Abstract

Increasing legislation has steadily been introduced throughout the world to restrict the use of heavy metals, particularly cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in high temperature pigments, ceramics, and optoelectronic material applications. Removal of cadmium from thin-film optical and semiconductor device applications has been hampered by the absence of viable alternatives that exhibit similar properties with stability and durability. We describe a range of tin-based compounds that have been deposited and characterized in terms of their optical and mechanical properties and compare them with existing cadmium-based films that currently find widespread use in the optoelectronic and semiconductor industries.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. D. Zhirnov, S. A. Karimova, L. V. Ovsyannikova, and O. A. Gubenko, "New protective coatings for replacing cadmium coatings on steel parts," Metal Sci. Heat Treat. 45, 23-25 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Dobson, Cadmium--Environmental Aspects, Environmental Health Criteria 135 (World Health Organisation, 1992), ISBN 92 4 157135 7.
  3. "European Union Directive 88/378/EEC," Vol. L0378 (European Union, 1993), pp. 1-17.
  4. "Directive 2002/95/EC," Official J. European Union L37, 19-23 (2003).
  5. "Directive 2005/31/EC," Official J. European Union L110, 36-39 (2005).
  6. G. J. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, and B. M. Barrett, "Infrared filters and coatings for the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (6-18 μm)," Appl. Opt. 39, 5221-5230 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Jin Jeong, Seong-Pyung Choi, Cha Ik Chang, Dong Chan Shin, Jin Sung Park, B.-T. Lee, Yeong-Jun Park, and Ho-Jun Song, "Photoluminescence properties of SnO2 thin films grown by thermal CVD," Solid State Commun. 127, 595-597 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. J. Exarhos and X.-D. Zhou, "Discovery-based design of transparent conducting oxide films," Thin Solid Films 515, 7025-7052 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Isidorsson, C. G. Granqvist, K. V. Rottkay, and M. Rubin, "Ellipsometry on sputter-deposited tin oxide films: optical constants versus stoichiometry, hydrogen content, and amount of electrochemically intercalated lithium," Appl. Opt. 37, 7334-7341 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Bertrand, P. Duverneuil, M. Amjoud, and F. Maury, "Chemical vapor deposition of tin oxide from SnEt4," J. Phys. IV 9, 651-657 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Arefi-Khonsari, F. Hellegouarc'h, and J. Amouroux, "Modeling of chemical kinetics and energy transfer on O2/Ar discharges obtained under high frequency electric field," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2240-2244 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Farber, F. Khonsari-Arefi, and J. Amouroux, "Thin film deposition of conductive tin oxide from tetramethyltin in a low pressure glow discharge diode reactor," Thin Solid Films 241, 282-286 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Hamzaoui and M. Adnane, "Effects of temperature and r.f. power sputtering on electrical and optical properties of SnO2," Appl. Energy 65, 19-28 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. B. Wahab, S. D. Hutagalung, and S. B. Sakrani, "Optical absorption in tin selenide thin films," Proc. SPIE. 3175, 295-298 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Li-Jian Meng and M. P. dos Santos, "The influence of oxygen partial pressure and total pressure (O2 + Ar) on the properties of tin oxide films prepared by dc sputtering,"Vacuum 45, 1191-1195 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Bardeen, F. J. Blatt, and L. H. Hall, Photoconductivity Conference (Wiley, 1956).
  17. N. Takahashi, K. Terda, and T. Nakamura, "Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of tin nitride thin films using a halide source," J. Mater. Chem. 10, 2835-2837 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Maruyama and T. Morishita, "Tin nitride thin films prepared by radio-frequency reactive sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6641-6645 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. N. Popov, T. K. Kotlarova, and T. D. Uzunov, Vacuum 38, 1015-1017 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Wang, Y. Nagahata, M. Masuda, and Y. Hayashi, "Effect of nonstoichiometry upon optical properties of radio frequency sputtered al-n thin films formed at various sputtering pressures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 3092-3099 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, "A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film," J. Phys. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. S. Seeley, R. Hunneman, and A. Whatley, "Far infrared filters for the Galileo-Jupiter and other missions," Appl. Opt. 20, 31-39 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C. Shuying, Z. Nanbao, H. Cichang, and C. Guonan, "SnS films prepared by sulfuration of Sn precursor layers," Proc. SPIE 5633, 303-307 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. B. Schoolar and J. R. Dixon, "Optical properties of tin telluride in the visible and infrared regions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 119-125 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. C. S. Booth, S. E. Dann, and D. L. J. O'Brien, "Inorganic pigments," European patent EP1694779 (30 August 2006).
  26. S. J. Wakeham, "Protective, antireflection coatings for multispectral zinc sulphide," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Reading, 2003).
  27. H. Piller, "Cadmium selenide (CdSe)," in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E. Palik, ed. (Academic, 1991), ISBN: 0-12-544422-2.

2007 (1)

G. J. Exarhos and X.-D. Zhou, "Discovery-based design of transparent conducting oxide films," Thin Solid Films 515, 7025-7052 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. C. S. Booth, S. E. Dann, and D. L. J. O'Brien, "Inorganic pigments," European patent EP1694779 (30 August 2006).

2005 (2)

C. Shuying, Z. Nanbao, H. Cichang, and C. Guonan, "SnS films prepared by sulfuration of Sn precursor layers," Proc. SPIE 5633, 303-307 (2005).
[CrossRef]

"Directive 2005/31/EC," Official J. European Union L110, 36-39 (2005).

2003 (4)

A. D. Zhirnov, S. A. Karimova, L. V. Ovsyannikova, and O. A. Gubenko, "New protective coatings for replacing cadmium coatings on steel parts," Metal Sci. Heat Treat. 45, 23-25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

"Directive 2002/95/EC," Official J. European Union L37, 19-23 (2003).

S. J. Wakeham, "Protective, antireflection coatings for multispectral zinc sulphide," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Reading, 2003).

Jin Jeong, Seong-Pyung Choi, Cha Ik Chang, Dong Chan Shin, Jin Sung Park, B.-T. Lee, Yeong-Jun Park, and Ho-Jun Song, "Photoluminescence properties of SnO2 thin films grown by thermal CVD," Solid State Commun. 127, 595-597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

G. J. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, and B. M. Barrett, "Infrared filters and coatings for the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (6-18 μm)," Appl. Opt. 39, 5221-5230 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Hamzaoui and M. Adnane, "Effects of temperature and r.f. power sputtering on electrical and optical properties of SnO2," Appl. Energy 65, 19-28 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Takahashi, K. Terda, and T. Nakamura, "Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of tin nitride thin films using a halide source," J. Mater. Chem. 10, 2835-2837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

N. Bertrand, P. Duverneuil, M. Amjoud, and F. Maury, "Chemical vapor deposition of tin oxide from SnEt4," J. Phys. IV 9, 651-657 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

F. Arefi-Khonsari, F. Hellegouarc'h, and J. Amouroux, "Modeling of chemical kinetics and energy transfer on O2/Ar discharges obtained under high frequency electric field," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2240-2244 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Wahab, S. D. Hutagalung, and S. B. Sakrani, "Optical absorption in tin selenide thin films," Proc. SPIE. 3175, 295-298 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Isidorsson, C. G. Granqvist, K. V. Rottkay, and M. Rubin, "Ellipsometry on sputter-deposited tin oxide films: optical constants versus stoichiometry, hydrogen content, and amount of electrochemically intercalated lithium," Appl. Opt. 37, 7334-7341 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. Wang, Y. Nagahata, M. Masuda, and Y. Hayashi, "Effect of nonstoichiometry upon optical properties of radio frequency sputtered al-n thin films formed at various sputtering pressures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 3092-3099 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. Maruyama and T. Morishita, "Tin nitride thin films prepared by radio-frequency reactive sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6641-6645 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

Y. Farber, F. Khonsari-Arefi, and J. Amouroux, "Thin film deposition of conductive tin oxide from tetramethyltin in a low pressure glow discharge diode reactor," Thin Solid Films 241, 282-286 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Li-Jian Meng and M. P. dos Santos, "The influence of oxygen partial pressure and total pressure (O2 + Ar) on the properties of tin oxide films prepared by dc sputtering,"Vacuum 45, 1191-1195 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

"European Union Directive 88/378/EEC," Vol. L0378 (European Union, 1993), pp. 1-17.

1992 (1)

S. Dobson, Cadmium--Environmental Aspects, Environmental Health Criteria 135 (World Health Organisation, 1992), ISBN 92 4 157135 7.

1991 (1)

H. Piller, "Cadmium selenide (CdSe)," in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E. Palik, ed. (Academic, 1991), ISBN: 0-12-544422-2.

1988 (1)

D. N. Popov, T. K. Kotlarova, and T. D. Uzunov, Vacuum 38, 1015-1017 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

J. S. Seeley, R. Hunneman, and A. Whatley, "Far infrared filters for the Galileo-Jupiter and other missions," Appl. Opt. 20, 31-39 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, "A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film," J. Phys. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

R. B. Schoolar and J. R. Dixon, "Optical properties of tin telluride in the visible and infrared regions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 119-125 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

J. Bardeen, F. J. Blatt, and L. H. Hall, Photoconductivity Conference (Wiley, 1956).

Adnane, M.

S. Hamzaoui and M. Adnane, "Effects of temperature and r.f. power sputtering on electrical and optical properties of SnO2," Appl. Energy 65, 19-28 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Amjoud, M.

N. Bertrand, P. Duverneuil, M. Amjoud, and F. Maury, "Chemical vapor deposition of tin oxide from SnEt4," J. Phys. IV 9, 651-657 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Amouroux, J.

F. Arefi-Khonsari, F. Hellegouarc'h, and J. Amouroux, "Modeling of chemical kinetics and energy transfer on O2/Ar discharges obtained under high frequency electric field," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2240-2244 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Farber, F. Khonsari-Arefi, and J. Amouroux, "Thin film deposition of conductive tin oxide from tetramethyltin in a low pressure glow discharge diode reactor," Thin Solid Films 241, 282-286 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Arefi-Khonsari, F.

F. Arefi-Khonsari, F. Hellegouarc'h, and J. Amouroux, "Modeling of chemical kinetics and energy transfer on O2/Ar discharges obtained under high frequency electric field," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2240-2244 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bardeen, J.

J. Bardeen, F. J. Blatt, and L. H. Hall, Photoconductivity Conference (Wiley, 1956).

Barrett, B. M.

Bertrand, N.

N. Bertrand, P. Duverneuil, M. Amjoud, and F. Maury, "Chemical vapor deposition of tin oxide from SnEt4," J. Phys. IV 9, 651-657 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blatt, F. J.

J. Bardeen, F. J. Blatt, and L. H. Hall, Photoconductivity Conference (Wiley, 1956).

Booth, J. C. S.

J. C. S. Booth, S. E. Dann, and D. L. J. O'Brien, "Inorganic pigments," European patent EP1694779 (30 August 2006).

Chan Shin, Dong

Jin Jeong, Seong-Pyung Choi, Cha Ik Chang, Dong Chan Shin, Jin Sung Park, B.-T. Lee, Yeong-Jun Park, and Ho-Jun Song, "Photoluminescence properties of SnO2 thin films grown by thermal CVD," Solid State Commun. 127, 595-597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Seong-Pyung

Jin Jeong, Seong-Pyung Choi, Cha Ik Chang, Dong Chan Shin, Jin Sung Park, B.-T. Lee, Yeong-Jun Park, and Ho-Jun Song, "Photoluminescence properties of SnO2 thin films grown by thermal CVD," Solid State Commun. 127, 595-597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cichang, H.

C. Shuying, Z. Nanbao, H. Cichang, and C. Guonan, "SnS films prepared by sulfuration of Sn precursor layers," Proc. SPIE 5633, 303-307 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dann, S. E.

J. C. S. Booth, S. E. Dann, and D. L. J. O'Brien, "Inorganic pigments," European patent EP1694779 (30 August 2006).

Dixon, J. R.

R. B. Schoolar and J. R. Dixon, "Optical properties of tin telluride in the visible and infrared regions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 119-125 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Dobson, S.

S. Dobson, Cadmium--Environmental Aspects, Environmental Health Criteria 135 (World Health Organisation, 1992), ISBN 92 4 157135 7.

dos Santos, M. P.

Li-Jian Meng and M. P. dos Santos, "The influence of oxygen partial pressure and total pressure (O2 + Ar) on the properties of tin oxide films prepared by dc sputtering,"Vacuum 45, 1191-1195 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Duverneuil, P.

N. Bertrand, P. Duverneuil, M. Amjoud, and F. Maury, "Chemical vapor deposition of tin oxide from SnEt4," J. Phys. IV 9, 651-657 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Exarhos, G. J.

G. J. Exarhos and X.-D. Zhou, "Discovery-based design of transparent conducting oxide films," Thin Solid Films 515, 7025-7052 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Farber, Y.

Y. Farber, F. Khonsari-Arefi, and J. Amouroux, "Thin film deposition of conductive tin oxide from tetramethyltin in a low pressure glow discharge diode reactor," Thin Solid Films 241, 282-286 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fillard, J. P.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, "A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film," J. Phys. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gasiot, J.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, "A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film," J. Phys. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Granqvist, C. G.

J. Isidorsson, C. G. Granqvist, K. V. Rottkay, and M. Rubin, "Ellipsometry on sputter-deposited tin oxide films: optical constants versus stoichiometry, hydrogen content, and amount of electrochemically intercalated lithium," Appl. Opt. 37, 7334-7341 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gubenko, O. A.

A. D. Zhirnov, S. A. Karimova, L. V. Ovsyannikova, and O. A. Gubenko, "New protective coatings for replacing cadmium coatings on steel parts," Metal Sci. Heat Treat. 45, 23-25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guonan, C.

C. Shuying, Z. Nanbao, H. Cichang, and C. Guonan, "SnS films prepared by sulfuration of Sn precursor layers," Proc. SPIE 5633, 303-307 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hall, L. H.

J. Bardeen, F. J. Blatt, and L. H. Hall, Photoconductivity Conference (Wiley, 1956).

Hamzaoui, S.

S. Hamzaoui and M. Adnane, "Effects of temperature and r.f. power sputtering on electrical and optical properties of SnO2," Appl. Energy 65, 19-28 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, G. J.

Hayashi, Y.

D. Wang, Y. Nagahata, M. Masuda, and Y. Hayashi, "Effect of nonstoichiometry upon optical properties of radio frequency sputtered al-n thin films formed at various sputtering pressures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 3092-3099 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hellegouarc'h, F.

F. Arefi-Khonsari, F. Hellegouarc'h, and J. Amouroux, "Modeling of chemical kinetics and energy transfer on O2/Ar discharges obtained under high frequency electric field," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2240-2244 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hunneman, R.

Hutagalung, S. D.

Y. B. Wahab, S. D. Hutagalung, and S. B. Sakrani, "Optical absorption in tin selenide thin films," Proc. SPIE. 3175, 295-298 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ik Chang, Cha

Jin Jeong, Seong-Pyung Choi, Cha Ik Chang, Dong Chan Shin, Jin Sung Park, B.-T. Lee, Yeong-Jun Park, and Ho-Jun Song, "Photoluminescence properties of SnO2 thin films grown by thermal CVD," Solid State Commun. 127, 595-597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Isidorsson, J.

J. Isidorsson, C. G. Granqvist, K. V. Rottkay, and M. Rubin, "Ellipsometry on sputter-deposited tin oxide films: optical constants versus stoichiometry, hydrogen content, and amount of electrochemically intercalated lithium," Appl. Opt. 37, 7334-7341 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Jin

Jin Jeong, Seong-Pyung Choi, Cha Ik Chang, Dong Chan Shin, Jin Sung Park, B.-T. Lee, Yeong-Jun Park, and Ho-Jun Song, "Photoluminescence properties of SnO2 thin films grown by thermal CVD," Solid State Commun. 127, 595-597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Karimova, S. A.

A. D. Zhirnov, S. A. Karimova, L. V. Ovsyannikova, and O. A. Gubenko, "New protective coatings for replacing cadmium coatings on steel parts," Metal Sci. Heat Treat. 45, 23-25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Khonsari-Arefi, F.

Y. Farber, F. Khonsari-Arefi, and J. Amouroux, "Thin film deposition of conductive tin oxide from tetramethyltin in a low pressure glow discharge diode reactor," Thin Solid Films 241, 282-286 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kotlarova, T. K.

D. N. Popov, T. K. Kotlarova, and T. D. Uzunov, Vacuum 38, 1015-1017 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.-T.

Jin Jeong, Seong-Pyung Choi, Cha Ik Chang, Dong Chan Shin, Jin Sung Park, B.-T. Lee, Yeong-Jun Park, and Ho-Jun Song, "Photoluminescence properties of SnO2 thin films grown by thermal CVD," Solid State Commun. 127, 595-597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Manifacier, J. C.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, "A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film," J. Phys. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, T.

T. Maruyama and T. Morishita, "Tin nitride thin films prepared by radio-frequency reactive sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6641-6645 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, M.

D. Wang, Y. Nagahata, M. Masuda, and Y. Hayashi, "Effect of nonstoichiometry upon optical properties of radio frequency sputtered al-n thin films formed at various sputtering pressures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 3092-3099 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maury, F.

N. Bertrand, P. Duverneuil, M. Amjoud, and F. Maury, "Chemical vapor deposition of tin oxide from SnEt4," J. Phys. IV 9, 651-657 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meng, Li-Jian

Li-Jian Meng and M. P. dos Santos, "The influence of oxygen partial pressure and total pressure (O2 + Ar) on the properties of tin oxide films prepared by dc sputtering,"Vacuum 45, 1191-1195 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morishita, T.

T. Maruyama and T. Morishita, "Tin nitride thin films prepared by radio-frequency reactive sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6641-6645 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nagahata, Y.

D. Wang, Y. Nagahata, M. Masuda, and Y. Hayashi, "Effect of nonstoichiometry upon optical properties of radio frequency sputtered al-n thin films formed at various sputtering pressures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 3092-3099 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, T.

N. Takahashi, K. Terda, and T. Nakamura, "Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of tin nitride thin films using a halide source," J. Mater. Chem. 10, 2835-2837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nanbao, Z.

C. Shuying, Z. Nanbao, H. Cichang, and C. Guonan, "SnS films prepared by sulfuration of Sn precursor layers," Proc. SPIE 5633, 303-307 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O'Brien, D. L. J.

J. C. S. Booth, S. E. Dann, and D. L. J. O'Brien, "Inorganic pigments," European patent EP1694779 (30 August 2006).

Ovsyannikova, L. V.

A. D. Zhirnov, S. A. Karimova, L. V. Ovsyannikova, and O. A. Gubenko, "New protective coatings for replacing cadmium coatings on steel parts," Metal Sci. Heat Treat. 45, 23-25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, Yeong-Jun

Jin Jeong, Seong-Pyung Choi, Cha Ik Chang, Dong Chan Shin, Jin Sung Park, B.-T. Lee, Yeong-Jun Park, and Ho-Jun Song, "Photoluminescence properties of SnO2 thin films grown by thermal CVD," Solid State Commun. 127, 595-597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Piller, H.

H. Piller, "Cadmium selenide (CdSe)," in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E. Palik, ed. (Academic, 1991), ISBN: 0-12-544422-2.

Popov, D. N.

D. N. Popov, T. K. Kotlarova, and T. D. Uzunov, Vacuum 38, 1015-1017 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rottkay, K. V.

J. Isidorsson, C. G. Granqvist, K. V. Rottkay, and M. Rubin, "Ellipsometry on sputter-deposited tin oxide films: optical constants versus stoichiometry, hydrogen content, and amount of electrochemically intercalated lithium," Appl. Opt. 37, 7334-7341 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, M.

J. Isidorsson, C. G. Granqvist, K. V. Rottkay, and M. Rubin, "Ellipsometry on sputter-deposited tin oxide films: optical constants versus stoichiometry, hydrogen content, and amount of electrochemically intercalated lithium," Appl. Opt. 37, 7334-7341 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sakrani, S. B.

Y. B. Wahab, S. D. Hutagalung, and S. B. Sakrani, "Optical absorption in tin selenide thin films," Proc. SPIE. 3175, 295-298 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schoolar, R. B.

R. B. Schoolar and J. R. Dixon, "Optical properties of tin telluride in the visible and infrared regions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 119-125 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Seeley, J. S.

J. S. Seeley, R. Hunneman, and A. Whatley, "Far infrared filters for the Galileo-Jupiter and other missions," Appl. Opt. 20, 31-39 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sherwood, R.

Shuying, C.

C. Shuying, Z. Nanbao, H. Cichang, and C. Guonan, "SnS films prepared by sulfuration of Sn precursor layers," Proc. SPIE 5633, 303-307 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, Ho-Jun

Jin Jeong, Seong-Pyung Choi, Cha Ik Chang, Dong Chan Shin, Jin Sung Park, B.-T. Lee, Yeong-Jun Park, and Ho-Jun Song, "Photoluminescence properties of SnO2 thin films grown by thermal CVD," Solid State Commun. 127, 595-597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sung Park, Jin

Jin Jeong, Seong-Pyung Choi, Cha Ik Chang, Dong Chan Shin, Jin Sung Park, B.-T. Lee, Yeong-Jun Park, and Ho-Jun Song, "Photoluminescence properties of SnO2 thin films grown by thermal CVD," Solid State Commun. 127, 595-597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, N.

N. Takahashi, K. Terda, and T. Nakamura, "Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of tin nitride thin films using a halide source," J. Mater. Chem. 10, 2835-2837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Terda, K.

N. Takahashi, K. Terda, and T. Nakamura, "Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of tin nitride thin films using a halide source," J. Mater. Chem. 10, 2835-2837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Uzunov, T. D.

D. N. Popov, T. K. Kotlarova, and T. D. Uzunov, Vacuum 38, 1015-1017 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wahab, Y. B.

Y. B. Wahab, S. D. Hutagalung, and S. B. Sakrani, "Optical absorption in tin selenide thin films," Proc. SPIE. 3175, 295-298 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wakeham, S. J.

S. J. Wakeham, "Protective, antireflection coatings for multispectral zinc sulphide," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Reading, 2003).

Wang, D.

D. Wang, Y. Nagahata, M. Masuda, and Y. Hayashi, "Effect of nonstoichiometry upon optical properties of radio frequency sputtered al-n thin films formed at various sputtering pressures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 3092-3099 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Whatley, A.

J. S. Seeley, R. Hunneman, and A. Whatley, "Far infrared filters for the Galileo-Jupiter and other missions," Appl. Opt. 20, 31-39 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhirnov, A. D.

A. D. Zhirnov, S. A. Karimova, L. V. Ovsyannikova, and O. A. Gubenko, "New protective coatings for replacing cadmium coatings on steel parts," Metal Sci. Heat Treat. 45, 23-25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.-D.

G. J. Exarhos and X.-D. Zhou, "Discovery-based design of transparent conducting oxide films," Thin Solid Films 515, 7025-7052 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Energy (1)

S. Hamzaoui and M. Adnane, "Effects of temperature and r.f. power sputtering on electrical and optical properties of SnO2," Appl. Energy 65, 19-28 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Isidorsson, C. G. Granqvist, K. V. Rottkay, and M. Rubin, "Ellipsometry on sputter-deposited tin oxide films: optical constants versus stoichiometry, hydrogen content, and amount of electrochemically intercalated lithium," Appl. Opt. 37, 7334-7341 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Seeley, R. Hunneman, and A. Whatley, "Far infrared filters for the Galileo-Jupiter and other missions," Appl. Opt. 20, 31-39 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

R. B. Schoolar and J. R. Dixon, "Optical properties of tin telluride in the visible and infrared regions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 119-125 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E (1)

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, "A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film," J. Phys. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

D. Wang, Y. Nagahata, M. Masuda, and Y. Hayashi, "Effect of nonstoichiometry upon optical properties of radio frequency sputtered al-n thin films formed at various sputtering pressures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 3092-3099 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Maruyama and T. Morishita, "Tin nitride thin films prepared by radio-frequency reactive sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 6641-6645 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

N. Takahashi, K. Terda, and T. Nakamura, "Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of tin nitride thin films using a halide source," J. Mater. Chem. 10, 2835-2837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. IV (1)

N. Bertrand, P. Duverneuil, M. Amjoud, and F. Maury, "Chemical vapor deposition of tin oxide from SnEt4," J. Phys. IV 9, 651-657 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

F. Arefi-Khonsari, F. Hellegouarc'h, and J. Amouroux, "Modeling of chemical kinetics and energy transfer on O2/Ar discharges obtained under high frequency electric field," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 2240-2244 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Metal Sci. Heat Treat. (1)

A. D. Zhirnov, S. A. Karimova, L. V. Ovsyannikova, and O. A. Gubenko, "New protective coatings for replacing cadmium coatings on steel parts," Metal Sci. Heat Treat. 45, 23-25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Official J. European Union (2)

"Directive 2002/95/EC," Official J. European Union L37, 19-23 (2003).

"Directive 2005/31/EC," Official J. European Union L110, 36-39 (2005).

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. Shuying, Z. Nanbao, H. Cichang, and C. Guonan, "SnS films prepared by sulfuration of Sn precursor layers," Proc. SPIE 5633, 303-307 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE. (1)

Y. B. Wahab, S. D. Hutagalung, and S. B. Sakrani, "Optical absorption in tin selenide thin films," Proc. SPIE. 3175, 295-298 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

Jin Jeong, Seong-Pyung Choi, Cha Ik Chang, Dong Chan Shin, Jin Sung Park, B.-T. Lee, Yeong-Jun Park, and Ho-Jun Song, "Photoluminescence properties of SnO2 thin films grown by thermal CVD," Solid State Commun. 127, 595-597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

G. J. Exarhos and X.-D. Zhou, "Discovery-based design of transparent conducting oxide films," Thin Solid Films 515, 7025-7052 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Farber, F. Khonsari-Arefi, and J. Amouroux, "Thin film deposition of conductive tin oxide from tetramethyltin in a low pressure glow discharge diode reactor," Thin Solid Films 241, 282-286 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (2)

D. N. Popov, T. K. Kotlarova, and T. D. Uzunov, Vacuum 38, 1015-1017 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Li-Jian Meng and M. P. dos Santos, "The influence of oxygen partial pressure and total pressure (O2 + Ar) on the properties of tin oxide films prepared by dc sputtering,"Vacuum 45, 1191-1195 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

J. Bardeen, F. J. Blatt, and L. H. Hall, Photoconductivity Conference (Wiley, 1956).

S. Dobson, Cadmium--Environmental Aspects, Environmental Health Criteria 135 (World Health Organisation, 1992), ISBN 92 4 157135 7.

"European Union Directive 88/378/EEC," Vol. L0378 (European Union, 1993), pp. 1-17.

J. C. S. Booth, S. E. Dann, and D. L. J. O'Brien, "Inorganic pigments," European patent EP1694779 (30 August 2006).

S. J. Wakeham, "Protective, antireflection coatings for multispectral zinc sulphide," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Reading, 2003).

H. Piller, "Cadmium selenide (CdSe)," in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E. Palik, ed. (Academic, 1991), ISBN: 0-12-544422-2.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

EDX analysis of SnO 2 coating deposited by MOPACVD.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Change in elemental composition of SnO x C y with variation of O 2 flow rate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of CdSe, CdTe, and SiOx on Ge and Si. The effect of water absorption in the tin-based coatings is visible at 3 μm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral comparison of CVD and thermally evaporated SnO 2 coatings in visible and NIR wavelength regions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dispersive refractive index and extinction coefficient results for SnO 2 thin films.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of theoretical and experimental transmission spectra for SnO 2 based on n and k determination.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculation of the direct energy bandgap of SnO 2 (extrapolation to the energy axis shows the bandgap to be 2.7 eV ).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Visible transmission of a 3.3 μm thick SnN coating.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Transmission of single-layer CdSe compared to SnS and SnSe on Ge and Si substrates.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Midinfrared transmission and reflection of various stoichiometries of SnS x Te 1 x .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Visible transmission of four different MMO compounds deposited by RF sputtering.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Transmission of single-layer CdSe deposited onto various substrates.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Dispersion profile of CdSe, SnWO 4 ,and SnNb 2 O 6 .

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( C 2 H 5 ) 4 S n ( g ) + 14 O 2 ( g ) S n O 2 ( s ) + 10 H 2 O ( g ) + 8 C O 2 ( g ) .
α h ν = A ( h ν E g ) x ,

Metrics