Abstract

Antireflection coatings for 193 nm composed of low-index (MgF2 and AlF3) and high-index (LaF3 and GdF3) materials are deposited by the resistive heating boat method at a substrate temperature of 300 °C. The optical characteristics (reflectance and optical loss), microstructure (morphology and surface roughness), stress, and laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of the coatings are investigated and discussed. The related reflection at 193 nm of the four kinds of antireflection coatings is smaller than 0.2% and the optical loss is less than 0.15%. Of the fluoride antireflection coatings, AlF3GdF3 had the lowest stress value. Antireflection coatings with AlF3 as the low-index material had higher LIDT values than whenMgF2 was used.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, C. K. Carniglia, T. Tuttle Hart, and T. L. Lichtenstein, "Materials for optical coatings in the ultraviolet," Appl. Opt. 24, 496-500 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. O. R. Wood II, H. G. Craighead, J. E. Sweeney, and P. J. Maloney, "Vacuum ultraviolet loss in magnesium fluoride films," Appl. Opt. 23, 3644-3649 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Kolbe, H. Kessler, T. Hofmann, F. Meyer, H. Schink, and D. Ristau, "Optical properties and damage thresholds of dielectric UV/VUV coatings deposited by conventional evaporation, IAD, and IBS," Proc. SPIE 1624, 221-235 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Niisaka, T. Saito, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, M. Otani, R. Biro, C. Ouchi, M. Hasegawa, Y. Suzuki, and K. Sone, "Development of optical coatings for 157-nm lithography. I. Coating materials,"Appl. Opt. 41, 3242-3247 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Ristau, S. Günster, S. Bosch, A. Duparré, E. Masetti, J. Ferré-Borrull, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peirò, E. Quesnel, and A. Tikhonravov, "Ultraviolet optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 and LaF3 coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering and boat and electron-beam evaporation," Appl. Opt. 41, 3196-3204 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Y. Robic, V. Muffato, P. Chaton, M. Ida, and M. Berger, "Optical and structural properties of YF3 thin films prepared by ion assisted deposition or ion beam sputtering techniques," Proc. SPIE 2253, 195-203 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Taki, "Film structure and optical constants of magnetron-sputtered fluoride films for deep ultraviolet lithography," Vacuum 74, 431-435 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiro, "Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869-2876 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure- and composition-related characteristics of LaF3 thin films at 193 nm," Opt. Eng. 45, 083801 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. C. Lee, M. C. Liu, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Characterization of AlF3 thin films at 193 nm by thermal evaporation," Appl. Opt. 44, 7333-7338 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure related properties at 193 nm of MgF2 and GdF3 films deposited by resistive heating boat," Appl. Opt. 45, 1368-1374 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure related properties of lanthanum fluoride films deposited by molybdenum boat evaporation at 193 nm," Thin Solid Films 492/1-2, 45-51 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demshichin, "Study of the structure and properties of thick vacuum condensates of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminum oxide and zirconium dioxide," Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 28, 653-660 (1969).
  14. J. A. Thornton, "Influence of apparatus geometry and deposition conditions on the structure and topography of thick sputtered coatings," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666-670 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. R. M. Grovenor, H. T. G. Hentzell, and D. A. Smith, "The development of grain structure during growth of metallic films," Acta Metall. 32, 773-781 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Messier, A. P. Giri, and R. A. Roy, "Revised structure zone model for thin physical structure," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 500-503 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  17. U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, "Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates," Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure related properties at 193 nm of MgF2 and GdF3 films deposited by resistive heating boat," Appl. Opt. 45, 1368-1374 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. C. Lee, M. C. Liu, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Characterization of AlF3 thin films at 193 nm by thermal evaporation," Appl. Opt. 44, 7333-7338 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. C. Lee, M. C. Liu, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Influence of thermal annealing and ultraviolet light irradiation on LaF3 thin films at 193 nm," Appl. Opt. 44, 6921-6926 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

2005 (4)

2004 (1)

Y. Taki, "Film structure and optical constants of magnetron-sputtered fluoride films for deep ultraviolet lithography," Vacuum 74, 431-435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiro, "Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869-2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, "Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates," Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. Y. Robic, V. Muffato, P. Chaton, M. Ida, and M. Berger, "Optical and structural properties of YF3 thin films prepared by ion assisted deposition or ion beam sputtering techniques," Proc. SPIE 2253, 195-203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. Kolbe, H. Kessler, T. Hofmann, F. Meyer, H. Schink, and D. Ristau, "Optical properties and damage thresholds of dielectric UV/VUV coatings deposited by conventional evaporation, IAD, and IBS," Proc. SPIE 1624, 221-235 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1984 (3)

O. R. Wood II, H. G. Craighead, J. E. Sweeney, and P. J. Maloney, "Vacuum ultraviolet loss in magnesium fluoride films," Appl. Opt. 23, 3644-3649 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. R. M. Grovenor, H. T. G. Hentzell, and D. A. Smith, "The development of grain structure during growth of metallic films," Acta Metall. 32, 773-781 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. Messier, A. P. Giri, and R. A. Roy, "Revised structure zone model for thin physical structure," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 500-503 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. A. Thornton, "Influence of apparatus geometry and deposition conditions on the structure and topography of thick sputtered coatings," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666-670 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demshichin, "Study of the structure and properties of thick vacuum condensates of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminum oxide and zirconium dioxide," Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 28, 653-660 (1969).

Adamik, M.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, "Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates," Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barna, P. B.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, "Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates," Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berger, M.

J. Y. Robic, V. Muffato, P. Chaton, M. Ida, and M. Berger, "Optical and structural properties of YF3 thin films prepared by ion assisted deposition or ion beam sputtering techniques," Proc. SPIE 2253, 195-203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Biro, R.

Bosch, S.

Carniglia, C. K.

Chaton, P.

J. Y. Robic, V. Muffato, P. Chaton, M. Ida, and M. Berger, "Optical and structural properties of YF3 thin films prepared by ion assisted deposition or ion beam sputtering techniques," Proc. SPIE 2253, 195-203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Craighead, H. G.

Demshichin, A. V.

B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demshichin, "Study of the structure and properties of thick vacuum condensates of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminum oxide and zirconium dioxide," Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 28, 653-660 (1969).

Dumas, L.

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiro, "Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869-2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Duparré, A.

Ferré-Borrull, J.

Giri, A. P.

R. Messier, A. P. Giri, and R. A. Roy, "Revised structure zone model for thin physical structure," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 500-503 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Grovenor, C. R. M.

C. R. M. Grovenor, H. T. G. Hentzell, and D. A. Smith, "The development of grain structure during growth of metallic films," Acta Metall. 32, 773-781 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Günster, S.

Hasegawa, M.

Hentzell, H. T. G.

C. R. M. Grovenor, H. T. G. Hentzell, and D. A. Smith, "The development of grain structure during growth of metallic films," Acta Metall. 32, 773-781 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, T.

J. Kolbe, H. Kessler, T. Hofmann, F. Meyer, H. Schink, and D. Ristau, "Optical properties and damage thresholds of dielectric UV/VUV coatings deposited by conventional evaporation, IAD, and IBS," Proc. SPIE 1624, 221-235 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ida, M.

J. Y. Robic, V. Muffato, P. Chaton, M. Ida, and M. Berger, "Optical and structural properties of YF3 thin films prepared by ion assisted deposition or ion beam sputtering techniques," Proc. SPIE 2253, 195-203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, D.

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiro, "Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869-2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, U.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, "Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates," Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, M.

Kessler, H.

J. Kolbe, H. Kessler, T. Hofmann, F. Meyer, H. Schink, and D. Ristau, "Optical properties and damage thresholds of dielectric UV/VUV coatings deposited by conventional evaporation, IAD, and IBS," Proc. SPIE 1624, 221-235 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kiriakidis, G.

Kolbe, J.

J. Kolbe, H. Kessler, T. Hofmann, F. Meyer, H. Schink, and D. Ristau, "Optical properties and damage thresholds of dielectric UV/VUV coatings deposited by conventional evaporation, IAD, and IBS," Proc. SPIE 1624, 221-235 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Laux, S.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, "Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates," Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. C.

Lichtenstein, T. L.

Liu, M. C.

Lowdermilk, W. H.

Maloney, P. J.

Masetti, E.

Matsumoto, A.

Messier, R.

R. Messier, A. P. Giri, and R. A. Roy, "Revised structure zone model for thin physical structure," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 500-503 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, F.

J. Kolbe, H. Kessler, T. Hofmann, F. Meyer, H. Schink, and D. Ristau, "Optical properties and damage thresholds of dielectric UV/VUV coatings deposited by conventional evaporation, IAD, and IBS," Proc. SPIE 1624, 221-235 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Milam, D.

Movchan, B. A.

B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demshichin, "Study of the structure and properties of thick vacuum condensates of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminum oxide and zirconium dioxide," Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 28, 653-660 (1969).

Muffato, V.

J. Y. Robic, V. Muffato, P. Chaton, M. Ida, and M. Berger, "Optical and structural properties of YF3 thin films prepared by ion assisted deposition or ion beam sputtering techniques," Proc. SPIE 2253, 195-203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nakahira, K.

Niisaka, S.

Otani, M.

Ouchi, C.

Peiro, F.

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiro, "Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869-2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peirò, F.

Quesnel, E.

Rainer, F.

Richter, W.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, "Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates," Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

Robic, J. Y.

J. Y. Robic, V. Muffato, P. Chaton, M. Ida, and M. Berger, "Optical and structural properties of YF3 thin films prepared by ion assisted deposition or ion beam sputtering techniques," Proc. SPIE 2253, 195-203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Roy, R. A.

R. Messier, A. P. Giri, and R. A. Roy, "Revised structure zone model for thin physical structure," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 500-503 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Safran, G.

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, "Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates," Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Saito, J.

Saito, T.

Schink, H.

J. Kolbe, H. Kessler, T. Hofmann, F. Meyer, H. Schink, and D. Ristau, "Optical properties and damage thresholds of dielectric UV/VUV coatings deposited by conventional evaporation, IAD, and IBS," Proc. SPIE 1624, 221-235 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. A.

C. R. M. Grovenor, H. T. G. Hentzell, and D. A. Smith, "The development of grain structure during growth of metallic films," Acta Metall. 32, 773-781 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sone, K.

Suzuki, Y.

Sweeney, J. E.

Takano, Y.

Taki, Y.

Y. Taki, "Film structure and optical constants of magnetron-sputtered fluoride films for deep ultraviolet lithography," Vacuum 74, 431-435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, A.

Thornton, J. A.

J. A. Thornton, "Influence of apparatus geometry and deposition conditions on the structure and topography of thick sputtered coatings," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666-670 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonravov, A.

Tuttle Hart, T.

Wood II, O. R.

Acta Metall. (1)

C. R. M. Grovenor, H. T. G. Hentzell, and D. A. Smith, "The development of grain structure during growth of metallic films," Acta Metall. 32, 773-781 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (9)

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure related properties at 193 nm of MgF2 and GdF3 films deposited by resistive heating boat," Appl. Opt. 45, 1368-1374 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Lee, M. C. Liu, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Characterization of AlF3 thin films at 193 nm by thermal evaporation," Appl. Opt. 44, 7333-7338 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Lee, M. C. Liu, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Influence of thermal annealing and ultraviolet light irradiation on LaF3 thin films at 193 nm," Appl. Opt. 44, 6921-6926 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Lee, M. C. Liu, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Characterization of AlF3 thin films at 193 nm by thermal evaporation," Appl. Opt. 44, 7333-7338 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure related properties at 193 nm of MgF2 and GdF3 films deposited by resistive heating boat," Appl. Opt. 45, 1368-1374 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Niisaka, T. Saito, J. Saito, A. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, M. Otani, R. Biro, C. Ouchi, M. Hasegawa, Y. Suzuki, and K. Sone, "Development of optical coatings for 157-nm lithography. I. Coating materials,"Appl. Opt. 41, 3242-3247 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Ristau, S. Günster, S. Bosch, A. Duparré, E. Masetti, J. Ferré-Borrull, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peirò, E. Quesnel, and A. Tikhonravov, "Ultraviolet optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 and LaF3 coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering and boat and electron-beam evaporation," Appl. Opt. 41, 3196-3204 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, C. K. Carniglia, T. Tuttle Hart, and T. L. Lichtenstein, "Materials for optical coatings in the ultraviolet," Appl. Opt. 24, 496-500 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. R. Wood II, H. G. Craighead, J. E. Sweeney, and P. J. Maloney, "Vacuum ultraviolet loss in magnesium fluoride films," Appl. Opt. 23, 3644-3649 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fiz. Met. Metalloved. (1)

B. A. Movchan and A. V. Demshichin, "Study of the structure and properties of thick vacuum condensates of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminum oxide and zirconium dioxide," Fiz. Met. Metalloved. 28, 653-660 (1969).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. A. Thornton, "Influence of apparatus geometry and deposition conditions on the structure and topography of thick sputtered coatings," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666-670 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (2)

R. Messier, A. P. Giri, and R. A. Roy, "Revised structure zone model for thin physical structure," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 500-503 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. Quesnel, L. Dumas, D. Jacob, and F. Peiro, "Optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 UV coatings grown by ion beam sputtering process," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2869-2876 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure- and composition-related characteristics of LaF3 thin films at 193 nm," Opt. Eng. 45, 083801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. Kolbe, H. Kessler, T. Hofmann, F. Meyer, H. Schink, and D. Ristau, "Optical properties and damage thresholds of dielectric UV/VUV coatings deposited by conventional evaporation, IAD, and IBS," Proc. SPIE 1624, 221-235 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Robic, V. Muffato, P. Chaton, M. Ida, and M. Berger, "Optical and structural properties of YF3 thin films prepared by ion assisted deposition or ion beam sputtering techniques," Proc. SPIE 2253, 195-203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

U. Kaiser, M. Adamik, G. Safran, P. B. Barna, S. Laux, and W. Richter, "Growth structure investigation of MgF2 and NdF3 films grown by molecular beam deposition on CaF2(111) substrates," Thin Solid Films 280, 5-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure related properties of lanthanum fluoride films deposited by molybdenum boat evaporation at 193 nm," Thin Solid Films 492/1-2, 45-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

Y. Taki, "Film structure and optical constants of magnetron-sputtered fluoride films for deep ultraviolet lithography," Vacuum 74, 431-435 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reflection spectra of the fluoride antireflection coatings.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical loss of the fluoride antireflection coatings.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-sectional morphology of single-layer thin films by SEM: (a) MgF 2 , (b) LaF 3 , (c) AlF 3 , (d) GdF 3 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross-sectional morphology of antireflection coatings by SEM: (a) MgF 2 LaF 3 , (b) MgF 2 GdF 3 , (c) AlF 3 LaF 3 , (d) AlF 3 GdF 3 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Surface roughness of fluoride antireflection coatings.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Stress of single-layer fluoride thin films.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Stress of fluoride antireflection coatings.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Observed damage morphology of the MgF 2 coating.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

LIDT of the fluoride antireflection coatings.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Deposition Processes, Refractive Index, Melting Temperatures, Ts∕Tm Values, and Zone of Fluoride Thin Films [18, 19, 20]

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L ( % ) = 1 T ( % ) R ( % ) .
Related  reflectance (%)  =   100 × R sample R sub ( % ) ,
σ = E h 2 ( 1 v ) 6 t ( 1 R d 1 R 0 ) ,

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