Abstract

LaF3 thin films of different thicknesses were deposited on CaF2 (111) and silicon substrates at a relatively low substrate temperature of 150°C. Optical (transmittance, reflectance, refractive index, and extinction coefficient) and mechanical (morphology and crystalline structure) properties have been investigated and are discussed. It is shown that LaF3 thin films deposited on CaF2 (111) substrates are monocrystalline and have a bulklike dense structure. Furthermore, it is presented that low-loss LaF3 thin films can be deposited not only by boat evaporation but also by electron beam evaporation.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Ristau, S. Gunster, S. Bosch, A. Duparre, E. Masetti, J. Ferre-Borrull, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiro, E. Quesnel, and A. Tikhonravov, "Ultraviolet optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 and LaF3 coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering and boat and electron-beam evaporation," Appl. Opt. 41, 3196-3204 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Iwahori, M. Furuta, Y. Taki, T. Yamamura, and A. Tanaka, "Optical properties of fluoride thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering," Appl. Opt. 45, 4598-4602 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M.-C. Liu, C.-C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure-related properties at 193 nm of MgF2 and GdF3 films deposited by a resistive-heating boat," Appl. Opt. 45, 1368-1374 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C.-C. Jaing, M.-H. Shiao, C.-C. Lee, C.-J. Lu, M.-C. Liu, C.-H. Lee, and H.-C. Chen, "Effects of ion assist and substrate temperature on the optical properties and microstructure of MgF2 films produced by e-beam evaporation," Proc. SPIE 5870, 58700F (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, and Y. S. Dai, "Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition," Thin Solid Films 342, 83-92 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M.-C. Liu, C.-C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure related properties of lanthanum fluoride films deposited by molybdenum boat evaporation at 193 nm," Thin Solid Films 492, 45-51 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Taki and K. Muramatsu, "Hetero-epitaxial growth and optical properties of LaF3 on CaF2," Thin Solid Films 420-421, 30-37 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Schroeder, M. Kamprath, and A. Dupparé, "Characterization of thin films and bulk materials for DUV optical components," Proc. SPIE 6403, 64031L (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. Schroeder, M. Kamprath, and A. Dupparé, "Characterization of thin films and bulk materials for DUV optical components," Proc. SPIE 6403, 64031L (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

K. Iwahori, M. Furuta, Y. Taki, T. Yamamura, and A. Tanaka, "Optical properties of fluoride thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering," Appl. Opt. 45, 4598-4602 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-C. Liu, C.-C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure-related properties at 193 nm of MgF2 and GdF3 films deposited by a resistive-heating boat," Appl. Opt. 45, 1368-1374 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

C.-C. Jaing, M.-H. Shiao, C.-C. Lee, C.-J. Lu, M.-C. Liu, C.-H. Lee, and H.-C. Chen, "Effects of ion assist and substrate temperature on the optical properties and microstructure of MgF2 films produced by e-beam evaporation," Proc. SPIE 5870, 58700F (2005).
[CrossRef]

M.-C. Liu, C.-C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure related properties of lanthanum fluoride films deposited by molybdenum boat evaporation at 193 nm," Thin Solid Films 492, 45-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

1999 (1)

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, and Y. S. Dai, "Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition," Thin Solid Films 342, 83-92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Atanassov, G.

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, and Y. S. Dai, "Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition," Thin Solid Films 342, 83-92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bosch, S.

Chen, H.-C.

C.-C. Jaing, M.-H. Shiao, C.-C. Lee, C.-J. Lu, M.-C. Liu, C.-H. Lee, and H.-C. Chen, "Effects of ion assist and substrate temperature on the optical properties and microstructure of MgF2 films produced by e-beam evaporation," Proc. SPIE 5870, 58700F (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y. S.

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, and Y. S. Dai, "Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition," Thin Solid Films 342, 83-92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duparre, A.

Dupparé, A.

S. Schroeder, M. Kamprath, and A. Dupparé, "Characterization of thin films and bulk materials for DUV optical components," Proc. SPIE 6403, 64031L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferre-Borrull, J.

Fu, J. K.

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, and Y. S. Dai, "Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition," Thin Solid Films 342, 83-92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Furuta, M.

K. Iwahori, M. Furuta, Y. Taki, T. Yamamura, and A. Tanaka, "Optical properties of fluoride thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering," Appl. Opt. 45, 4598-4602 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunster, S.

Iwahori, K.

K. Iwahori, M. Furuta, Y. Taki, T. Yamamura, and A. Tanaka, "Optical properties of fluoride thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering," Appl. Opt. 45, 4598-4602 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaing, C.-C.

C.-C. Jaing, M.-H. Shiao, C.-C. Lee, C.-J. Lu, M.-C. Liu, C.-H. Lee, and H.-C. Chen, "Effects of ion assist and substrate temperature on the optical properties and microstructure of MgF2 films produced by e-beam evaporation," Proc. SPIE 5870, 58700F (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kamprath, M.

S. Schroeder, M. Kamprath, and A. Dupparé, "Characterization of thin films and bulk materials for DUV optical components," Proc. SPIE 6403, 64031L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, M.

M.-C. Liu, C.-C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure-related properties at 193 nm of MgF2 and GdF3 films deposited by a resistive-heating boat," Appl. Opt. 45, 1368-1374 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-C. Liu, C.-C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure related properties of lanthanum fluoride films deposited by molybdenum boat evaporation at 193 nm," Thin Solid Films 492, 45-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kiriakidis, G.

Lee, C.-C.

M.-C. Liu, C.-C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure-related properties at 193 nm of MgF2 and GdF3 films deposited by a resistive-heating boat," Appl. Opt. 45, 1368-1374 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-C. Liu, C.-C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure related properties of lanthanum fluoride films deposited by molybdenum boat evaporation at 193 nm," Thin Solid Films 492, 45-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Jaing, M.-H. Shiao, C.-C. Lee, C.-J. Lu, M.-C. Liu, C.-H. Lee, and H.-C. Chen, "Effects of ion assist and substrate temperature on the optical properties and microstructure of MgF2 films produced by e-beam evaporation," Proc. SPIE 5870, 58700F (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-H.

C.-C. Jaing, M.-H. Shiao, C.-C. Lee, C.-J. Lu, M.-C. Liu, C.-H. Lee, and H.-C. Chen, "Effects of ion assist and substrate temperature on the optical properties and microstructure of MgF2 films produced by e-beam evaporation," Proc. SPIE 5870, 58700F (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.-C.

M.-C. Liu, C.-C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure-related properties at 193 nm of MgF2 and GdF3 films deposited by a resistive-heating boat," Appl. Opt. 45, 1368-1374 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-C. Liu, C.-C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure related properties of lanthanum fluoride films deposited by molybdenum boat evaporation at 193 nm," Thin Solid Films 492, 45-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Jaing, M.-H. Shiao, C.-C. Lee, C.-J. Lu, M.-C. Liu, C.-H. Lee, and H.-C. Chen, "Effects of ion assist and substrate temperature on the optical properties and microstructure of MgF2 films produced by e-beam evaporation," Proc. SPIE 5870, 58700F (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.-J.

C.-C. Jaing, M.-H. Shiao, C.-C. Lee, C.-J. Lu, M.-C. Liu, C.-H. Lee, and H.-C. Chen, "Effects of ion assist and substrate temperature on the optical properties and microstructure of MgF2 films produced by e-beam evaporation," Proc. SPIE 5870, 58700F (2005).
[CrossRef]

Masetti, E.

Muramatsu, K.

Y. Taki and K. Muramatsu, "Hetero-epitaxial growth and optical properties of LaF3 on CaF2," Thin Solid Films 420-421, 30-37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakahira, K.

M.-C. Liu, C.-C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure-related properties at 193 nm of MgF2 and GdF3 films deposited by a resistive-heating boat," Appl. Opt. 45, 1368-1374 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-C. Liu, C.-C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure related properties of lanthanum fluoride films deposited by molybdenum boat evaporation at 193 nm," Thin Solid Films 492, 45-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peiro, F.

Quesnel, E.

Ristau, D.

Schroeder, S.

S. Schroeder, M. Kamprath, and A. Dupparé, "Characterization of thin films and bulk materials for DUV optical components," Proc. SPIE 6403, 64031L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shiao, M.-H.

C.-C. Jaing, M.-H. Shiao, C.-C. Lee, C.-J. Lu, M.-C. Liu, C.-H. Lee, and H.-C. Chen, "Effects of ion assist and substrate temperature on the optical properties and microstructure of MgF2 films produced by e-beam evaporation," Proc. SPIE 5870, 58700F (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takano, Y.

M.-C. Liu, C.-C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure-related properties at 193 nm of MgF2 and GdF3 films deposited by a resistive-heating boat," Appl. Opt. 45, 1368-1374 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-C. Liu, C.-C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure related properties of lanthanum fluoride films deposited by molybdenum boat evaporation at 193 nm," Thin Solid Films 492, 45-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taki, Y.

K. Iwahori, M. Furuta, Y. Taki, T. Yamamura, and A. Tanaka, "Optical properties of fluoride thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering," Appl. Opt. 45, 4598-4602 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Taki and K. Muramatsu, "Hetero-epitaxial growth and optical properties of LaF3 on CaF2," Thin Solid Films 420-421, 30-37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, A.

K. Iwahori, M. Furuta, Y. Taki, T. Yamamura, and A. Tanaka, "Optical properties of fluoride thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering," Appl. Opt. 45, 4598-4602 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tikhonravov, A.

Turlo, J.

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, and Y. S. Dai, "Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition," Thin Solid Films 342, 83-92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamamura, T.

K. Iwahori, M. Furuta, Y. Taki, T. Yamamura, and A. Tanaka, "Optical properties of fluoride thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering," Appl. Opt. 45, 4598-4602 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

K. Iwahori, M. Furuta, Y. Taki, T. Yamamura, and A. Tanaka, "Optical properties of fluoride thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering," Appl. Opt. 45, 4598-4602 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-C. Liu, C.-C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure-related properties at 193 nm of MgF2 and GdF3 films deposited by a resistive-heating boat," Appl. Opt. 45, 1368-1374 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

C.-C. Jaing, M.-H. Shiao, C.-C. Lee, C.-J. Lu, M.-C. Liu, C.-H. Lee, and H.-C. Chen, "Effects of ion assist and substrate temperature on the optical properties and microstructure of MgF2 films produced by e-beam evaporation," Proc. SPIE 5870, 58700F (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Schroeder, M. Kamprath, and A. Dupparé, "Characterization of thin films and bulk materials for DUV optical components," Proc. SPIE 6403, 64031L (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (3)

G. Atanassov, J. Turlo, J. K. Fu, and Y. S. Dai, "Mechanical, optical and structural properties of TiO2 and MgF2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition," Thin Solid Films 342, 83-92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M.-C. Liu, C.-C. Lee, M. Kaneko, K. Nakahira, and Y. Takano, "Microstructure related properties of lanthanum fluoride films deposited by molybdenum boat evaporation at 193 nm," Thin Solid Films 492, 45-51 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Taki and K. Muramatsu, "Hetero-epitaxial growth and optical properties of LaF3 on CaF2," Thin Solid Films 420-421, 30-37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

XRD patterns from LaF 3 films: (a) 15 nm on different CaF 2 substrates; (b) 150 nm on Si substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

TEM analysis (a) of sample D1 with nodular defects and (b) of sample D3 with columnar growth.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

High-resolution TEM analysis of (a) sample B1 and (b) sample B3.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Surface morphology of LaF 3 thin films of different thickness deposited on CaF 2 _ s (111) measured by AFM.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Mass density of LaF 3 films deposited on different substrates; corresponding surface roughness by (b) GI-XRD and (c) AFM.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

IR measurement of 150 nm LaF 3 layers.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral photometry (a) R + T and (b) R measurement of 150 nm LaF 3 layers.

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