Abstract

This paper describes the design and manufacture of a set of precision cooled (210K) narrow-bandpass filters for the infrared imager and sounder on the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) INSAT-3D meteorological satellite. We discuss the basis for the choice of multilayer coating designs and materials for 21 differing filter channels, together with their temperature-dependence, thin film deposition technologies, substrate metrology, and environmental durability performance.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. V. R. Katti, V. R. Pratap, R. K. Dave, and K. N. Mankad, “INSAT-3D--an advanced meteorological mission over Indian Ocean,” Proc SPIE 6407, 640709-1 (2006).
  2. J. E. Murphy-Morris and S. W. Hinkal, “GOES Sounder overview,” Proc SPIE 2812, 174-181 (1996).
  3. H. H. Li, “Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys Chem Reference Data 9, 561-658 (1980).
  4. M. Naselaris, “Double-sided lapping and polishing of optical materials,” Proc SPIE TD03, 118-120 (2005).
  5. R. Hunneman and G. J. Hawkins, “The manufacture and spectral assessment of the filters and antireflection coatings for use in the HIRDLS instrument,” Proc SPIE 3437, 378-390 (1998).
  6. ISRO Govt. of India, Space Applications Centre, “Procurement specifications for bandpass filters for INSAT imager and sounder,” SAC/EOSG/01/07/2003/13 (2003), otherwise unpublished.
  7. D. R. Gibson and C. Huiguang, “Plasma assisted deposition of precision optical coatings over extended areas,” in 45th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (2002), pp. 611-615.
  8. U. B. Schallenberg, “Antireflection design concepts with equivalent layers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1507-1514 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. S. Evans, R. Hunneman, J. S. Seeley, and A. Whatley, “Filters for v2 band of CO2: monitoring and control of layer deposition,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2736-2745 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. J. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, and B. M. Barrett, “Infrared filters and coatings for the high resolution dynamics limb sounder (6-18 μm),” Appl. Opt. 39, 5221-5230 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Ritter and R. Hoffmann, “Influence of substrate temperature on the condensation of vacuum evaporated films of MgF2 and ZnS,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. 6, 733-736 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Jacobs, “Dielectric square bandpass design,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1039-1042 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. S. Seeley, H. M. Liddell, and T. C. Chen, “Extraction of Tschebysheff design data for the lowpass dielectric multilayer,” Opt. Acta 20, 641-661 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. S. Seeley, R. Hunneman, and A. Whatley, “Temperature-invariant and other narrow-band IR filters containing PbTe, 4-20 μm,” Proc. SPIE 246, 83-94 (1980).
  15. A. M. Zheng, J. S. Seeley, R. Hunneman, and G. J. Hawkins, “Ultranarrow filters with good performance when tilted and cooled,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4336-4338 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, C. Deeley, and R. Spragg, “Achieving accurate FTIR measurements on high performance bandpass filters,” in Eleventh International Conference on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (American Institute of Physics, 1997), CP430, pp. 435-438.
  17. A. S. Filler, “Apodization and interpolation in Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 762 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Schade and Z. E. Smith, “Mie scattering and rough surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3221-3226 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. T. Blunt, “White light interferometry--a production worthy technique for measuring surface roughness on semiconductor wafers,” Proceedings of the CS MANTECH Conference, April 24-27, 2006.
  20. J. A. Ruffner, M. D. Himel, V. Mizrahi, G. L. Stegeman, and U. J. Gibson, “Effects of low substrate temperature and ion assisted deposition on composition, optical properties, and stress of ZnS thin films,” Appl. Opt. 28, 5209-5213 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. P.-F. Gu, Y. M. Chen, X.-Q. Hu, and J.-F. Tang, “Properties of dielectric coatings produced by ion assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3318-3322 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. T. Oh, “Broadband AR coatings on germanium substrates using ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4255-4259(1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

V. R. Katti, V. R. Pratap, R. K. Dave, and K. N. Mankad, “INSAT-3D--an advanced meteorological mission over Indian Ocean,” Proc SPIE 6407, 640709-1 (2006).

U. B. Schallenberg, “Antireflection design concepts with equivalent layers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1507-1514 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. Naselaris, “Double-sided lapping and polishing of optical materials,” Proc SPIE TD03, 118-120 (2005).

2003 (1)

ISRO Govt. of India, Space Applications Centre, “Procurement specifications for bandpass filters for INSAT imager and sounder,” SAC/EOSG/01/07/2003/13 (2003), otherwise unpublished.

2002 (1)

D. R. Gibson and C. Huiguang, “Plasma assisted deposition of precision optical coatings over extended areas,” in 45th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (2002), pp. 611-615.

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

R. Hunneman and G. J. Hawkins, “The manufacture and spectral assessment of the filters and antireflection coatings for use in the HIRDLS instrument,” Proc SPIE 3437, 378-390 (1998).

1997 (1)

R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, C. Deeley, and R. Spragg, “Achieving accurate FTIR measurements on high performance bandpass filters,” in Eleventh International Conference on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (American Institute of Physics, 1997), CP430, pp. 435-438.

1996 (1)

J. E. Murphy-Morris and S. W. Hinkal, “GOES Sounder overview,” Proc SPIE 2812, 174-181 (1996).

1992 (1)

1989 (2)

1988 (1)

1985 (1)

1981 (1)

1980 (2)

H. H. Li, “Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys Chem Reference Data 9, 561-658 (1980).

J. S. Seeley, R. Hunneman, and A. Whatley, “Temperature-invariant and other narrow-band IR filters containing PbTe, 4-20 μm,” Proc. SPIE 246, 83-94 (1980).

1976 (1)

1973 (1)

J. S. Seeley, H. M. Liddell, and T. C. Chen, “Extraction of Tschebysheff design data for the lowpass dielectric multilayer,” Opt. Acta 20, 641-661 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

E. Ritter and R. Hoffmann, “Influence of substrate temperature on the condensation of vacuum evaporated films of MgF2 and ZnS,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. 6, 733-736 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

Barrett, B. M.

Blunt, R. T.

R. T. Blunt, “White light interferometry--a production worthy technique for measuring surface roughness on semiconductor wafers,” Proceedings of the CS MANTECH Conference, April 24-27, 2006.

Chen, T. C.

J. S. Seeley, H. M. Liddell, and T. C. Chen, “Extraction of Tschebysheff design data for the lowpass dielectric multilayer,” Opt. Acta 20, 641-661 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. M.

Dave, R. K.

V. R. Katti, V. R. Pratap, R. K. Dave, and K. N. Mankad, “INSAT-3D--an advanced meteorological mission over Indian Ocean,” Proc SPIE 6407, 640709-1 (2006).

Deeley, C.

R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, C. Deeley, and R. Spragg, “Achieving accurate FTIR measurements on high performance bandpass filters,” in Eleventh International Conference on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (American Institute of Physics, 1997), CP430, pp. 435-438.

Evans, C. S.

Filler, A. S.

Gibson, D. R.

D. R. Gibson and C. Huiguang, “Plasma assisted deposition of precision optical coatings over extended areas,” in 45th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (2002), pp. 611-615.

Gibson, U. J.

Gu, P.-F.

Hawkins, G. J.

Himel, M. D.

Hinkal, S. W.

J. E. Murphy-Morris and S. W. Hinkal, “GOES Sounder overview,” Proc SPIE 2812, 174-181 (1996).

Hoffmann, R.

E. Ritter and R. Hoffmann, “Influence of substrate temperature on the condensation of vacuum evaporated films of MgF2 and ZnS,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. 6, 733-736 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.-Q.

Huiguang, C.

D. R. Gibson and C. Huiguang, “Plasma assisted deposition of precision optical coatings over extended areas,” in 45th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (2002), pp. 611-615.

Hunneman, R.

G. J. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, and B. M. Barrett, “Infrared filters and coatings for the high resolution dynamics limb sounder (6-18 μm),” Appl. Opt. 39, 5221-5230 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Hunneman and G. J. Hawkins, “The manufacture and spectral assessment of the filters and antireflection coatings for use in the HIRDLS instrument,” Proc SPIE 3437, 378-390 (1998).

R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, C. Deeley, and R. Spragg, “Achieving accurate FTIR measurements on high performance bandpass filters,” in Eleventh International Conference on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (American Institute of Physics, 1997), CP430, pp. 435-438.

A. M. Zheng, J. S. Seeley, R. Hunneman, and G. J. Hawkins, “Ultranarrow filters with good performance when tilted and cooled,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4336-4338 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Seeley, R. Hunneman, and A. Whatley, “Temperature-invariant and other narrow-band IR filters containing PbTe, 4-20 μm,” Proc. SPIE 246, 83-94 (1980).

C. S. Evans, R. Hunneman, J. S. Seeley, and A. Whatley, “Filters for v2 band of CO2: monitoring and control of layer deposition,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2736-2745 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobs, C.

Katti, V. R.

V. R. Katti, V. R. Pratap, R. K. Dave, and K. N. Mankad, “INSAT-3D--an advanced meteorological mission over Indian Ocean,” Proc SPIE 6407, 640709-1 (2006).

Li, H.

H. H. Li, “Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys Chem Reference Data 9, 561-658 (1980).

Liddell, H. M.

J. S. Seeley, H. M. Liddell, and T. C. Chen, “Extraction of Tschebysheff design data for the lowpass dielectric multilayer,” Opt. Acta 20, 641-661 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Mankad, K. N.

V. R. Katti, V. R. Pratap, R. K. Dave, and K. N. Mankad, “INSAT-3D--an advanced meteorological mission over Indian Ocean,” Proc SPIE 6407, 640709-1 (2006).

Mizrahi, V.

Murphy-Morris, J. E.

J. E. Murphy-Morris and S. W. Hinkal, “GOES Sounder overview,” Proc SPIE 2812, 174-181 (1996).

Naselaris, M.

M. Naselaris, “Double-sided lapping and polishing of optical materials,” Proc SPIE TD03, 118-120 (2005).

Oh, T.

Pratap, V. R.

V. R. Katti, V. R. Pratap, R. K. Dave, and K. N. Mankad, “INSAT-3D--an advanced meteorological mission over Indian Ocean,” Proc SPIE 6407, 640709-1 (2006).

Ritter, E.

E. Ritter and R. Hoffmann, “Influence of substrate temperature on the condensation of vacuum evaporated films of MgF2 and ZnS,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. 6, 733-736 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Ruffner, J. A.

Schade, H.

Schallenberg, U. B.

Seeley, J. S.

A. M. Zheng, J. S. Seeley, R. Hunneman, and G. J. Hawkins, “Ultranarrow filters with good performance when tilted and cooled,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4336-4338 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Seeley, R. Hunneman, and A. Whatley, “Temperature-invariant and other narrow-band IR filters containing PbTe, 4-20 μm,” Proc. SPIE 246, 83-94 (1980).

C. S. Evans, R. Hunneman, J. S. Seeley, and A. Whatley, “Filters for v2 band of CO2: monitoring and control of layer deposition,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2736-2745 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Seeley, H. M. Liddell, and T. C. Chen, “Extraction of Tschebysheff design data for the lowpass dielectric multilayer,” Opt. Acta 20, 641-661 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Sherwood, R.

G. J. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, and B. M. Barrett, “Infrared filters and coatings for the high resolution dynamics limb sounder (6-18 μm),” Appl. Opt. 39, 5221-5230 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, C. Deeley, and R. Spragg, “Achieving accurate FTIR measurements on high performance bandpass filters,” in Eleventh International Conference on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (American Institute of Physics, 1997), CP430, pp. 435-438.

Smith, Z. E.

Spragg, R.

R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, C. Deeley, and R. Spragg, “Achieving accurate FTIR measurements on high performance bandpass filters,” in Eleventh International Conference on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (American Institute of Physics, 1997), CP430, pp. 435-438.

Stegeman, G. L.

Tang, J.-F.

Whatley, A.

J. S. Seeley, R. Hunneman, and A. Whatley, “Temperature-invariant and other narrow-band IR filters containing PbTe, 4-20 μm,” Proc. SPIE 246, 83-94 (1980).

C. S. Evans, R. Hunneman, J. S. Seeley, and A. Whatley, “Filters for v2 band of CO2: monitoring and control of layer deposition,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2736-2745 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, A. M.

Appl. Opt. (9)

C. S. Evans, R. Hunneman, J. S. Seeley, and A. Whatley, “Filters for v2 band of CO2: monitoring and control of layer deposition,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2736-2745 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jacobs, “Dielectric square bandpass design,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1039-1042 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schade and Z. E. Smith, “Mie scattering and rough surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3221-3226 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Oh, “Broadband AR coatings on germanium substrates using ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4255-4259(1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-F. Gu, Y. M. Chen, X.-Q. Hu, and J.-F. Tang, “Properties of dielectric coatings produced by ion assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3318-3322 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Ruffner, M. D. Himel, V. Mizrahi, G. L. Stegeman, and U. J. Gibson, “Effects of low substrate temperature and ion assisted deposition on composition, optical properties, and stress of ZnS thin films,” Appl. Opt. 28, 5209-5213 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, and B. M. Barrett, “Infrared filters and coatings for the high resolution dynamics limb sounder (6-18 μm),” Appl. Opt. 39, 5221-5230 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. B. Schallenberg, “Antireflection design concepts with equivalent layers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1507-1514 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zheng, J. S. Seeley, R. Hunneman, and G. J. Hawkins, “Ultranarrow filters with good performance when tilted and cooled,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4336-4338 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys Chem Reference Data (1)

H. H. Li, “Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys Chem Reference Data 9, 561-658 (1980).

J. Vac. Sci. Tech. (1)

E. Ritter and R. Hoffmann, “Influence of substrate temperature on the condensation of vacuum evaporated films of MgF2 and ZnS,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. 6, 733-736 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

J. S. Seeley, H. M. Liddell, and T. C. Chen, “Extraction of Tschebysheff design data for the lowpass dielectric multilayer,” Opt. Acta 20, 641-661 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Proc SPIE (4)

M. Naselaris, “Double-sided lapping and polishing of optical materials,” Proc SPIE TD03, 118-120 (2005).

R. Hunneman and G. J. Hawkins, “The manufacture and spectral assessment of the filters and antireflection coatings for use in the HIRDLS instrument,” Proc SPIE 3437, 378-390 (1998).

V. R. Katti, V. R. Pratap, R. K. Dave, and K. N. Mankad, “INSAT-3D--an advanced meteorological mission over Indian Ocean,” Proc SPIE 6407, 640709-1 (2006).

J. E. Murphy-Morris and S. W. Hinkal, “GOES Sounder overview,” Proc SPIE 2812, 174-181 (1996).

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. S. Seeley, R. Hunneman, and A. Whatley, “Temperature-invariant and other narrow-band IR filters containing PbTe, 4-20 μm,” Proc. SPIE 246, 83-94 (1980).

Other (4)

R. Hunneman, R. Sherwood, C. Deeley, and R. Spragg, “Achieving accurate FTIR measurements on high performance bandpass filters,” in Eleventh International Conference on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (American Institute of Physics, 1997), CP430, pp. 435-438.

R. T. Blunt, “White light interferometry--a production worthy technique for measuring surface roughness on semiconductor wafers,” Proceedings of the CS MANTECH Conference, April 24-27, 2006.

ISRO Govt. of India, Space Applications Centre, “Procurement specifications for bandpass filters for INSAT imager and sounder,” SAC/EOSG/01/07/2003/13 (2003), otherwise unpublished.

D. R. Gibson and C. Huiguang, “Plasma assisted deposition of precision optical coatings over extended areas,” in 45th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (2002), pp. 611-615.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical schematic of INSAT-3D Sounder.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Filter wheel arrangement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Folded spectral and detector response of the optical train.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured imager visible and NIR filters at 15 ° C .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured temperature coefficient ( d λ / d T ) of mixed cavity SWIR filters.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured SWIR narrowband filters at 210 K operating temperature.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured MWIR narrowband filters at 210 K operating temperature.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured LWIR narrowband filters at 210 K operating temperature.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured center wavelength shift ( d λ / d T ) of MWIR and LWIR filters versus temperature (K) for differing cavity thickness order (from substrate ( n s ), 2 = λ / 2 , 4 = λ , 6 = 3 / 2 λ ).

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 INSAT-3D Spectral Channel Requirements at Filter Operating Temperatures

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured Dimensional Properties of SWIR, MWIR, and LWIR Germanium Substrates

Tables Icon

Table 3 Measured Reflected Wave Front (RWF) Irregularity (λ at 632.8 nm )

Tables Icon

Table 4 Measured Reflected Wave Front (RWF) Irregularity (λ at 632.8 nm )

Tables Icon

Table 5 Measured Transmitted Wave Front (TWF) Irregularity (λ at 632.8 nm )

Tables Icon

Table 6 Average Passband Measurements from Six Compliant Flight-quality Filters

Metrics