 83, 273-292 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Reyes-Reyes, K. Kim, and D. L. Carroll, "High-efficiency photovoltaic devices based on annealed poly(3-hexylthiophene) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 blends," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 083506 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, "Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1617-1622 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, "High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends," Nature Mater. 4, 864-868 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Xue, B. P. Rand, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, "A hybrid planar-mixed molecular heterojunction photovoltaic cell," Adv. Mater. 17, 66-71 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Xue, S. Uchida, B. P. Rand, and S. R. Forrest, "Asymmetric tandem organic photovoltaic cells with hybrid planar-mixed molecular heterojunctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5757-5759 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Kim, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, S. Cook, and J. R. Durrant, "Device annealing effect in organic solar cells with blends of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and soluble fullerene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063502 (2005).
  8. X. Yang and J. Loos, "Toward high-performance polymer solar cells: the importance of morphology control," Macromolecules 40, 1353-1362 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Berson, R. De Bettignies, S. Bailly, and S. Guillerez, "Poly(3-hexylthiophene) fibers for photovoltaic applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 1377-1384 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. J. Brabec, S. E. Shaheen, C. Winder, N. S. Sariciftci, and P. Denk, "Effect of LiF/metal electrodes on the performance of plastic solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1288-1290 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Ratier, W. Hojeij, B. Lucas, and A. Moliton, "Organic planar heterojunction solar cell optimisation with ITO obtained by ion beam sputtering," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 289-294 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. A. M. Nardes, M. Kemerink, R. A. J. Janssen, J. A. M. Bastiaansen, N. M. M. Kiggen, B. M. W. Langeveld, A. J. J. M. van Breemen, and M. M. de Kok, "Microscopic understanding of the Anisotropic Conductivity of PEDOT:PSS thin films," Adv. Mater. 19, 1196-1200 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. A. A. Pettersson, F. Carlsson, O. Inganäs, and H. Arwin, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of the optical properties of doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): an anisotropic metal," Thin Solid Films 313-314,356-361 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2007

X. Yang and J. Loos, "Toward high-performance polymer solar cells: the importance of morphology control," Macromolecules 40, 1353-1362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Berson, R. De Bettignies, S. Bailly, and S. Guillerez, "Poly(3-hexylthiophene) fibers for photovoltaic applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 1377-1384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ratier, W. Hojeij, B. Lucas, and A. Moliton, "Organic planar heterojunction solar cell optimisation with ITO obtained by ion beam sputtering," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 289-294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Monestier, P. Torchio, J. J. Simon, L. Escoubas, and M. Cathelinaud, "Software for automatic optimization of the electromagnetic field in organic solar cells," Nonlinear Opt. Quantum Opt. 37, 159-168 (2007).

F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, "Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 405-410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Nardes, M. Kemerink, R. A. J. Janssen, J. A. M. Bastiaansen, N. M. M. Kiggen, B. M. W. Langeveld, A. J. J. M. van Breemen, and M. M. de Kok, "Microscopic understanding of the Anisotropic Conductivity of PEDOT:PSS thin films," Adv. Mater. 19, 1196-1200 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. Kim, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, S. Cook, and J. R. Durrant, "Device annealing effect in organic solar cells with blends of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and soluble fullerene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063502 (2005).

M. Reyes-Reyes, K. Kim, and D. L. Carroll, "High-efficiency photovoltaic devices based on annealed poly(3-hexylthiophene) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 blends," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 083506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, "Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1617-1622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, "High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends," Nature Mater. 4, 864-868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Xue, B. P. Rand, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, "A hybrid planar-mixed molecular heterojunction photovoltaic cell," Adv. Mater. 17, 66-71 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Xue, S. Uchida, B. P. Rand, and S. R. Forrest, "Asymmetric tandem organic photovoltaic cells with hybrid planar-mixed molecular heterojunctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5757-5759 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Brabec, "Organic photovoltaics: technology and market," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 83, 273-292 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Yoo, B. Domercq, and B. Kippelen, "Efficient thin-film organic solar cells based on pentacene/C60 heterojunctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5427-5429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, and S. R. Forrest, "Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3693-3723 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

C. J. Brabec, S. E. Shaheen, C. Winder, N. S. Sariciftci, and P. Denk, "Effect of LiF/metal electrodes on the performance of plastic solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1288-1290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganäs, "Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 487-496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

L. A. A. Pettersson, F. Carlsson, O. Inganäs, and H. Arwin, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of the optical properties of doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): an anisotropic metal," Thin Solid Films 313-314,356-361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1986

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (Adam Hilger, 1986).
[CrossRef]

1963

T. A. Berning and P. H. Berning, "Theory and calculation of optical thin films," Phys. Thin Films 1, 69-121(1963).

Arwin, H.

L. A. A. Pettersson, F. Carlsson, O. Inganäs, and H. Arwin, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of the optical properties of doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): an anisotropic metal," Thin Solid Films 313-314,356-361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bailly, S.

S. Berson, R. De Bettignies, S. Bailly, and S. Guillerez, "Poly(3-hexylthiophene) fibers for photovoltaic applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 1377-1384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, "Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 405-410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bastiaansen, J. A. M.

A. M. Nardes, M. Kemerink, R. A. J. Janssen, J. A. M. Bastiaansen, N. M. M. Kiggen, B. M. W. Langeveld, A. J. J. M. van Breemen, and M. M. de Kok, "Microscopic understanding of the Anisotropic Conductivity of PEDOT:PSS thin films," Adv. Mater. 19, 1196-1200 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Berning, P. H.

T. A. Berning and P. H. Berning, "Theory and calculation of optical thin films," Phys. Thin Films 1, 69-121(1963).

Berning, T. A.

T. A. Berning and P. H. Berning, "Theory and calculation of optical thin films," Phys. Thin Films 1, 69-121(1963).

Berson, S.

S. Berson, R. De Bettignies, S. Bailly, and S. Guillerez, "Poly(3-hexylthiophene) fibers for photovoltaic applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 1377-1384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, C. J.

C. J. Brabec, "Organic photovoltaics: technology and market," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 83, 273-292 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Brabec, S. E. Shaheen, C. Winder, N. S. Sariciftci, and P. Denk, "Effect of LiF/metal electrodes on the performance of plastic solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1288-1290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

Y. Kim, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, S. Cook, and J. R. Durrant, "Device annealing effect in organic solar cells with blends of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and soluble fullerene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063502 (2005).

Carlsson, F.

L. A. A. Pettersson, F. Carlsson, O. Inganäs, and H. Arwin, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of the optical properties of doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): an anisotropic metal," Thin Solid Films 313-314,356-361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, D. L.

M. Reyes-Reyes, K. Kim, and D. L. Carroll, "High-efficiency photovoltaic devices based on annealed poly(3-hexylthiophene) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 blends," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 083506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cathelinaud, M.

F. Monestier, P. Torchio, J. J. Simon, L. Escoubas, and M. Cathelinaud, "Software for automatic optimization of the electromagnetic field in organic solar cells," Nonlinear Opt. Quantum Opt. 37, 159-168 (2007).

Choulis, S. A.

Y. Kim, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, S. Cook, and J. R. Durrant, "Device annealing effect in organic solar cells with blends of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and soluble fullerene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063502 (2005).

Cook, S.

Y. Kim, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, S. Cook, and J. R. Durrant, "Device annealing effect in organic solar cells with blends of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and soluble fullerene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063502 (2005).

De Bettignies, R.

S. Berson, R. De Bettignies, S. Bailly, and S. Guillerez, "Poly(3-hexylthiophene) fibers for photovoltaic applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 1377-1384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, "Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 405-410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Kok, M. M.

A. M. Nardes, M. Kemerink, R. A. J. Janssen, J. A. M. Bastiaansen, N. M. M. Kiggen, B. M. W. Langeveld, A. J. J. M. van Breemen, and M. M. de Kok, "Microscopic understanding of the Anisotropic Conductivity of PEDOT:PSS thin films," Adv. Mater. 19, 1196-1200 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Defranoux, C.

F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, "Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 405-410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Denk, P.

C. J. Brabec, S. E. Shaheen, C. Winder, N. S. Sariciftci, and P. Denk, "Effect of LiF/metal electrodes on the performance of plastic solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1288-1290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Domercq, B.

S. Yoo, B. Domercq, and B. Kippelen, "Efficient thin-film organic solar cells based on pentacene/C60 heterojunctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5427-5429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Durrant, J. R.

Y. Kim, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, S. Cook, and J. R. Durrant, "Device annealing effect in organic solar cells with blends of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and soluble fullerene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063502 (2005).

Emery, K.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, "High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends," Nature Mater. 4, 864-868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Escoubas, L.

F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, "Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 405-410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Monestier, P. Torchio, J. J. Simon, L. Escoubas, and M. Cathelinaud, "Software for automatic optimization of the electromagnetic field in organic solar cells," Nonlinear Opt. Quantum Opt. 37, 159-168 (2007).

Flory, F.

F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, "Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 405-410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

J. Xue, B. P. Rand, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, "A hybrid planar-mixed molecular heterojunction photovoltaic cell," Adv. Mater. 17, 66-71 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Xue, S. Uchida, B. P. Rand, and S. R. Forrest, "Asymmetric tandem organic photovoltaic cells with hybrid planar-mixed molecular heterojunctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5757-5759 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, and S. R. Forrest, "Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3693-3723 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gong, X.

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, "Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1617-1622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guillerez, S.

S. Berson, R. De Bettignies, S. Bailly, and S. Guillerez, "Poly(3-hexylthiophene) fibers for photovoltaic applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 1377-1384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, "Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 405-410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, "Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1617-1622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hojeij, W.

B. Ratier, W. Hojeij, B. Lucas, and A. Moliton, "Organic planar heterojunction solar cell optimisation with ITO obtained by ion beam sputtering," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 289-294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, "High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends," Nature Mater. 4, 864-868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Inganäs, O.

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganäs, "Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 487-496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. A. A. Pettersson, F. Carlsson, O. Inganäs, and H. Arwin, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of the optical properties of doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): an anisotropic metal," Thin Solid Films 313-314,356-361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, R. A. J.

A. M. Nardes, M. Kemerink, R. A. J. Janssen, J. A. M. Bastiaansen, N. M. M. Kiggen, B. M. W. Langeveld, A. J. J. M. van Breemen, and M. M. de Kok, "Microscopic understanding of the Anisotropic Conductivity of PEDOT:PSS thin films," Adv. Mater. 19, 1196-1200 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kemerink, M.

A. M. Nardes, M. Kemerink, R. A. J. Janssen, J. A. M. Bastiaansen, N. M. M. Kiggen, B. M. W. Langeveld, A. J. J. M. van Breemen, and M. M. de Kok, "Microscopic understanding of the Anisotropic Conductivity of PEDOT:PSS thin films," Adv. Mater. 19, 1196-1200 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kiggen, N. M. M.

A. M. Nardes, M. Kemerink, R. A. J. Janssen, J. A. M. Bastiaansen, N. M. M. Kiggen, B. M. W. Langeveld, A. J. J. M. van Breemen, and M. M. de Kok, "Microscopic understanding of the Anisotropic Conductivity of PEDOT:PSS thin films," Adv. Mater. 19, 1196-1200 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

M. Reyes-Reyes, K. Kim, and D. L. Carroll, "High-efficiency photovoltaic devices based on annealed poly(3-hexylthiophene) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 blends," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 083506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, S. Cook, and J. R. Durrant, "Device annealing effect in organic solar cells with blends of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and soluble fullerene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063502 (2005).

Kippelen, B.

S. Yoo, B. Domercq, and B. Kippelen, "Efficient thin-film organic solar cells based on pentacene/C60 heterojunctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5427-5429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Langeveld, B. M. W.

A. M. Nardes, M. Kemerink, R. A. J. Janssen, J. A. M. Bastiaansen, N. M. M. Kiggen, B. M. W. Langeveld, A. J. J. M. van Breemen, and M. M. de Kok, "Microscopic understanding of the Anisotropic Conductivity of PEDOT:PSS thin films," Adv. Mater. 19, 1196-1200 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, "Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1617-1622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, "High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends," Nature Mater. 4, 864-868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Loos, J.

X. Yang and J. Loos, "Toward high-performance polymer solar cells: the importance of morphology control," Macromolecules 40, 1353-1362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, B.

B. Ratier, W. Hojeij, B. Lucas, and A. Moliton, "Organic planar heterojunction solar cell optimisation with ITO obtained by ion beam sputtering," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 289-294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ma, W.

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, "Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1617-1622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (Adam Hilger, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Moliton, A.

B. Ratier, W. Hojeij, B. Lucas, and A. Moliton, "Organic planar heterojunction solar cell optimisation with ITO obtained by ion beam sputtering," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 289-294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Monestier, F.

F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, "Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 405-410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Monestier, P. Torchio, J. J. Simon, L. Escoubas, and M. Cathelinaud, "Software for automatic optimization of the electromagnetic field in organic solar cells," Nonlinear Opt. Quantum Opt. 37, 159-168 (2007).

Moriarty, T.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, "High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends," Nature Mater. 4, 864-868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nardes, A. M.

A. M. Nardes, M. Kemerink, R. A. J. Janssen, J. A. M. Bastiaansen, N. M. M. Kiggen, B. M. W. Langeveld, A. J. J. M. van Breemen, and M. M. de Kok, "Microscopic understanding of the Anisotropic Conductivity of PEDOT:PSS thin films," Adv. Mater. 19, 1196-1200 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J.

Y. Kim, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, S. Cook, and J. R. Durrant, "Device annealing effect in organic solar cells with blends of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and soluble fullerene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063502 (2005).

Pettersson, L. A. A.

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganäs, "Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 487-496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. A. A. Pettersson, F. Carlsson, O. Inganäs, and H. Arwin, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of the optical properties of doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): an anisotropic metal," Thin Solid Films 313-314,356-361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peumans, P.

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, and S. R. Forrest, "Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3693-3723 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rand, B. P.

J. Xue, B. P. Rand, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, "A hybrid planar-mixed molecular heterojunction photovoltaic cell," Adv. Mater. 17, 66-71 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Xue, S. Uchida, B. P. Rand, and S. R. Forrest, "Asymmetric tandem organic photovoltaic cells with hybrid planar-mixed molecular heterojunctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5757-5759 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ratier, B.

B. Ratier, W. Hojeij, B. Lucas, and A. Moliton, "Organic planar heterojunction solar cell optimisation with ITO obtained by ion beam sputtering," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 289-294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reyes-Reyes, M.

M. Reyes-Reyes, K. Kim, and D. L. Carroll, "High-efficiency photovoltaic devices based on annealed poly(3-hexylthiophene) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 blends," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 083506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roman, L. S.

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganäs, "Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 487-496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sariciftci, N. S.

C. J. Brabec, S. E. Shaheen, C. Winder, N. S. Sariciftci, and P. Denk, "Effect of LiF/metal electrodes on the performance of plastic solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1288-1290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shaheen, S. E.

C. J. Brabec, S. E. Shaheen, C. Winder, N. S. Sariciftci, and P. Denk, "Effect of LiF/metal electrodes on the performance of plastic solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1288-1290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shrotriya, V.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, "High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends," Nature Mater. 4, 864-868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J. J.

F. Monestier, P. Torchio, J. J. Simon, L. Escoubas, and M. Cathelinaud, "Software for automatic optimization of the electromagnetic field in organic solar cells," Nonlinear Opt. Quantum Opt. 37, 159-168 (2007).

F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, "Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 405-410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torchio, P.

F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, "Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 405-410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Monestier, P. Torchio, J. J. Simon, L. Escoubas, and M. Cathelinaud, "Software for automatic optimization of the electromagnetic field in organic solar cells," Nonlinear Opt. Quantum Opt. 37, 159-168 (2007).

Uchida, S.

J. Xue, B. P. Rand, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, "A hybrid planar-mixed molecular heterojunction photovoltaic cell," Adv. Mater. 17, 66-71 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Xue, S. Uchida, B. P. Rand, and S. R. Forrest, "Asymmetric tandem organic photovoltaic cells with hybrid planar-mixed molecular heterojunctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5757-5759 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Breemen, A. J. J. M.

A. M. Nardes, M. Kemerink, R. A. J. Janssen, J. A. M. Bastiaansen, N. M. M. Kiggen, B. M. W. Langeveld, A. J. J. M. van Breemen, and M. M. de Kok, "Microscopic understanding of the Anisotropic Conductivity of PEDOT:PSS thin films," Adv. Mater. 19, 1196-1200 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Winder, C.

C. J. Brabec, S. E. Shaheen, C. Winder, N. S. Sariciftci, and P. Denk, "Effect of LiF/metal electrodes on the performance of plastic solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1288-1290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xue, J.

J. Xue, B. P. Rand, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, "A hybrid planar-mixed molecular heterojunction photovoltaic cell," Adv. Mater. 17, 66-71 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Xue, S. Uchida, B. P. Rand, and S. R. Forrest, "Asymmetric tandem organic photovoltaic cells with hybrid planar-mixed molecular heterojunctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5757-5759 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yakimov, A.

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, and S. R. Forrest, "Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3693-3723 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, "Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1617-1622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

X. Yang and J. Loos, "Toward high-performance polymer solar cells: the importance of morphology control," Macromolecules 40, 1353-1362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, "High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends," Nature Mater. 4, 864-868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Y.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, "High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends," Nature Mater. 4, 864-868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S.

S. Yoo, B. Domercq, and B. Kippelen, "Efficient thin-film organic solar cells based on pentacene/C60 heterojunctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5427-5429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, "Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1617-1622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

A. M. Nardes, M. Kemerink, R. A. J. Janssen, J. A. M. Bastiaansen, N. M. M. Kiggen, B. M. W. Langeveld, A. J. J. M. van Breemen, and M. M. de Kok, "Microscopic understanding of the Anisotropic Conductivity of PEDOT:PSS thin films," Adv. Mater. 19, 1196-1200 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

S. Berson, R. De Bettignies, S. Bailly, and S. Guillerez, "Poly(3-hexylthiophene) fibers for photovoltaic applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 1377-1384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

J. Xue, B. P. Rand, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, "A hybrid planar-mixed molecular heterojunction photovoltaic cell," Adv. Mater. 17, 66-71 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Kim, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, S. Cook, and J. R. Durrant, "Device annealing effect in organic solar cells with blends of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and soluble fullerene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063502 (2005).

M. Reyes-Reyes, K. Kim, and D. L. Carroll, "High-efficiency photovoltaic devices based on annealed poly(3-hexylthiophene) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 blends," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 083506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Brabec, S. E. Shaheen, C. Winder, N. S. Sariciftci, and P. Denk, "Effect of LiF/metal electrodes on the performance of plastic solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1288-1290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Yoo, B. Domercq, and B. Kippelen, "Efficient thin-film organic solar cells based on pentacene/C60 heterojunctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5427-5429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Xue, S. Uchida, B. P. Rand, and S. R. Forrest, "Asymmetric tandem organic photovoltaic cells with hybrid planar-mixed molecular heterojunctions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5757-5759 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys.

B. Ratier, W. Hojeij, B. Lucas, and A. Moliton, "Organic planar heterojunction solar cell optimisation with ITO obtained by ion beam sputtering," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 289-294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganäs, "Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 487-496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, and S. R. Forrest, "Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3693-3723 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules

X. Yang and J. Loos, "Toward high-performance polymer solar cells: the importance of morphology control," Macromolecules 40, 1353-1362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature Mater.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, "High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends," Nature Mater. 4, 864-868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nonlinear Opt. Quantum Opt.

F. Monestier, P. Torchio, J. J. Simon, L. Escoubas, and M. Cathelinaud, "Software for automatic optimization of the electromagnetic field in organic solar cells," Nonlinear Opt. Quantum Opt. 37, 159-168 (2007).

Phys. Thin Films

T. A. Berning and P. H. Berning, "Theory and calculation of optical thin films," Phys. Thin Films 1, 69-121(1963).

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

C. J. Brabec, "Organic photovoltaics: technology and market," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 83, 273-292 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Flory, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, "Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 405-410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

L. A. A. Pettersson, F. Carlsson, O. Inganäs, and H. Arwin, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of the optical properties of doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): an anisotropic metal," Thin Solid Films 313-314,356-361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

MATLAB, The MathWorks, 3 Apple Hill Drive, Natick, MA 01760.

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (Adam Hilger, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Structure of the organic solar cell.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical indices n(λ) (left) and extinction coefficients k(λ) (right) of the CuPc and C 60 layers (spectrometric ellipsometry measurements).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Distribution of | E | 2 as a function of two PEDOT:PSS layer thicknesses at (a) 500 and (b) 620 nm. The PEDOT:PSS thicknesses are 20 nm (left) and 100 nm (right).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental EQE spectrum showing the two values used for our calculated fit of the following bilayer device: ITO–PEDOT:PSS (70 nm)–CuPc (30 nm)– C 60 (50 nm)–BCP (5 nm)–Al.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) (a) Profiles of the exciton generation rate versus the thickness in the whole device for 500 nm (left) and 620 nm (right). (b) Profile of the product of the exciton density by the exciton diffusion (p*D) versus the thickness in the whole bilayer device (ITO–PEDOT:PSS (70 nm)–CuPc (30 nm)– C 60 (50 nm)–BCP (5 nm)–Al) after solving the exciton diffusion equation for 500 nm (left) and 620 nm (right).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Comparison of simulated and experimental short-circuit current density as a function of PEDOT:PSS thickness.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

G ( z , λ ) = Q ( z , λ ) ħ . ω .
G ( z ) = λ = 300 900 G ( z , λ ) .
d 2 ( D . p ) d z 2 + G ( z ) ( D . p ) L d 2 = 0 ,
η E Q E = 1 N | ( D . p ) z | z = j u n c t i o n - + 1 N | ( D . p ) z | z = j u n c t i o n + ,

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