Abstract

A curvature sensor based on a highly birefringent (Hi-Bi) photonic crystal fiber inserted into a Sagnac interferometer is demonstrated. For this purpose, a novel Hi-Bi photonic crystal fiber was designed and fabricated. Half of the microstructured region of the photonic crystal fiber was composed by large diameter holes, while the other half contained small diameter holes. Because of this geometry, the fiber core was shifted from the center and high birefringence appears in the optical fiber. Curvature was applied for three different fiber directions for a range of 0.65m1. Temperature and longitudinal strain was also characterized for constant curvature. The configuration showed insensitivity to these two physical parameters.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Y-S. Yu, Z-Y. Zhao, Z-C. Zhuo, W. Zheng, Y. Qian, and Y-S. Zhang, “Bend sensor using an embedded etched fiber Bragg grating,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 43, 414-417 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. M. Araújo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Temperature and strain insensitive bending measurements with D-type fiber Bragg gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 829-833 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. J. Gander, W. N. Macpherson, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, and A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fiber,” Electron. Lett. 36, 120-121 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 21, 692-694 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. O. Frazão, F. M. Araújo, L. A. Ferreira, and J. L. Santos, “Applications of fiber optic grating technology to multi-parameter measurement,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 24, 227-244 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. Lisbôa and C. K. Jen, “An optical-fiber bending sensor using two-mode fibers with an off-center core,” Smart Mater. Struct. 3, 164-170 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. E. Covington, J. Blake, and S. L. A. Carrara, “Two-mode fiber-optic bending sensor with temperature and strain compensation,” Opt. Lett. 19, 676-678 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely address optical fiber curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97-104 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multicore optical fiber,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132-140 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Campbell, G. Zheng, A. S. Holmes-Smith, and P. A. Wallace, “A frequency-modulated continuous wave birefringent fiber optic stain based on a Sagnac ring configuration,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 218-224 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. De la Rosa, “Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19-21 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Liu, B. Liu, X. Feng, W. Zhang, G. Zhou, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “High-birefringence fiber loop mirrors and their applications as sensors,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2382-2390 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Temperature-independent strain sensor based on a Hi-Bi photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE J Sensors 7, 1453-1455 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Du, H.-Y. Tam, M. S.Y. Liu, and X. Tao, “Long-period fiber grating bending sensors in laminated composite structures,” Proc. SPIE 3330, 284-292 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Kim and J. Kang, “Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber with reduced temperature sensitivity,” Opt. Express 12, 4490-4495 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Michie, J. Canning, K. Lyytikäinen, M. Åslund, and J. Digweed, “Temperature independent highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 12, 5160-5165 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. Ritari, H. Ludvigsen, M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, N. Gisin, J. Folkenberg, and M. Nielsen, “Experimental study of polarization properties of highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 5931-5939 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Temperature-independent strain sensor based on a Hi-Bi photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE J Sensors 7, 1453-1455 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

O. Frazão, F. M. Araújo, L. A. Ferreira, and J. L. Santos, “Applications of fiber optic grating technology to multi-parameter measurement,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 24, 227-244 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, B. Liu, X. Feng, W. Zhang, G. Zhou, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “High-birefringence fiber loop mirrors and their applications as sensors,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2382-2390 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2001

F. M. Araújo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Temperature and strain insensitive bending measurements with D-type fiber Bragg gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 829-833 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely address optical fiber curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97-104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multicore optical fiber,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132-140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Gander, W. N. Macpherson, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, and A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fiber,” Electron. Lett. 36, 120-121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Campbell, G. Zheng, A. S. Holmes-Smith, and P. A. Wallace, “A frequency-modulated continuous wave birefringent fiber optic stain based on a Sagnac ring configuration,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 218-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

W. Du, H.-Y. Tam, M. S.Y. Liu, and X. Tao, “Long-period fiber grating bending sensors in laminated composite structures,” Proc. SPIE 3330, 284-292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. De la Rosa, “Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19-21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1994

O. Lisbôa and C. K. Jen, “An optical-fiber bending sensor using two-mode fibers with an off-center core,” Smart Mater. Struct. 3, 164-170 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Covington, J. Blake, and S. L. A. Carrara, “Two-mode fiber-optic bending sensor with temperature and strain compensation,” Opt. Lett. 19, 676-678 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Araújo, F. M.

O. Frazão, F. M. Araújo, L. A. Ferreira, and J. L. Santos, “Applications of fiber optic grating technology to multi-parameter measurement,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 24, 227-244 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Araújo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Temperature and strain insensitive bending measurements with D-type fiber Bragg gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 829-833 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Åslund, M.

Baptista, J. M.

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Temperature-independent strain sensor based on a Hi-Bi photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE J Sensors 7, 1453-1455 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

M. J. Gander, W. N. Macpherson, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, and A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fiber,” Electron. Lett. 36, 120-121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

Birks, T. A.

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely address optical fiber curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97-104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Blake, J.

Blanchard, P. M.

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely address optical fiber curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97-104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Gander, W. N. Macpherson, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, and A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fiber,” Electron. Lett. 36, 120-121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multicore optical fiber,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132-140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, J. G.

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely address optical fiber curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97-104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Gander, W. N. Macpherson, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, and A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fiber,” Electron. Lett. 36, 120-121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multicore optical fiber,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132-140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, M.

M. Campbell, G. Zheng, A. S. Holmes-Smith, and P. A. Wallace, “A frequency-modulated continuous wave birefringent fiber optic stain based on a Sagnac ring configuration,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 218-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

Carrara, S. L. A.

Covington, C. E.

De la Rosa, E.

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. De la Rosa, “Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19-21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Digweed, J.

Dong, X.

Du, W.

W. Du, H.-Y. Tam, M. S.Y. Liu, and X. Tao, “Long-period fiber grating bending sensors in laminated composite structures,” Proc. SPIE 3330, 284-292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Erry, G. R. G.

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multicore optical fiber,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132-140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Farahi, F.

F. M. Araújo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Temperature and strain insensitive bending measurements with D-type fiber Bragg gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 829-833 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

Ferreira, L. A.

O. Frazão, F. M. Araújo, L. A. Ferreira, and J. L. Santos, “Applications of fiber optic grating technology to multi-parameter measurement,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 24, 227-244 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Araújo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Temperature and strain insensitive bending measurements with D-type fiber Bragg gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 829-833 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Folkenberg, J.

Frazão, O.

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Temperature-independent strain sensor based on a Hi-Bi photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE J Sensors 7, 1453-1455 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, F. M. Araújo, L. A. Ferreira, and J. L. Santos, “Applications of fiber optic grating technology to multi-parameter measurement,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 24, 227-244 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gander, M. J.

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely address optical fiber curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97-104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Gander, W. N. Macpherson, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, and A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fiber,” Electron. Lett. 36, 120-121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multicore optical fiber,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132-140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

Greenaway, A. H.

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely address optical fiber curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97-104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Gander, W. N. Macpherson, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, and A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fiber,” Electron. Lett. 36, 120-121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multicore optical fiber,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132-140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, P.

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multicore optical fiber,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132-140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Holmes-Smith, A. S.

M. Campbell, G. Zheng, A. S. Holmes-Smith, and P. A. Wallace, “A frequency-modulated continuous wave birefringent fiber optic stain based on a Sagnac ring configuration,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 218-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jen, C. K.

O. Lisbôa and C. K. Jen, “An optical-fiber bending sensor using two-mode fibers with an off-center core,” Smart Mater. Struct. 3, 164-170 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. D. C.

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely address optical fiber curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97-104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multicore optical fiber,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132-140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Gander, W. N. Macpherson, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, and A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fiber,” Electron. Lett. 36, 120-121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kai, G.

Kang, J.

Kim, D.

Knight, J. C.

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely address optical fiber curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97-104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multicore optical fiber,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132-140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Legré, M.

Lisbôa, O.

O. Lisbôa and C. K. Jen, “An optical-fiber bending sensor using two-mode fibers with an off-center core,” Smart Mater. Struct. 3, 164-170 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

Liu, M. S.Y.

W. Du, H.-Y. Tam, M. S.Y. Liu, and X. Tao, “Long-period fiber grating bending sensors in laminated composite structures,” Proc. SPIE 3330, 284-292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Ludvigsen, H.

Lyytikäinen, K.

MacPherson, W. N.

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely address optical fiber curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97-104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Gander, W. N. Macpherson, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, and A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fiber,” Electron. Lett. 36, 120-121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B.

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely address optical fiber curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97-104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multicore optical fiber,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132-140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McBride, R.

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely address optical fiber curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97-104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Gander, W. N. Macpherson, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, and A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fiber,” Electron. Lett. 36, 120-121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multicore optical fiber,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132-140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Michie, A.

Monzon, D.

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. De la Rosa, “Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19-21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, M.

Qian, Y.

Y-S. Yu, Z-Y. Zhao, Z-C. Zhuo, W. Zheng, Y. Qian, and Y-S. Zhang, “Bend sensor using an embedded etched fiber Bragg grating,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 43, 414-417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ritari, T.

Russell, P. St. J.

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely address optical fiber curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97-104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multicore optical fiber,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132-140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Temperature-independent strain sensor based on a Hi-Bi photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE J Sensors 7, 1453-1455 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, F. M. Araújo, L. A. Ferreira, and J. L. Santos, “Applications of fiber optic grating technology to multi-parameter measurement,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 24, 227-244 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Araújo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Temperature and strain insensitive bending measurements with D-type fiber Bragg gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 829-833 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Starodumov, A. N.

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. De la Rosa, “Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19-21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H.-Y.

W. Du, H.-Y. Tam, M. S.Y. Liu, and X. Tao, “Long-period fiber grating bending sensors in laminated composite structures,” Proc. SPIE 3330, 284-292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tao, X.

W. Du, H.-Y. Tam, M. S.Y. Liu, and X. Tao, “Long-period fiber grating bending sensors in laminated composite structures,” Proc. SPIE 3330, 284-292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Wallace, P. A.

M. Campbell, G. Zheng, A. S. Holmes-Smith, and P. A. Wallace, “A frequency-modulated continuous wave birefringent fiber optic stain based on a Sagnac ring configuration,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 218-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wegmuller, M.

Yu, Y-S.

Y-S. Yu, Z-Y. Zhao, Z-C. Zhuo, W. Zheng, Y. Qian, and Y-S. Zhang, “Bend sensor using an embedded etched fiber Bragg grating,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 43, 414-417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, S.

Zenteno, L. A.

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. De la Rosa, “Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19-21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

M. J. Gander, W. N. Macpherson, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, and A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fiber,” Electron. Lett. 36, 120-121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Zhang, Y-S.

Y-S. Yu, Z-Y. Zhao, Z-C. Zhuo, W. Zheng, Y. Qian, and Y-S. Zhang, “Bend sensor using an embedded etched fiber Bragg grating,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 43, 414-417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Z-Y.

Y-S. Yu, Z-Y. Zhao, Z-C. Zhuo, W. Zheng, Y. Qian, and Y-S. Zhang, “Bend sensor using an embedded etched fiber Bragg grating,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 43, 414-417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, G.

M. Campbell, G. Zheng, A. S. Holmes-Smith, and P. A. Wallace, “A frequency-modulated continuous wave birefringent fiber optic stain based on a Sagnac ring configuration,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 218-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, W.

Y-S. Yu, Z-Y. Zhao, Z-C. Zhuo, W. Zheng, Y. Qian, and Y-S. Zhang, “Bend sensor using an embedded etched fiber Bragg grating,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 43, 414-417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, G.

Zhuo, Z-C.

Y-S. Yu, Z-Y. Zhao, Z-C. Zhuo, W. Zheng, Y. Qian, and Y-S. Zhang, “Bend sensor using an embedded etched fiber Bragg grating,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 43, 414-417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. De la Rosa, “Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19-21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

M. J. Gander, W. N. Macpherson, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, and A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fiber,” Electron. Lett. 36, 120-121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt.

O. Frazão, F. M. Araújo, L. A. Ferreira, and J. L. Santos, “Applications of fiber optic grating technology to multi-parameter measurement,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 24, 227-244 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J Sensors

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Temperature-independent strain sensor based on a Hi-Bi photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE J Sensors 7, 1453-1455 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

M. Campbell, G. Zheng, A. S. Holmes-Smith, and P. A. Wallace, “A frequency-modulated continuous wave birefringent fiber optic stain based on a Sagnac ring configuration,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 218-224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Araújo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Temperature and strain insensitive bending measurements with D-type fiber Bragg gratings,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 829-833 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett.

Y-S. Yu, Z-Y. Zhao, Z-C. Zhuo, W. Zheng, Y. Qian, and Y-S. Zhang, “Bend sensor using an embedded etched fiber Bragg grating,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 43, 414-417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely address optical fiber curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97-104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

W. Du, H.-Y. Tam, M. S.Y. Liu, and X. Tao, “Long-period fiber grating bending sensors in laminated composite structures,” Proc. SPIE 3330, 284-292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smart Mater. Struct.

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multicore optical fiber,” Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132-140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Lisbôa and C. K. Jen, “An optical-fiber bending sensor using two-mode fibers with an off-center core,” Smart Mater. Struct. 3, 164-170 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the Sagnac interferometer with an image of the novel Hi-Bi PCF showing the two asymmetric hole regions

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral response of the Sagnac interferometer for three different curvature directions: a) core in compression, b) core in tension, and c) core in neutral line.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Response of the Sagnac interferometer as a function of the bending radius.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Response of the Sagnac interferometer as a function of curvature (the inverse of bending radius).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Response of the Sagnac interferometer when the temperature is applied, for two bending radii ( r = 0.4 m and r = 1.4 m ).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Response of the Sagnac interferometer when longitudinal strain is applied (the fiber was horizontally stretched. Therefore, no curvature was applied).

Metrics