Abstract

We describe the design and performance of a liquid helium-cooled As:Si blocked-impurity-band photodetector system intended for spectrophotometry in the thermal infrared (2 to 30 μm) spectral region. The system has been characterized for spectral sensitivity, noise, thermal stability, and spatial uniformity, and optimized for use with a Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometer source for absolute goniometric reflectance measurements. Its performance is evaluated and compared to more common detector systems used in this spectral region, including room-temperature pyroelectric and liquid-N2-cooled photoconductive devices.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Springsteen, “Reflectance spectroscopy: an overview of classification and techniques,” in Applied Spectroscopy: A Compact Reference for Practitioners, J. Workman, Jr., and A. Springsteen, eds. (Academic Press, 1998), pp. 194-224.
  2. S. G. Kaplan and L. M. Hanssen, “Silicon as a standard material for infrared reflectance and transmittance from 2 to 5 μm,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 43, 389-396 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. G. Kaplan and L. M. Hanssen, “Angle-dependent absolute infrared reflectance and transmittance measurements,” Proc. SPIE 4103, 75-84 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Hanssen, “Integrating-sphere system and method for absolute measurement of transmittance, reflectance, and absorptance of specular samples,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3196-3204 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Lei and J. Fischer, “Characterization of photodiodes in the UV and visible spectral region based on cryogenic radiometry,” Metrologia 30, 297-303 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. G. White and A. Bittar, “Uniformity of quantum efficiency of single and trap-configured silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 30, 361-364 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. C. Larason and S. S. Bruce, “Spatial uniformity of responsivity for silicon, gallium nitride, germanium, and indium gallium arsenide photodiodes,” Metrologia 35, 491-496 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Eppeldauer and M. Racz, “Spectral power and irradiance responsivity calibration of InSb working-standard radiometers,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5739-5744 (2000).
  9. H. Gong, L. M. Hanssen, and G. P. Eppeldauer, “Spatial and angular responsivity measurements of photoconductive HgCdTe LWIR radiometers,” Metrologia 41, 161-166 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. P. Fox, T. R. Prior, E. Theocharous, and S. N. Mekhontsev, “Solid-state detectors for infrared radiometry,” Metrologia 32, 609-613 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Rogalski, “Infrared detectors: an overview,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 43, 187-210 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. P. Eppeldauer, A. L. Migdall, and C. L. Cromer, “Characterization of a high sensitivity composite silicon bolometer,” Metrologia 30, 317 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. J. Kreisler and A. Gaugue, “Recent progress in high-temperature superconducting bolometric detectors: from the mid-infrared to the far-infrared (THz) range,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 13, 1235-1245 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Yu. P. Gousev, G. N. Gol'tsman, A. D. Semenov, E. M. Gershenzon, R. S. Nebosis, M. A. Heusinger, and K. F. Renk, “Broadband ultrafast superconducting NbN detector for electromagnetic radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3695-3697 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Sobolewski, A. Verevkin, G. N. Gol'tsman, A. Lipatov, and K. Wilsher, “Ultrafast superconducting single-photon optical detectors and their applications,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 1151-1157 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. The mention of certain trade names in this manuscript is for informational purposes only and not meant to imply endorsement by NIST or that the products described are necessarily the best suited for the purpose.
  17. S. B. Stetson, D. B. Reynolds, M. G. Stapelbroek, and R. L. Stermer, “Design and performance of blocked-impurity-band detector focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 686, 48-65 (1986).
  18. A. C. Carter, S. R. Lorentz, T. M. Jung, B. J. Klemme, and R. U. Datla, “NIST facility for spectral calibration of detectors: calibration of arsenic doped silicon blocked impurity band detectors,” Proc. SPIE 4028, 420 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Geist, “Infrared absorption cross section of arsenic in silicon in the impurity band region of concentration,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1193-1199 (1989).
  20. L. M. Hanssen, “Effects of restricting the detector field of view when using integrating spheres,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2097-2103(1989).
  21. Z. M. Zhang, L. M. Hanssen, and R. U. Datla, “High-optical-density out-of-band spectral transmittance measurements of bandpass filters,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1077-1079 (1995).

2004 (1)

H. Gong, L. M. Hanssen, and G. P. Eppeldauer, “Spatial and angular responsivity measurements of photoconductive HgCdTe LWIR radiometers,” Metrologia 41, 161-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

R. Sobolewski, A. Verevkin, G. N. Gol'tsman, A. Lipatov, and K. Wilsher, “Ultrafast superconducting single-photon optical detectors and their applications,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 1151-1157 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. Rogalski, “Infrared detectors: an overview,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 43, 187-210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Kaplan and L. M. Hanssen, “Silicon as a standard material for infrared reflectance and transmittance from 2 to 5 μm,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 43, 389-396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (4)

G. Eppeldauer and M. Racz, “Spectral power and irradiance responsivity calibration of InSb working-standard radiometers,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5739-5744 (2000).

S. G. Kaplan and L. M. Hanssen, “Angle-dependent absolute infrared reflectance and transmittance measurements,” Proc. SPIE 4103, 75-84 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kreisler and A. Gaugue, “Recent progress in high-temperature superconducting bolometric detectors: from the mid-infrared to the far-infrared (THz) range,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 13, 1235-1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Carter, S. R. Lorentz, T. M. Jung, B. J. Klemme, and R. U. Datla, “NIST facility for spectral calibration of detectors: calibration of arsenic doped silicon blocked impurity band detectors,” Proc. SPIE 4028, 420 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

A. Springsteen, “Reflectance spectroscopy: an overview of classification and techniques,” in Applied Spectroscopy: A Compact Reference for Practitioners, J. Workman, Jr., and A. Springsteen, eds. (Academic Press, 1998), pp. 194-224.

T. C. Larason and S. S. Bruce, “Spatial uniformity of responsivity for silicon, gallium nitride, germanium, and indium gallium arsenide photodiodes,” Metrologia 35, 491-496 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

N. P. Fox, T. R. Prior, E. Theocharous, and S. N. Mekhontsev, “Solid-state detectors for infrared radiometry,” Metrologia 32, 609-613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. M. Zhang, L. M. Hanssen, and R. U. Datla, “High-optical-density out-of-band spectral transmittance measurements of bandpass filters,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1077-1079 (1995).

1994 (1)

Yu. P. Gousev, G. N. Gol'tsman, A. D. Semenov, E. M. Gershenzon, R. S. Nebosis, M. A. Heusinger, and K. F. Renk, “Broadband ultrafast superconducting NbN detector for electromagnetic radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3695-3697 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

G. P. Eppeldauer, A. L. Migdall, and C. L. Cromer, “Characterization of a high sensitivity composite silicon bolometer,” Metrologia 30, 317 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Lei and J. Fischer, “Characterization of photodiodes in the UV and visible spectral region based on cryogenic radiometry,” Metrologia 30, 297-303 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. G. White and A. Bittar, “Uniformity of quantum efficiency of single and trap-configured silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 30, 361-364 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

1986 (1)

S. B. Stetson, D. B. Reynolds, M. G. Stapelbroek, and R. L. Stermer, “Design and performance of blocked-impurity-band detector focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 686, 48-65 (1986).

Bittar, A.

M. G. White and A. Bittar, “Uniformity of quantum efficiency of single and trap-configured silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 30, 361-364 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bruce, S. S.

T. C. Larason and S. S. Bruce, “Spatial uniformity of responsivity for silicon, gallium nitride, germanium, and indium gallium arsenide photodiodes,” Metrologia 35, 491-496 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carter, A. C.

A. C. Carter, S. R. Lorentz, T. M. Jung, B. J. Klemme, and R. U. Datla, “NIST facility for spectral calibration of detectors: calibration of arsenic doped silicon blocked impurity band detectors,” Proc. SPIE 4028, 420 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cromer, C. L.

G. P. Eppeldauer, A. L. Migdall, and C. L. Cromer, “Characterization of a high sensitivity composite silicon bolometer,” Metrologia 30, 317 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Datla, R. U.

A. C. Carter, S. R. Lorentz, T. M. Jung, B. J. Klemme, and R. U. Datla, “NIST facility for spectral calibration of detectors: calibration of arsenic doped silicon blocked impurity band detectors,” Proc. SPIE 4028, 420 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. M. Zhang, L. M. Hanssen, and R. U. Datla, “High-optical-density out-of-band spectral transmittance measurements of bandpass filters,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1077-1079 (1995).

Eppeldauer, G.

Eppeldauer, G. P.

H. Gong, L. M. Hanssen, and G. P. Eppeldauer, “Spatial and angular responsivity measurements of photoconductive HgCdTe LWIR radiometers,” Metrologia 41, 161-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Eppeldauer, A. L. Migdall, and C. L. Cromer, “Characterization of a high sensitivity composite silicon bolometer,” Metrologia 30, 317 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, J.

F. Lei and J. Fischer, “Characterization of photodiodes in the UV and visible spectral region based on cryogenic radiometry,” Metrologia 30, 297-303 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fox, N. P.

N. P. Fox, T. R. Prior, E. Theocharous, and S. N. Mekhontsev, “Solid-state detectors for infrared radiometry,” Metrologia 32, 609-613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gaugue, A.

A. J. Kreisler and A. Gaugue, “Recent progress in high-temperature superconducting bolometric detectors: from the mid-infrared to the far-infrared (THz) range,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 13, 1235-1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Geist, J.

Gershenzon, E. M.

Yu. P. Gousev, G. N. Gol'tsman, A. D. Semenov, E. M. Gershenzon, R. S. Nebosis, M. A. Heusinger, and K. F. Renk, “Broadband ultrafast superconducting NbN detector for electromagnetic radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3695-3697 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gol'tsman, G. N.

R. Sobolewski, A. Verevkin, G. N. Gol'tsman, A. Lipatov, and K. Wilsher, “Ultrafast superconducting single-photon optical detectors and their applications,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 1151-1157 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu. P. Gousev, G. N. Gol'tsman, A. D. Semenov, E. M. Gershenzon, R. S. Nebosis, M. A. Heusinger, and K. F. Renk, “Broadband ultrafast superconducting NbN detector for electromagnetic radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3695-3697 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gong, H.

H. Gong, L. M. Hanssen, and G. P. Eppeldauer, “Spatial and angular responsivity measurements of photoconductive HgCdTe LWIR radiometers,” Metrologia 41, 161-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gousev, Yu. P.

Yu. P. Gousev, G. N. Gol'tsman, A. D. Semenov, E. M. Gershenzon, R. S. Nebosis, M. A. Heusinger, and K. F. Renk, “Broadband ultrafast superconducting NbN detector for electromagnetic radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3695-3697 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hanssen, L.

Hanssen, L. M.

H. Gong, L. M. Hanssen, and G. P. Eppeldauer, “Spatial and angular responsivity measurements of photoconductive HgCdTe LWIR radiometers,” Metrologia 41, 161-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Kaplan and L. M. Hanssen, “Silicon as a standard material for infrared reflectance and transmittance from 2 to 5 μm,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 43, 389-396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Kaplan and L. M. Hanssen, “Angle-dependent absolute infrared reflectance and transmittance measurements,” Proc. SPIE 4103, 75-84 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. M. Zhang, L. M. Hanssen, and R. U. Datla, “High-optical-density out-of-band spectral transmittance measurements of bandpass filters,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1077-1079 (1995).

L. M. Hanssen, “Effects of restricting the detector field of view when using integrating spheres,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2097-2103(1989).

Heusinger, M. A.

Yu. P. Gousev, G. N. Gol'tsman, A. D. Semenov, E. M. Gershenzon, R. S. Nebosis, M. A. Heusinger, and K. F. Renk, “Broadband ultrafast superconducting NbN detector for electromagnetic radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3695-3697 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jung, T. M.

A. C. Carter, S. R. Lorentz, T. M. Jung, B. J. Klemme, and R. U. Datla, “NIST facility for spectral calibration of detectors: calibration of arsenic doped silicon blocked impurity band detectors,” Proc. SPIE 4028, 420 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, S. G.

S. G. Kaplan and L. M. Hanssen, “Silicon as a standard material for infrared reflectance and transmittance from 2 to 5 μm,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 43, 389-396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Kaplan and L. M. Hanssen, “Angle-dependent absolute infrared reflectance and transmittance measurements,” Proc. SPIE 4103, 75-84 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Klemme, B. J.

A. C. Carter, S. R. Lorentz, T. M. Jung, B. J. Klemme, and R. U. Datla, “NIST facility for spectral calibration of detectors: calibration of arsenic doped silicon blocked impurity band detectors,” Proc. SPIE 4028, 420 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kreisler, A. J.

A. J. Kreisler and A. Gaugue, “Recent progress in high-temperature superconducting bolometric detectors: from the mid-infrared to the far-infrared (THz) range,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 13, 1235-1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Larason, T. C.

T. C. Larason and S. S. Bruce, “Spatial uniformity of responsivity for silicon, gallium nitride, germanium, and indium gallium arsenide photodiodes,” Metrologia 35, 491-496 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lei, F.

F. Lei and J. Fischer, “Characterization of photodiodes in the UV and visible spectral region based on cryogenic radiometry,” Metrologia 30, 297-303 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lipatov, A.

R. Sobolewski, A. Verevkin, G. N. Gol'tsman, A. Lipatov, and K. Wilsher, “Ultrafast superconducting single-photon optical detectors and their applications,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 1151-1157 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lorentz, S. R.

A. C. Carter, S. R. Lorentz, T. M. Jung, B. J. Klemme, and R. U. Datla, “NIST facility for spectral calibration of detectors: calibration of arsenic doped silicon blocked impurity band detectors,” Proc. SPIE 4028, 420 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mekhontsev, S. N.

N. P. Fox, T. R. Prior, E. Theocharous, and S. N. Mekhontsev, “Solid-state detectors for infrared radiometry,” Metrologia 32, 609-613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Migdall, A. L.

G. P. Eppeldauer, A. L. Migdall, and C. L. Cromer, “Characterization of a high sensitivity composite silicon bolometer,” Metrologia 30, 317 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nebosis, R. S.

Yu. P. Gousev, G. N. Gol'tsman, A. D. Semenov, E. M. Gershenzon, R. S. Nebosis, M. A. Heusinger, and K. F. Renk, “Broadband ultrafast superconducting NbN detector for electromagnetic radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3695-3697 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Prior, T. R.

N. P. Fox, T. R. Prior, E. Theocharous, and S. N. Mekhontsev, “Solid-state detectors for infrared radiometry,” Metrologia 32, 609-613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Racz, M.

Renk, K. F.

Yu. P. Gousev, G. N. Gol'tsman, A. D. Semenov, E. M. Gershenzon, R. S. Nebosis, M. A. Heusinger, and K. F. Renk, “Broadband ultrafast superconducting NbN detector for electromagnetic radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3695-3697 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, D. B.

S. B. Stetson, D. B. Reynolds, M. G. Stapelbroek, and R. L. Stermer, “Design and performance of blocked-impurity-band detector focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 686, 48-65 (1986).

Rogalski, A.

A. Rogalski, “Infrared detectors: an overview,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 43, 187-210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Semenov, A. D.

Yu. P. Gousev, G. N. Gol'tsman, A. D. Semenov, E. M. Gershenzon, R. S. Nebosis, M. A. Heusinger, and K. F. Renk, “Broadband ultrafast superconducting NbN detector for electromagnetic radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3695-3697 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sobolewski, R.

R. Sobolewski, A. Verevkin, G. N. Gol'tsman, A. Lipatov, and K. Wilsher, “Ultrafast superconducting single-photon optical detectors and their applications,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 1151-1157 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Springsteen, A.

A. Springsteen, “Reflectance spectroscopy: an overview of classification and techniques,” in Applied Spectroscopy: A Compact Reference for Practitioners, J. Workman, Jr., and A. Springsteen, eds. (Academic Press, 1998), pp. 194-224.

Stapelbroek, M. G.

S. B. Stetson, D. B. Reynolds, M. G. Stapelbroek, and R. L. Stermer, “Design and performance of blocked-impurity-band detector focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 686, 48-65 (1986).

Stermer, R. L.

S. B. Stetson, D. B. Reynolds, M. G. Stapelbroek, and R. L. Stermer, “Design and performance of blocked-impurity-band detector focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 686, 48-65 (1986).

Stetson, S. B.

S. B. Stetson, D. B. Reynolds, M. G. Stapelbroek, and R. L. Stermer, “Design and performance of blocked-impurity-band detector focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 686, 48-65 (1986).

Theocharous, E.

N. P. Fox, T. R. Prior, E. Theocharous, and S. N. Mekhontsev, “Solid-state detectors for infrared radiometry,” Metrologia 32, 609-613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Verevkin, A.

R. Sobolewski, A. Verevkin, G. N. Gol'tsman, A. Lipatov, and K. Wilsher, “Ultrafast superconducting single-photon optical detectors and their applications,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 1151-1157 (2003).
[CrossRef]

White, M. G.

M. G. White and A. Bittar, “Uniformity of quantum efficiency of single and trap-configured silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 30, 361-364 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wilsher, K.

R. Sobolewski, A. Verevkin, G. N. Gol'tsman, A. Lipatov, and K. Wilsher, “Ultrafast superconducting single-photon optical detectors and their applications,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 1151-1157 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. M.

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. (1)

R. Sobolewski, A. Verevkin, G. N. Gol'tsman, A. Lipatov, and K. Wilsher, “Ultrafast superconducting single-photon optical detectors and their applications,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13, 1151-1157 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (2)

S. G. Kaplan and L. M. Hanssen, “Silicon as a standard material for infrared reflectance and transmittance from 2 to 5 μm,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 43, 389-396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Rogalski, “Infrared detectors: an overview,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 43, 187-210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Yu. P. Gousev, G. N. Gol'tsman, A. D. Semenov, E. M. Gershenzon, R. S. Nebosis, M. A. Heusinger, and K. F. Renk, “Broadband ultrafast superconducting NbN detector for electromagnetic radiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3695-3697 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (6)

G. P. Eppeldauer, A. L. Migdall, and C. L. Cromer, “Characterization of a high sensitivity composite silicon bolometer,” Metrologia 30, 317 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Lei and J. Fischer, “Characterization of photodiodes in the UV and visible spectral region based on cryogenic radiometry,” Metrologia 30, 297-303 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. G. White and A. Bittar, “Uniformity of quantum efficiency of single and trap-configured silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 30, 361-364 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Larason and S. S. Bruce, “Spatial uniformity of responsivity for silicon, gallium nitride, germanium, and indium gallium arsenide photodiodes,” Metrologia 35, 491-496 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Gong, L. M. Hanssen, and G. P. Eppeldauer, “Spatial and angular responsivity measurements of photoconductive HgCdTe LWIR radiometers,” Metrologia 41, 161-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Fox, T. R. Prior, E. Theocharous, and S. N. Mekhontsev, “Solid-state detectors for infrared radiometry,” Metrologia 32, 609-613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (3)

S. B. Stetson, D. B. Reynolds, M. G. Stapelbroek, and R. L. Stermer, “Design and performance of blocked-impurity-band detector focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 686, 48-65 (1986).

A. C. Carter, S. R. Lorentz, T. M. Jung, B. J. Klemme, and R. U. Datla, “NIST facility for spectral calibration of detectors: calibration of arsenic doped silicon blocked impurity band detectors,” Proc. SPIE 4028, 420 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Kaplan and L. M. Hanssen, “Angle-dependent absolute infrared reflectance and transmittance measurements,” Proc. SPIE 4103, 75-84 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Supercond. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. J. Kreisler and A. Gaugue, “Recent progress in high-temperature superconducting bolometric detectors: from the mid-infrared to the far-infrared (THz) range,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 13, 1235-1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Springsteen, “Reflectance spectroscopy: an overview of classification and techniques,” in Applied Spectroscopy: A Compact Reference for Practitioners, J. Workman, Jr., and A. Springsteen, eds. (Academic Press, 1998), pp. 194-224.

The mention of certain trade names in this manuscript is for informational purposes only and not meant to imply endorsement by NIST or that the products described are necessarily the best suited for the purpose.

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