Abstract

Ta–Si oxide composite thin-film rugate filters were prepared by radio frequency ion-beam sputtering and their residual stress and substrate deflections were measured. The residual stress and substrate deflection of these composite film rugate filters were less than that of notch filters made from a series of discrete quarter-wave layers with alternate high and low indices because of the smooth modulation of composition and no interface structure of the rugate filter.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. H. Southwell, "Spectral response calculations of rugate filters using coupled-wave theory," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1558-1564 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. J. Gunning, R. L. Hall, F. J. Woodberry, W. H. Southwell, and N. S. Gluck, "Codeposition of continuous composition rugate filters," Appl. Opt. 28, 2945-2948 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Q. Tang, H. Matsuda, K. Kikuchi, and S. Ogura, "Fabrication and characteristics of rugate filters deposited by the TSH reactive sputtering method," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3384-3388 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Ritz, "TaTiOx layers prepared by magnetron sputtering from separate metal targets," Surf. Coat. Technol. 174-175, 651-654 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. C. Lee, C. J. Tang, and J. Y. Wu, "Rugate filter made with composite thin films by ion-beam sputtering," Appl. Opt. 45, 1333-1337 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. P. Donovan, D. Van Vechten, A. D. F. Kahn, C. A. Carosella, and G. K. Hubler, "Near infrared rugate filter fabrication by ion beam assisted deposition of Si(1-x)Nx films," Appl. Opt. 28, 2940-2944 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Bartzsch, S. Lange, P. Frach, and K. Goedicke, "Graded refractive index layer systems for antireflective coatings and rugate filters deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering," Surf. Coat. Technol. 180-181, 616-620 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, and J. C. Hsu, "Internal stress and optical properties of Nb2O5 thin films deposited by ion-beam sputtering," Appl. Opt. 41, 2043-2047 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Shao, J. Shao, H. He, and Z. Fan, "Stress analysis of ZrO2/SiO2 multilayers deposited on different substrates with different thickness periods," Opt. Lett. 30, 2119-2121 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, "A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film," J. Phy. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. G. Stoney, "The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 172-175 (1909).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, "An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128-2133 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. H. Southwell, "Using apodization functions to reduce sidelobes in rugate filters," Appl. Opt. 28, 5091-5094 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. H. Southwell and R. L. Hall, "Rugate filter sidelobe suppression using quintic and rugated quintic matching layers," Appl. Opt. 28, 2949-2951 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Kaiser, "Review of the fundamentals of thin film growth," Appl. Opt. 41, 3053-3060 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

H. Bartzsch, S. Lange, P. Frach, and K. Goedicke, "Graded refractive index layer systems for antireflective coatings and rugate filters deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering," Surf. Coat. Technol. 180-181, 616-620 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Ritz, "TaTiOx layers prepared by magnetron sputtering from separate metal targets," Surf. Coat. Technol. 174-175, 651-654 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, "An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128-2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Q. Tang, H. Matsuda, K. Kikuchi, and S. Ogura, "Fabrication and characteristics of rugate filters deposited by the TSH reactive sputtering method," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3384-3388 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1989 (4)

W. J. Gunning, R. L. Hall, F. J. Woodberry, W. H. Southwell, and N. S. Gluck, "Codeposition of continuous composition rugate filters," Appl. Opt. 28, 2945-2948 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. P. Donovan, D. Van Vechten, A. D. F. Kahn, C. A. Carosella, and G. K. Hubler, "Near infrared rugate filter fabrication by ion beam assisted deposition of Si(1-x)Nx films," Appl. Opt. 28, 2940-2944 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Southwell, "Using apodization functions to reduce sidelobes in rugate filters," Appl. Opt. 28, 5091-5094 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Southwell and R. L. Hall, "Rugate filter sidelobe suppression using quintic and rugated quintic matching layers," Appl. Opt. 28, 2949-2951 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1976 (1)

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, "A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film," J. Phy. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1909 (1)

G. G. Stoney, "The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 172-175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Bartzsch, H.

H. Bartzsch, S. Lange, P. Frach, and K. Goedicke, "Graded refractive index layer systems for antireflective coatings and rugate filters deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering," Surf. Coat. Technol. 180-181, 616-620 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carosella, C. A.

E. P. Donovan, D. Van Vechten, A. D. F. Kahn, C. A. Carosella, and G. K. Hubler, "Near infrared rugate filter fabrication by ion beam assisted deposition of Si(1-x)Nx films," Appl. Opt. 28, 2940-2944 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donovan, E. P.

E. P. Donovan, D. Van Vechten, A. D. F. Kahn, C. A. Carosella, and G. K. Hubler, "Near infrared rugate filter fabrication by ion beam assisted deposition of Si(1-x)Nx films," Appl. Opt. 28, 2940-2944 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, Z.

Fillard, J. P.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, "A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film," J. Phy. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Frach, P.

H. Bartzsch, S. Lange, P. Frach, and K. Goedicke, "Graded refractive index layer systems for antireflective coatings and rugate filters deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering," Surf. Coat. Technol. 180-181, 616-620 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gasiot, J.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, "A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film," J. Phy. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gluck, N. S.

W. J. Gunning, R. L. Hall, F. J. Woodberry, W. H. Southwell, and N. S. Gluck, "Codeposition of continuous composition rugate filters," Appl. Opt. 28, 2945-2948 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goedicke, K.

H. Bartzsch, S. Lange, P. Frach, and K. Goedicke, "Graded refractive index layer systems for antireflective coatings and rugate filters deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering," Surf. Coat. Technol. 180-181, 616-620 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gunning, W. J.

W. J. Gunning, R. L. Hall, F. J. Woodberry, W. H. Southwell, and N. S. Gluck, "Codeposition of continuous composition rugate filters," Appl. Opt. 28, 2945-2948 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, R. H.

W. H. Southwell and R. L. Hall, "Rugate filter sidelobe suppression using quintic and rugated quintic matching layers," Appl. Opt. 28, 2949-2951 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hall, R. L.

W. J. Gunning, R. L. Hall, F. J. Woodberry, W. H. Southwell, and N. S. Gluck, "Codeposition of continuous composition rugate filters," Appl. Opt. 28, 2945-2948 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, H.

Hsu, J. C.

Hubler, G. K.

E. P. Donovan, D. Van Vechten, A. D. F. Kahn, C. A. Carosella, and G. K. Hubler, "Near infrared rugate filter fabrication by ion beam assisted deposition of Si(1-x)Nx films," Appl. Opt. 28, 2940-2944 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaing, C. C.

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, "An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128-2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, A. D. F.

E. P. Donovan, D. Van Vechten, A. D. F. Kahn, C. A. Carosella, and G. K. Hubler, "Near infrared rugate filter fabrication by ion beam assisted deposition of Si(1-x)Nx films," Appl. Opt. 28, 2940-2944 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaiser, N.

N. Kaiser, "Review of the fundamentals of thin film growth," Appl. Opt. 41, 3053-3060 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kikuchi, K.

Q. Tang, H. Matsuda, K. Kikuchi, and S. Ogura, "Fabrication and characteristics of rugate filters deposited by the TSH reactive sputtering method," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3384-3388 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lange, S.

H. Bartzsch, S. Lange, P. Frach, and K. Goedicke, "Graded refractive index layer systems for antireflective coatings and rugate filters deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering," Surf. Coat. Technol. 180-181, 616-620 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. C.

Manifacier, J. C.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, "A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film," J. Phy. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, H.

Q. Tang, H. Matsuda, K. Kikuchi, and S. Ogura, "Fabrication and characteristics of rugate filters deposited by the TSH reactive sputtering method," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3384-3388 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ogura, S.

Q. Tang, H. Matsuda, K. Kikuchi, and S. Ogura, "Fabrication and characteristics of rugate filters deposited by the TSH reactive sputtering method," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3384-3388 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ritz, A.

A. Ritz, "TaTiOx layers prepared by magnetron sputtering from separate metal targets," Surf. Coat. Technol. 174-175, 651-654 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shao, J.

Shao, S.

Sheu, W. S.

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, "An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128-2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Southwell, W. H.

W. H. Southwell and R. L. Hall, "Rugate filter sidelobe suppression using quintic and rugated quintic matching layers," Appl. Opt. 28, 2949-2951 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Gunning, R. L. Hall, F. J. Woodberry, W. H. Southwell, and N. S. Gluck, "Codeposition of continuous composition rugate filters," Appl. Opt. 28, 2945-2948 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Southwell, "Using apodization functions to reduce sidelobes in rugate filters," Appl. Opt. 28, 5091-5094 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Southwell, "Spectral response calculations of rugate filters using coupled-wave theory," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1558-1564 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stoney, G. G.

G. G. Stoney, "The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 172-175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. J.

Tang, Q.

Q. Tang, H. Matsuda, K. Kikuchi, and S. Ogura, "Fabrication and characteristics of rugate filters deposited by the TSH reactive sputtering method," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3384-3388 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tien, C. L.

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, and J. C. Hsu, "Internal stress and optical properties of Nb2O5 thin films deposited by ion-beam sputtering," Appl. Opt. 41, 2043-2047 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, "An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128-2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Van Vechten, D.

E. P. Donovan, D. Van Vechten, A. D. F. Kahn, C. A. Carosella, and G. K. Hubler, "Near infrared rugate filter fabrication by ion beam assisted deposition of Si(1-x)Nx films," Appl. Opt. 28, 2940-2944 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woodberry, F. J.

W. J. Gunning, R. L. Hall, F. J. Woodberry, W. H. Southwell, and N. S. Gluck, "Codeposition of continuous composition rugate filters," Appl. Opt. 28, 2945-2948 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J. Y.

Appl. Opt. (5)

W. J. Gunning, R. L. Hall, F. J. Woodberry, W. H. Southwell, and N. S. Gluck, "Codeposition of continuous composition rugate filters," Appl. Opt. 28, 2945-2948 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. P. Donovan, D. Van Vechten, A. D. F. Kahn, C. A. Carosella, and G. K. Hubler, "Near infrared rugate filter fabrication by ion beam assisted deposition of Si(1-x)Nx films," Appl. Opt. 28, 2940-2944 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Southwell, "Using apodization functions to reduce sidelobes in rugate filters," Appl. Opt. 28, 5091-5094 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Southwell and R. L. Hall, "Rugate filter sidelobe suppression using quintic and rugated quintic matching layers," Appl. Opt. 28, 2949-2951 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Kaiser, "Review of the fundamentals of thin film growth," Appl. Opt. 41, 3053-3060 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Phy. E (1)

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, "A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film," J. Phy. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

Q. Tang, H. Matsuda, K. Kikuchi, and S. Ogura, "Fabrication and characteristics of rugate filters deposited by the TSH reactive sputtering method," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3384-3388 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

G. G. Stoney, "The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 172-175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. C. Lee, C. L. Tien, W. S. Sheu, and C. C. Jaing, "An apparatus for the measurement of internal stress and thermal expansion coefficient of metal oxide films," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2128-2133 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Coat. Technol. (2)

A. Ritz, "TaTiOx layers prepared by magnetron sputtering from separate metal targets," Surf. Coat. Technol. 174-175, 651-654 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Bartzsch, S. Lange, P. Frach, and K. Goedicke, "Graded refractive index layer systems for antireflective coatings and rugate filters deposited by reactive pulse magnetron sputtering," Surf. Coat. Technol. 180-181, 616-620 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Phase shifting interferograms of sample G: (a) 0° before deposition, (b) 180° before deposition, (c) 0° after deposition, (d) 180° after deposition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive-index distribution for different samples.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive-index distribution for the rugate filter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Simulated and measured results for the rugate filter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Spectral performance for sample Q and the rugate filter.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) (a) Refractive-index profiles and (b) simulated transmission curves for the discrete layers of the (3H3L) 9 H filter and the rugate filter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SEM cross section of (a) a 19-layer quarter-wave stack and (b) a quasi-sine form indices filter.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Refractive-Index Distribution, Layer Numbers, and Physical Thickness for Different Samples

Tables Icon

Table 2 Substrate Deflection and Residual Stress of Samples A1–A3

Tables Icon

Table 3 Substrate Deflection and Residual Stress of Samples B–Q

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ f = E S t S 2 6 ( 1 ν S ) t f R ,
n ( y ) = n a + n p 2 g ( y ) sin ( 4 π λ 0 y ) ,
g ( y ) = 10 y 3 15 y 4 + 6 y 5 ,
n ( y ) = n s + [ n ( y ) n s ] ( 10 y 3 15 y 4 + 6 y 5 ) .

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