Abstract

We report the first experimental demonstration of a transmission-mode micromechanical beam steering device for use in standoff terahertz imaging and spectroscopy. The device was constructed by laminating laser-cut 96% alumina sheets to form two plates with interlocking rectangular gratings of 762μm period and was characterized at 94GHz in a free-space measurement setup with an automated elevation scan. Plate tilts as great as 6° deflected the transmitted beam by 6° for the transverse electric (TE) polarization and by 4° for the transverse magnetic polarization. Finite-difference time-domain simulations of the TE performance were in good agreement with the measurements.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. H. Austen, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284-286 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. H. Yang, P. L. Richards, and Y. R. Shen, “Generation of far-infrared radiation by picosecond light pulses in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 320-323 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, M. J. Evans, T. D. Drysdale, D. R. S. Cumming, and M. Missous, “Multi-channel homodyne detection of continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 034106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “3.4 THz quantum cascade laser operating above liquid nitrogen temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39, 915-916 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. J. Linden, W. R. Neal, J. Waldman, A. J. Gatesman, and A.Danylov, “Terahertz laser based standoff imaging system,” in Proceedings. 34th Applied Imagery and Pattern Recognition Workshop (IEEE, 2005), pp 8-15, .
  6. L. Brennan, “Angular accuracy of a phased array radar,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 9, 268-275 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. S. Kim, S. S. Lee, Y. Yee, J. U. Bu, C. G. Park, and M. H. Ha, “Large tilt angle electrostatic force actuated micro-mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 14, 1569-1571 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. D. Walsby, R. Cheung, R. J. Blaikie, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Fabrication of multilevel silicon diffractive lenses for terahertz frequencies,” Proc. SPIE 387979-87 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. D. Drysdale, R. J. Blaikie, H. M. H. Chong, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Artificial dielectric devices for variable polarization compensation at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 513072-3079 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. R. S. Cumming and T. D. Drysdale, “A micro-mechanical beam-steering device for terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Commun. 259, 373-377 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. D. Drysdale, G. Mills, S. M. Ferguson, R. J. Blaikie, and D.R.S. Cumming, “Terahertz tuneable filters made by self-releasing deep dry etch process,” Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 441446, (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. XFDTD, Remcom Inc., State College, Pa. 16801.
  13. C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory Analysis and Design (Wiley, 1982).

2006 (1)

D. R. S. Cumming and T. D. Drysdale, “A micro-mechanical beam-steering device for terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Commun. 259, 373-377 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, M. J. Evans, T. D. Drysdale, D. R. S. Cumming, and M. Missous, “Multi-channel homodyne detection of continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 034106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Linden, W. R. Neal, J. Waldman, A. J. Gatesman, and A.Danylov, “Terahertz laser based standoff imaging system,” in Proceedings. 34th Applied Imagery and Pattern Recognition Workshop (IEEE, 2005), pp 8-15, .

2004 (1)

T. D. Drysdale, G. Mills, S. M. Ferguson, R. J. Blaikie, and D.R.S. Cumming, “Terahertz tuneable filters made by self-releasing deep dry etch process,” Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 441446, (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

T. D. Drysdale, R. J. Blaikie, H. M. H. Chong, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Artificial dielectric devices for variable polarization compensation at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 513072-3079 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “3.4 THz quantum cascade laser operating above liquid nitrogen temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39, 915-916 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. S. Kim, S. S. Lee, Y. Yee, J. U. Bu, C. G. Park, and M. H. Ha, “Large tilt angle electrostatic force actuated micro-mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 14, 1569-1571 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

E. D. Walsby, R. Cheung, R. J. Blaikie, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Fabrication of multilevel silicon diffractive lenses for terahertz frequencies,” Proc. SPIE 387979-87 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. H. Austen, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284-286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory Analysis and Design (Wiley, 1982).

1971 (1)

K. H. Yang, P. L. Richards, and Y. R. Shen, “Generation of far-infrared radiation by picosecond light pulses in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 320-323 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

L. Brennan, “Angular accuracy of a phased array radar,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 9, 268-275 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Austen, D. H.

D. H. Austen, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284-286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Balanis, C. A.

C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory Analysis and Design (Wiley, 1982).

Blaikie, R. J.

T. D. Drysdale, G. Mills, S. M. Ferguson, R. J. Blaikie, and D.R.S. Cumming, “Terahertz tuneable filters made by self-releasing deep dry etch process,” Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 441446, (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Drysdale, R. J. Blaikie, H. M. H. Chong, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Artificial dielectric devices for variable polarization compensation at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 513072-3079 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Walsby, R. Cheung, R. J. Blaikie, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Fabrication of multilevel silicon diffractive lenses for terahertz frequencies,” Proc. SPIE 387979-87 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brennan, L.

L. Brennan, “Angular accuracy of a phased array radar,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 9, 268-275 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Bu, J. U.

T. S. Kim, S. S. Lee, Y. Yee, J. U. Bu, C. G. Park, and M. H. Ha, “Large tilt angle electrostatic force actuated micro-mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 14, 1569-1571 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Callebaut, H.

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “3.4 THz quantum cascade laser operating above liquid nitrogen temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39, 915-916 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, K. P.

D. H. Austen, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284-286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, R.

E. D. Walsby, R. Cheung, R. J. Blaikie, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Fabrication of multilevel silicon diffractive lenses for terahertz frequencies,” Proc. SPIE 387979-87 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chong, H. M. H.

T. D. Drysdale, R. J. Blaikie, H. M. H. Chong, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Artificial dielectric devices for variable polarization compensation at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 513072-3079 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cumming, D. R. S.

D. R. S. Cumming and T. D. Drysdale, “A micro-mechanical beam-steering device for terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Commun. 259, 373-377 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, M. J. Evans, T. D. Drysdale, D. R. S. Cumming, and M. Missous, “Multi-channel homodyne detection of continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 034106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Drysdale, R. J. Blaikie, H. M. H. Chong, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Artificial dielectric devices for variable polarization compensation at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 513072-3079 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Walsby, R. Cheung, R. J. Blaikie, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Fabrication of multilevel silicon diffractive lenses for terahertz frequencies,” Proc. SPIE 387979-87 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cumming, D. R.S.

T. D. Drysdale, G. Mills, S. M. Ferguson, R. J. Blaikie, and D.R.S. Cumming, “Terahertz tuneable filters made by self-releasing deep dry etch process,” Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 441446, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Danylov, A.

K. J. Linden, W. R. Neal, J. Waldman, A. J. Gatesman, and A.Danylov, “Terahertz laser based standoff imaging system,” in Proceedings. 34th Applied Imagery and Pattern Recognition Workshop (IEEE, 2005), pp 8-15, .

Drysdale, T. D.

D. R. S. Cumming and T. D. Drysdale, “A micro-mechanical beam-steering device for terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Commun. 259, 373-377 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, M. J. Evans, T. D. Drysdale, D. R. S. Cumming, and M. Missous, “Multi-channel homodyne detection of continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 034106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Drysdale, G. Mills, S. M. Ferguson, R. J. Blaikie, and D.R.S. Cumming, “Terahertz tuneable filters made by self-releasing deep dry etch process,” Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 441446, (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Drysdale, R. J. Blaikie, H. M. H. Chong, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Artificial dielectric devices for variable polarization compensation at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 513072-3079 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Evans, M. J.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, M. J. Evans, T. D. Drysdale, D. R. S. Cumming, and M. Missous, “Multi-channel homodyne detection of continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 034106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, S. M.

T. D. Drysdale, G. Mills, S. M. Ferguson, R. J. Blaikie, and D.R.S. Cumming, “Terahertz tuneable filters made by self-releasing deep dry etch process,” Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 441446, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gatesman, A. J.

K. J. Linden, W. R. Neal, J. Waldman, A. J. Gatesman, and A.Danylov, “Terahertz laser based standoff imaging system,” in Proceedings. 34th Applied Imagery and Pattern Recognition Workshop (IEEE, 2005), pp 8-15, .

Gregory, I. S.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, M. J. Evans, T. D. Drysdale, D. R. S. Cumming, and M. Missous, “Multi-channel homodyne detection of continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 034106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ha, M. H.

T. S. Kim, S. S. Lee, Y. Yee, J. U. Bu, C. G. Park, and M. H. Ha, “Large tilt angle electrostatic force actuated micro-mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 14, 1569-1571 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “3.4 THz quantum cascade laser operating above liquid nitrogen temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39, 915-916 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. S.

T. S. Kim, S. S. Lee, Y. Yee, J. U. Bu, C. G. Park, and M. H. Ha, “Large tilt angle electrostatic force actuated micro-mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 14, 1569-1571 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “3.4 THz quantum cascade laser operating above liquid nitrogen temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39, 915-916 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. S.

T. S. Kim, S. S. Lee, Y. Yee, J. U. Bu, C. G. Park, and M. H. Ha, “Large tilt angle electrostatic force actuated micro-mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 14, 1569-1571 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Linden, K. J.

K. J. Linden, W. R. Neal, J. Waldman, A. J. Gatesman, and A.Danylov, “Terahertz laser based standoff imaging system,” in Proceedings. 34th Applied Imagery and Pattern Recognition Workshop (IEEE, 2005), pp 8-15, .

Mills, G.

T. D. Drysdale, G. Mills, S. M. Ferguson, R. J. Blaikie, and D.R.S. Cumming, “Terahertz tuneable filters made by self-releasing deep dry etch process,” Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 441446, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Missous, M.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, M. J. Evans, T. D. Drysdale, D. R. S. Cumming, and M. Missous, “Multi-channel homodyne detection of continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 034106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Neal, W. R.

K. J. Linden, W. R. Neal, J. Waldman, A. J. Gatesman, and A.Danylov, “Terahertz laser based standoff imaging system,” in Proceedings. 34th Applied Imagery and Pattern Recognition Workshop (IEEE, 2005), pp 8-15, .

Park, C. G.

T. S. Kim, S. S. Lee, Y. Yee, J. U. Bu, C. G. Park, and M. H. Ha, “Large tilt angle electrostatic force actuated micro-mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 14, 1569-1571 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “3.4 THz quantum cascade laser operating above liquid nitrogen temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39, 915-916 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richards, P. L.

K. H. Yang, P. L. Richards, and Y. R. Shen, “Generation of far-infrared radiation by picosecond light pulses in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 320-323 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

K. H. Yang, P. L. Richards, and Y. R. Shen, “Generation of far-infrared radiation by picosecond light pulses in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 320-323 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. R.

D. H. Austen, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284-286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tribe, W. R.

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, M. J. Evans, T. D. Drysdale, D. R. S. Cumming, and M. Missous, “Multi-channel homodyne detection of continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 034106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Waldman, J.

K. J. Linden, W. R. Neal, J. Waldman, A. J. Gatesman, and A.Danylov, “Terahertz laser based standoff imaging system,” in Proceedings. 34th Applied Imagery and Pattern Recognition Workshop (IEEE, 2005), pp 8-15, .

Walsby, E. D.

E. D. Walsby, R. Cheung, R. J. Blaikie, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Fabrication of multilevel silicon diffractive lenses for terahertz frequencies,” Proc. SPIE 387979-87 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. S.

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “3.4 THz quantum cascade laser operating above liquid nitrogen temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39, 915-916 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K. H.

K. H. Yang, P. L. Richards, and Y. R. Shen, “Generation of far-infrared radiation by picosecond light pulses in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 320-323 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Yee, Y.

T. S. Kim, S. S. Lee, Y. Yee, J. U. Bu, C. G. Park, and M. H. Ha, “Large tilt angle electrostatic force actuated micro-mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 14, 1569-1571 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. H. Austen, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284-286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Yang, P. L. Richards, and Y. R. Shen, “Generation of far-infrared radiation by picosecond light pulses in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 320-323 (1971).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, M. J. Evans, T. D. Drysdale, D. R. S. Cumming, and M. Missous, “Multi-channel homodyne detection of continuous-wave terahertz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 034106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “3.4 THz quantum cascade laser operating above liquid nitrogen temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39, 915-916 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett (1)

T. S. Kim, S. S. Lee, Y. Yee, J. U. Bu, C. G. Park, and M. H. Ha, “Large tilt angle electrostatic force actuated micro-mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 14, 1569-1571 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (2)

T. D. Drysdale, R. J. Blaikie, H. M. H. Chong, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Artificial dielectric devices for variable polarization compensation at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 513072-3079 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Brennan, “Angular accuracy of a phased array radar,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 9, 268-275 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

T. D. Drysdale, G. Mills, S. M. Ferguson, R. J. Blaikie, and D.R.S. Cumming, “Terahertz tuneable filters made by self-releasing deep dry etch process,” Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 441446, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. R. S. Cumming and T. D. Drysdale, “A micro-mechanical beam-steering device for terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Commun. 259, 373-377 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

E. D. Walsby, R. Cheung, R. J. Blaikie, and D. R. S. Cumming, “Fabrication of multilevel silicon diffractive lenses for terahertz frequencies,” Proc. SPIE 387979-87 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

K. J. Linden, W. R. Neal, J. Waldman, A. J. Gatesman, and A.Danylov, “Terahertz laser based standoff imaging system,” in Proceedings. 34th Applied Imagery and Pattern Recognition Workshop (IEEE, 2005), pp 8-15, .

XFDTD, Remcom Inc., State College, Pa. 16801.

C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory Analysis and Design (Wiley, 1982).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of a section of the beam steering device: (a) side view, (b) front view (not to scale).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of the experimental setup, comprising an absorbing foam aperture upon which the beam steering device is placed, a Gunn diode continuous-wave source of 94 GHz illumination under the aperture, and a receiving horn on a rotation stage above the aperture. The axis of rotation of the receiving horn is located at the center of the beam steering device.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Lobe pattern of TM and TE with a 6 ° plate tilt.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Steering performance of the measured device as a function of relative plate tilt. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results are shown for the TE polarization, while discrete AF calculation results are shown for both polarizations.

Equations (1)

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T ( θ ) = 1 N m = 1 N A ( m ) e j ( k 0 m Δ z cos θ + α ( m ) + β ( z ) ) ,

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