Abstract

Solar occultation in the infrared, part of the Spectoscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Venus (SPICAV) instrument onboard Venus Express, combines an echelle grating spectrometer with an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). It performs solar occultation measurements in the IR region at high spectral resolution. The wavelength range probed allows a detailed chemical inventory of Venus’s atmosphere above the cloud layer, highlighting the vertical distribution of gases. A general description of the instrument and its in-flight performance is given. Different calibrations and data corrections are investigated, in particular the dark current and thermal background, the nonlinearity and pixel-to-pixel variability of the detector, the sensitivity of the instrument, the AOTF properties, and the spectral calibration and resolution.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. L. Bertaux, D. Nevejans, O. Korablev, E. Villard, E. Quémerais, E. Neefs, F. Montmessin, F. Leblanc, J. P. Dubois, and E. Dimarellis, “SPICAV on Venus Express: three spectrometers to study the global structure and composition of the Venus atmosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1673-1700 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. V. Titov, H. Svedhem, D. Koschny, R. Hoofs, S. Barabash, J.-L. Bertaux, P. Drossart, V. Formisano, B. Häusler, O. Korablev, W. J. Markiewicz, D. Nevejans, M. Pätzold, G. Piccioni, T. L. Zhang, D. Merritt, O. Witasse, J. Zender, A. Accomazzo, and M. Sweeney, “Venus Express science planning,” Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1279-1297 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Nevejans, E. Neefs, E. Van Ransbeeck, S. Berkenbosch, R. Clairquin, L. De Vos, W. Moelans, S. Glorieux, A. Baeke, O. Korablev, I. Vinogradov, Y. Kalinnikov, B. Bach, J.-P. Dubois, and E. Villard, “Compact high-resolution space-borne echelle grating spectrometer with AOTF based on order sorting for the infrared domain from 2.2 to 4.3 micrometer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5191-5206 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. C. Vandaele, M. De Mazière, R. Drummond, A. Mahieux, E. Neefs, V. Wilquet, D. Belayev, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, F. Montmessin, and J.-L. Bertaux are preparing a manuscript to be called “Composition of the Venus mesosphere measured by SOIR onboard Venus Express.”
  6. C.-C. Hsieh, C.-Y. Wu, F.-W. Jih, and T.-P. Sun, “Focal-plane-arrays and CMOS readout techniques of infrared imaging systems,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 7, 594-605 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. C. Chang, “Acousto-optic tunable filters,” in Acousto-Optic Signal Processing: Theory and Implementation, N. Berg and J. Pellegrino, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 1996).
  8. N. Uchida, “Optical properties of single-crystal paratellurite (TeO2),” Phys. Rev. B 4, 3736-3745 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Yano and A. Watanabe, “Acoustooptic TeO2 tunable filter using far-off-axis anisotropic Bragg diffraction,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2250-2258 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. Hase, P. Demoulin, A. J. Sauval, G. C. Toon, P. F. Bernath, A. Goldman, J. W. Hannigan, and C. P. Rinsland, “An empirical line-by-line model for the infrared solar transmittance spectrum from 700 to 5000 cm−1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 102, 450-463 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, V. Wilquet, F. Montmessin, R. Dahoo, E. Villard, O. Korablev, and A. Fedorova, “First observation of 628 CO2 isotopologue band at 3.3 μm in the atmosphere of Venus by solar occultation from Venus Express,” Icarus (2007), doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2008.01.001.
  12. V. Wilquet, A. Mahieux, A. C. Vandaele, V. I. Perevalov, S. A. Tashkun, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, F. Montmessin, R. Dahoo, and J.-L. Bertaux, “Line parameters for the 01111-00001 band of C12O16O18 from SOIR measurements of the Venus atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 895-905 (2008).
  13. V. Wilquet, A. Mahieux, A. C. Vandaele, F. Montmessin, O. Korablev, A. Fedorova, and J.-L. Bertaux, “Characterization of the upper Venusian haze from UV to mid-IR by SPICAV/SOIR on Venus Express,” J. Geophys. Res. (2008).
  14. J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, O. Korablev, E. Villard, A. Fedorova, D. Fussen, E. Quémerais, D. Beliaev, A. Mahieux, F. Montmessin, C. Müller, E. Neefs, D. Nevejans, V. Wilquet, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, A. Stepanov, I. Vinogradov, R. A., and a. t. S. team, “A warm layer in Venus'cryosphere and high altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO,” Nature 450, 646-649, doi:10.1038/nature05974 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

V. Wilquet, A. Mahieux, A. C. Vandaele, V. I. Perevalov, S. A. Tashkun, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, F. Montmessin, R. Dahoo, and J.-L. Bertaux, “Line parameters for the 01111-00001 band of C12O16O18 from SOIR measurements of the Venus atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 895-905 (2008).

V. Wilquet, A. Mahieux, A. C. Vandaele, F. Montmessin, O. Korablev, A. Fedorova, and J.-L. Bertaux, “Characterization of the upper Venusian haze from UV to mid-IR by SPICAV/SOIR on Venus Express,” J. Geophys. Res. (2008).

2007

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, O. Korablev, E. Villard, A. Fedorova, D. Fussen, E. Quémerais, D. Beliaev, A. Mahieux, F. Montmessin, C. Müller, E. Neefs, D. Nevejans, V. Wilquet, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, A. Stepanov, I. Vinogradov, R. A., and a. t. S. team, “A warm layer in Venus'cryosphere and high altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO,” Nature 450, 646-649, doi:10.1038/nature05974 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Bertaux, D. Nevejans, O. Korablev, E. Villard, E. Quémerais, E. Neefs, F. Montmessin, F. Leblanc, J. P. Dubois, and E. Dimarellis, “SPICAV on Venus Express: three spectrometers to study the global structure and composition of the Venus atmosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1673-1700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, V. Wilquet, F. Montmessin, R. Dahoo, E. Villard, O. Korablev, and A. Fedorova, “First observation of 628 CO2 isotopologue band at 3.3 μm in the atmosphere of Venus by solar occultation from Venus Express,” Icarus (2007), doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2008.01.001.

2006

F. Hase, P. Demoulin, A. J. Sauval, G. C. Toon, P. F. Bernath, A. Goldman, J. W. Hannigan, and C. P. Rinsland, “An empirical line-by-line model for the infrared solar transmittance spectrum from 700 to 5000 cm−1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 102, 450-463 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Titov, H. Svedhem, D. Koschny, R. Hoofs, S. Barabash, J.-L. Bertaux, P. Drossart, V. Formisano, B. Häusler, O. Korablev, W. J. Markiewicz, D. Nevejans, M. Pätzold, G. Piccioni, T. L. Zhang, D. Merritt, O. Witasse, J. Zender, A. Accomazzo, and M. Sweeney, “Venus Express science planning,” Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1279-1297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Nevejans, E. Neefs, E. Van Ransbeeck, S. Berkenbosch, R. Clairquin, L. De Vos, W. Moelans, S. Glorieux, A. Baeke, O. Korablev, I. Vinogradov, Y. Kalinnikov, B. Bach, J.-P. Dubois, and E. Villard, “Compact high-resolution space-borne echelle grating spectrometer with AOTF based on order sorting for the infrared domain from 2.2 to 4.3 micrometer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5191-5206 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

C.-C. Hsieh, C.-Y. Wu, F.-W. Jih, and T.-P. Sun, “Focal-plane-arrays and CMOS readout techniques of infrared imaging systems,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 7, 594-605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

I. C. Chang, “Acousto-optic tunable filters,” in Acousto-Optic Signal Processing: Theory and Implementation, N. Berg and J. Pellegrino, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 1996).

1976

1971

N. Uchida, “Optical properties of single-crystal paratellurite (TeO2),” Phys. Rev. B 4, 3736-3745 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Accomazzo, A.

D. V. Titov, H. Svedhem, D. Koschny, R. Hoofs, S. Barabash, J.-L. Bertaux, P. Drossart, V. Formisano, B. Häusler, O. Korablev, W. J. Markiewicz, D. Nevejans, M. Pätzold, G. Piccioni, T. L. Zhang, D. Merritt, O. Witasse, J. Zender, A. Accomazzo, and M. Sweeney, “Venus Express science planning,” Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1279-1297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bach, B.

Baeke, A.

Barabash, S.

D. V. Titov, H. Svedhem, D. Koschny, R. Hoofs, S. Barabash, J.-L. Bertaux, P. Drossart, V. Formisano, B. Häusler, O. Korablev, W. J. Markiewicz, D. Nevejans, M. Pätzold, G. Piccioni, T. L. Zhang, D. Merritt, O. Witasse, J. Zender, A. Accomazzo, and M. Sweeney, “Venus Express science planning,” Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1279-1297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Belayev, D.

A. C. Vandaele, M. De Mazière, R. Drummond, A. Mahieux, E. Neefs, V. Wilquet, D. Belayev, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, F. Montmessin, and J.-L. Bertaux are preparing a manuscript to be called “Composition of the Venus mesosphere measured by SOIR onboard Venus Express.”

Beliaev, D.

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, O. Korablev, E. Villard, A. Fedorova, D. Fussen, E. Quémerais, D. Beliaev, A. Mahieux, F. Montmessin, C. Müller, E. Neefs, D. Nevejans, V. Wilquet, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, A. Stepanov, I. Vinogradov, R. A., and a. t. S. team, “A warm layer in Venus'cryosphere and high altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO,” Nature 450, 646-649, doi:10.1038/nature05974 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berkenbosch, S.

Bernath, P. F.

F. Hase, P. Demoulin, A. J. Sauval, G. C. Toon, P. F. Bernath, A. Goldman, J. W. Hannigan, and C. P. Rinsland, “An empirical line-by-line model for the infrared solar transmittance spectrum from 700 to 5000 cm−1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 102, 450-463 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bertaux, J. L.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Nevejans, O. Korablev, E. Villard, E. Quémerais, E. Neefs, F. Montmessin, F. Leblanc, J. P. Dubois, and E. Dimarellis, “SPICAV on Venus Express: three spectrometers to study the global structure and composition of the Venus atmosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1673-1700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bertaux, J.-L.

V. Wilquet, A. Mahieux, A. C. Vandaele, V. I. Perevalov, S. A. Tashkun, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, F. Montmessin, R. Dahoo, and J.-L. Bertaux, “Line parameters for the 01111-00001 band of C12O16O18 from SOIR measurements of the Venus atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 895-905 (2008).

V. Wilquet, A. Mahieux, A. C. Vandaele, F. Montmessin, O. Korablev, A. Fedorova, and J.-L. Bertaux, “Characterization of the upper Venusian haze from UV to mid-IR by SPICAV/SOIR on Venus Express,” J. Geophys. Res. (2008).

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, O. Korablev, E. Villard, A. Fedorova, D. Fussen, E. Quémerais, D. Beliaev, A. Mahieux, F. Montmessin, C. Müller, E. Neefs, D. Nevejans, V. Wilquet, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, A. Stepanov, I. Vinogradov, R. A., and a. t. S. team, “A warm layer in Venus'cryosphere and high altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO,” Nature 450, 646-649, doi:10.1038/nature05974 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, V. Wilquet, F. Montmessin, R. Dahoo, E. Villard, O. Korablev, and A. Fedorova, “First observation of 628 CO2 isotopologue band at 3.3 μm in the atmosphere of Venus by solar occultation from Venus Express,” Icarus (2007), doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2008.01.001.

D. V. Titov, H. Svedhem, D. Koschny, R. Hoofs, S. Barabash, J.-L. Bertaux, P. Drossart, V. Formisano, B. Häusler, O. Korablev, W. J. Markiewicz, D. Nevejans, M. Pätzold, G. Piccioni, T. L. Zhang, D. Merritt, O. Witasse, J. Zender, A. Accomazzo, and M. Sweeney, “Venus Express science planning,” Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1279-1297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, M. De Mazière, R. Drummond, A. Mahieux, E. Neefs, V. Wilquet, D. Belayev, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, F. Montmessin, and J.-L. Bertaux are preparing a manuscript to be called “Composition of the Venus mesosphere measured by SOIR onboard Venus Express.”

Cabane, M.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cernogora, G.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, I. C.

I. C. Chang, “Acousto-optic tunable filters,” in Acousto-Optic Signal Processing: Theory and Implementation, N. Berg and J. Pellegrino, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 1996).

Chassefière, E.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Clairquin, R.

Dahoo, R.

V. Wilquet, A. Mahieux, A. C. Vandaele, V. I. Perevalov, S. A. Tashkun, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, F. Montmessin, R. Dahoo, and J.-L. Bertaux, “Line parameters for the 01111-00001 band of C12O16O18 from SOIR measurements of the Venus atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 895-905 (2008).

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, V. Wilquet, F. Montmessin, R. Dahoo, E. Villard, O. Korablev, and A. Fedorova, “First observation of 628 CO2 isotopologue band at 3.3 μm in the atmosphere of Venus by solar occultation from Venus Express,” Icarus (2007), doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2008.01.001.

De Mazière, M.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, M. De Mazière, R. Drummond, A. Mahieux, E. Neefs, V. Wilquet, D. Belayev, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, F. Montmessin, and J.-L. Bertaux are preparing a manuscript to be called “Composition of the Venus mesosphere measured by SOIR onboard Venus Express.”

De Vos, L.

Demoulin, P.

F. Hase, P. Demoulin, A. J. Sauval, G. C. Toon, P. F. Bernath, A. Goldman, J. W. Hannigan, and C. P. Rinsland, “An empirical line-by-line model for the infrared solar transmittance spectrum from 700 to 5000 cm−1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 102, 450-463 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dimarellis, E.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Nevejans, O. Korablev, E. Villard, E. Quémerais, E. Neefs, F. Montmessin, F. Leblanc, J. P. Dubois, and E. Dimarellis, “SPICAV on Venus Express: three spectrometers to study the global structure and composition of the Venus atmosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1673-1700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Drossart, P.

D. V. Titov, H. Svedhem, D. Koschny, R. Hoofs, S. Barabash, J.-L. Bertaux, P. Drossart, V. Formisano, B. Häusler, O. Korablev, W. J. Markiewicz, D. Nevejans, M. Pätzold, G. Piccioni, T. L. Zhang, D. Merritt, O. Witasse, J. Zender, A. Accomazzo, and M. Sweeney, “Venus Express science planning,” Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1279-1297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Drummond, R.

A. C. Vandaele, M. De Mazière, R. Drummond, A. Mahieux, E. Neefs, V. Wilquet, D. Belayev, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, F. Montmessin, and J.-L. Bertaux are preparing a manuscript to be called “Composition of the Venus mesosphere measured by SOIR onboard Venus Express.”

Dubois, J. P.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Nevejans, O. Korablev, E. Villard, E. Quémerais, E. Neefs, F. Montmessin, F. Leblanc, J. P. Dubois, and E. Dimarellis, “SPICAV on Venus Express: three spectrometers to study the global structure and composition of the Venus atmosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1673-1700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, O. Korablev, E. Villard, A. Fedorova, D. Fussen, E. Quémerais, D. Beliaev, A. Mahieux, F. Montmessin, C. Müller, E. Neefs, D. Nevejans, V. Wilquet, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, A. Stepanov, I. Vinogradov, R. A., and a. t. S. team, “A warm layer in Venus'cryosphere and high altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO,” Nature 450, 646-649, doi:10.1038/nature05974 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dubois, J.-P.

Fedorova, A.

V. Wilquet, A. Mahieux, A. C. Vandaele, F. Montmessin, O. Korablev, A. Fedorova, and J.-L. Bertaux, “Characterization of the upper Venusian haze from UV to mid-IR by SPICAV/SOIR on Venus Express,” J. Geophys. Res. (2008).

V. Wilquet, A. Mahieux, A. C. Vandaele, V. I. Perevalov, S. A. Tashkun, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, F. Montmessin, R. Dahoo, and J.-L. Bertaux, “Line parameters for the 01111-00001 band of C12O16O18 from SOIR measurements of the Venus atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 895-905 (2008).

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, O. Korablev, E. Villard, A. Fedorova, D. Fussen, E. Quémerais, D. Beliaev, A. Mahieux, F. Montmessin, C. Müller, E. Neefs, D. Nevejans, V. Wilquet, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, A. Stepanov, I. Vinogradov, R. A., and a. t. S. team, “A warm layer in Venus'cryosphere and high altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO,” Nature 450, 646-649, doi:10.1038/nature05974 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, V. Wilquet, F. Montmessin, R. Dahoo, E. Villard, O. Korablev, and A. Fedorova, “First observation of 628 CO2 isotopologue band at 3.3 μm in the atmosphere of Venus by solar occultation from Venus Express,” Icarus (2007), doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2008.01.001.

A. C. Vandaele, M. De Mazière, R. Drummond, A. Mahieux, E. Neefs, V. Wilquet, D. Belayev, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, F. Montmessin, and J.-L. Bertaux are preparing a manuscript to be called “Composition of the Venus mesosphere measured by SOIR onboard Venus Express.”

Fonteyn, D.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Forget, F.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Formisano, V.

D. V. Titov, H. Svedhem, D. Koschny, R. Hoofs, S. Barabash, J.-L. Bertaux, P. Drossart, V. Formisano, B. Häusler, O. Korablev, W. J. Markiewicz, D. Nevejans, M. Pätzold, G. Piccioni, T. L. Zhang, D. Merritt, O. Witasse, J. Zender, A. Accomazzo, and M. Sweeney, “Venus Express science planning,” Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1279-1297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fussen, D.

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, O. Korablev, E. Villard, A. Fedorova, D. Fussen, E. Quémerais, D. Beliaev, A. Mahieux, F. Montmessin, C. Müller, E. Neefs, D. Nevejans, V. Wilquet, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, A. Stepanov, I. Vinogradov, R. A., and a. t. S. team, “A warm layer in Venus'cryosphere and high altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO,” Nature 450, 646-649, doi:10.1038/nature05974 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glorieux, S.

Goldman, A.

F. Hase, P. Demoulin, A. J. Sauval, G. C. Toon, P. F. Bernath, A. Goldman, J. W. Hannigan, and C. P. Rinsland, “An empirical line-by-line model for the infrared solar transmittance spectrum from 700 to 5000 cm−1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 102, 450-463 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hannigan, J. W.

F. Hase, P. Demoulin, A. J. Sauval, G. C. Toon, P. F. Bernath, A. Goldman, J. W. Hannigan, and C. P. Rinsland, “An empirical line-by-line model for the infrared solar transmittance spectrum from 700 to 5000 cm−1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 102, 450-463 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hase, F.

F. Hase, P. Demoulin, A. J. Sauval, G. C. Toon, P. F. Bernath, A. Goldman, J. W. Hannigan, and C. P. Rinsland, “An empirical line-by-line model for the infrared solar transmittance spectrum from 700 to 5000 cm−1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 102, 450-463 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hauchecorne, A.

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, O. Korablev, E. Villard, A. Fedorova, D. Fussen, E. Quémerais, D. Beliaev, A. Mahieux, F. Montmessin, C. Müller, E. Neefs, D. Nevejans, V. Wilquet, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, A. Stepanov, I. Vinogradov, R. A., and a. t. S. team, “A warm layer in Venus'cryosphere and high altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO,” Nature 450, 646-649, doi:10.1038/nature05974 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Häusler, B.

D. V. Titov, H. Svedhem, D. Koschny, R. Hoofs, S. Barabash, J.-L. Bertaux, P. Drossart, V. Formisano, B. Häusler, O. Korablev, W. J. Markiewicz, D. Nevejans, M. Pätzold, G. Piccioni, T. L. Zhang, D. Merritt, O. Witasse, J. Zender, A. Accomazzo, and M. Sweeney, “Venus Express science planning,” Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1279-1297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hermans, C.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hoofs, R.

D. V. Titov, H. Svedhem, D. Koschny, R. Hoofs, S. Barabash, J.-L. Bertaux, P. Drossart, V. Formisano, B. Häusler, O. Korablev, W. J. Markiewicz, D. Nevejans, M. Pätzold, G. Piccioni, T. L. Zhang, D. Merritt, O. Witasse, J. Zender, A. Accomazzo, and M. Sweeney, “Venus Express science planning,” Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1279-1297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hourdin, F.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C.-C.

C.-C. Hsieh, C.-Y. Wu, F.-W. Jih, and T.-P. Sun, “Focal-plane-arrays and CMOS readout techniques of infrared imaging systems,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 7, 594-605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jih, F.-W.

C.-C. Hsieh, C.-Y. Wu, F.-W. Jih, and T.-P. Sun, “Focal-plane-arrays and CMOS readout techniques of infrared imaging systems,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 7, 594-605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kalinnikov, Y.

Kockarts, G.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Korablev, O.

V. Wilquet, A. Mahieux, A. C. Vandaele, F. Montmessin, O. Korablev, A. Fedorova, and J.-L. Bertaux, “Characterization of the upper Venusian haze from UV to mid-IR by SPICAV/SOIR on Venus Express,” J. Geophys. Res. (2008).

V. Wilquet, A. Mahieux, A. C. Vandaele, V. I. Perevalov, S. A. Tashkun, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, F. Montmessin, R. Dahoo, and J.-L. Bertaux, “Line parameters for the 01111-00001 band of C12O16O18 from SOIR measurements of the Venus atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 895-905 (2008).

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, V. Wilquet, F. Montmessin, R. Dahoo, E. Villard, O. Korablev, and A. Fedorova, “First observation of 628 CO2 isotopologue band at 3.3 μm in the atmosphere of Venus by solar occultation from Venus Express,” Icarus (2007), doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2008.01.001.

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, O. Korablev, E. Villard, A. Fedorova, D. Fussen, E. Quémerais, D. Beliaev, A. Mahieux, F. Montmessin, C. Müller, E. Neefs, D. Nevejans, V. Wilquet, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, A. Stepanov, I. Vinogradov, R. A., and a. t. S. team, “A warm layer in Venus'cryosphere and high altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO,” Nature 450, 646-649, doi:10.1038/nature05974 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Bertaux, D. Nevejans, O. Korablev, E. Villard, E. Quémerais, E. Neefs, F. Montmessin, F. Leblanc, J. P. Dubois, and E. Dimarellis, “SPICAV on Venus Express: three spectrometers to study the global structure and composition of the Venus atmosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1673-1700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Nevejans, E. Neefs, E. Van Ransbeeck, S. Berkenbosch, R. Clairquin, L. De Vos, W. Moelans, S. Glorieux, A. Baeke, O. Korablev, I. Vinogradov, Y. Kalinnikov, B. Bach, J.-P. Dubois, and E. Villard, “Compact high-resolution space-borne echelle grating spectrometer with AOTF based on order sorting for the infrared domain from 2.2 to 4.3 micrometer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5191-5206 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Titov, H. Svedhem, D. Koschny, R. Hoofs, S. Barabash, J.-L. Bertaux, P. Drossart, V. Formisano, B. Häusler, O. Korablev, W. J. Markiewicz, D. Nevejans, M. Pätzold, G. Piccioni, T. L. Zhang, D. Merritt, O. Witasse, J. Zender, A. Accomazzo, and M. Sweeney, “Venus Express science planning,” Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1279-1297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, M. De Mazière, R. Drummond, A. Mahieux, E. Neefs, V. Wilquet, D. Belayev, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, F. Montmessin, and J.-L. Bertaux are preparing a manuscript to be called “Composition of the Venus mesosphere measured by SOIR onboard Venus Express.”

Koschny, D.

D. V. Titov, H. Svedhem, D. Koschny, R. Hoofs, S. Barabash, J.-L. Bertaux, P. Drossart, V. Formisano, B. Häusler, O. Korablev, W. J. Markiewicz, D. Nevejans, M. Pätzold, G. Piccioni, T. L. Zhang, D. Merritt, O. Witasse, J. Zender, A. Accomazzo, and M. Sweeney, “Venus Express science planning,” Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1279-1297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leblanc, F.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Nevejans, O. Korablev, E. Villard, E. Quémerais, E. Neefs, F. Montmessin, F. Leblanc, J. P. Dubois, and E. Dimarellis, “SPICAV on Venus Express: three spectrometers to study the global structure and composition of the Venus atmosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1673-1700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lippens, C.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mahieux, A.

V. Wilquet, A. Mahieux, A. C. Vandaele, V. I. Perevalov, S. A. Tashkun, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, F. Montmessin, R. Dahoo, and J.-L. Bertaux, “Line parameters for the 01111-00001 band of C12O16O18 from SOIR measurements of the Venus atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 895-905 (2008).

V. Wilquet, A. Mahieux, A. C. Vandaele, F. Montmessin, O. Korablev, A. Fedorova, and J.-L. Bertaux, “Characterization of the upper Venusian haze from UV to mid-IR by SPICAV/SOIR on Venus Express,” J. Geophys. Res. (2008).

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, O. Korablev, E. Villard, A. Fedorova, D. Fussen, E. Quémerais, D. Beliaev, A. Mahieux, F. Montmessin, C. Müller, E. Neefs, D. Nevejans, V. Wilquet, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, A. Stepanov, I. Vinogradov, R. A., and a. t. S. team, “A warm layer in Venus'cryosphere and high altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO,” Nature 450, 646-649, doi:10.1038/nature05974 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Vandaele, M. De Mazière, R. Drummond, A. Mahieux, E. Neefs, V. Wilquet, D. Belayev, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, F. Montmessin, and J.-L. Bertaux are preparing a manuscript to be called “Composition of the Venus mesosphere measured by SOIR onboard Venus Express.”

Markiewicz, W. J.

D. V. Titov, H. Svedhem, D. Koschny, R. Hoofs, S. Barabash, J.-L. Bertaux, P. Drossart, V. Formisano, B. Häusler, O. Korablev, W. J. Markiewicz, D. Nevejans, M. Pätzold, G. Piccioni, T. L. Zhang, D. Merritt, O. Witasse, J. Zender, A. Accomazzo, and M. Sweeney, “Venus Express science planning,” Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1279-1297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Merritt, D.

D. V. Titov, H. Svedhem, D. Koschny, R. Hoofs, S. Barabash, J.-L. Bertaux, P. Drossart, V. Formisano, B. Häusler, O. Korablev, W. J. Markiewicz, D. Nevejans, M. Pätzold, G. Piccioni, T. L. Zhang, D. Merritt, O. Witasse, J. Zender, A. Accomazzo, and M. Sweeney, “Venus Express science planning,” Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1279-1297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moelans, W.

Montmessin, F.

V. Wilquet, A. Mahieux, A. C. Vandaele, V. I. Perevalov, S. A. Tashkun, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, F. Montmessin, R. Dahoo, and J.-L. Bertaux, “Line parameters for the 01111-00001 band of C12O16O18 from SOIR measurements of the Venus atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 895-905 (2008).

V. Wilquet, A. Mahieux, A. C. Vandaele, F. Montmessin, O. Korablev, A. Fedorova, and J.-L. Bertaux, “Characterization of the upper Venusian haze from UV to mid-IR by SPICAV/SOIR on Venus Express,” J. Geophys. Res. (2008).

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, O. Korablev, E. Villard, A. Fedorova, D. Fussen, E. Quémerais, D. Beliaev, A. Mahieux, F. Montmessin, C. Müller, E. Neefs, D. Nevejans, V. Wilquet, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, A. Stepanov, I. Vinogradov, R. A., and a. t. S. team, “A warm layer in Venus'cryosphere and high altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO,” Nature 450, 646-649, doi:10.1038/nature05974 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, V. Wilquet, F. Montmessin, R. Dahoo, E. Villard, O. Korablev, and A. Fedorova, “First observation of 628 CO2 isotopologue band at 3.3 μm in the atmosphere of Venus by solar occultation from Venus Express,” Icarus (2007), doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2008.01.001.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Nevejans, O. Korablev, E. Villard, E. Quémerais, E. Neefs, F. Montmessin, F. Leblanc, J. P. Dubois, and E. Dimarellis, “SPICAV on Venus Express: three spectrometers to study the global structure and composition of the Venus atmosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1673-1700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, M. De Mazière, R. Drummond, A. Mahieux, E. Neefs, V. Wilquet, D. Belayev, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, F. Montmessin, and J.-L. Bertaux are preparing a manuscript to be called “Composition of the Venus mesosphere measured by SOIR onboard Venus Express.”

Moreau, D.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moroz, V. I.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Muller, C.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Müller, C.

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, O. Korablev, E. Villard, A. Fedorova, D. Fussen, E. Quémerais, D. Beliaev, A. Mahieux, F. Montmessin, C. Müller, E. Neefs, D. Nevejans, V. Wilquet, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, A. Stepanov, I. Vinogradov, R. A., and a. t. S. team, “A warm layer in Venus'cryosphere and high altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO,” Nature 450, 646-649, doi:10.1038/nature05974 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neefs, B.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Neefs, E.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Nevejans, O. Korablev, E. Villard, E. Quémerais, E. Neefs, F. Montmessin, F. Leblanc, J. P. Dubois, and E. Dimarellis, “SPICAV on Venus Express: three spectrometers to study the global structure and composition of the Venus atmosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1673-1700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, O. Korablev, E. Villard, A. Fedorova, D. Fussen, E. Quémerais, D. Beliaev, A. Mahieux, F. Montmessin, C. Müller, E. Neefs, D. Nevejans, V. Wilquet, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, A. Stepanov, I. Vinogradov, R. A., and a. t. S. team, “A warm layer in Venus'cryosphere and high altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO,” Nature 450, 646-649, doi:10.1038/nature05974 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Nevejans, E. Neefs, E. Van Ransbeeck, S. Berkenbosch, R. Clairquin, L. De Vos, W. Moelans, S. Glorieux, A. Baeke, O. Korablev, I. Vinogradov, Y. Kalinnikov, B. Bach, J.-P. Dubois, and E. Villard, “Compact high-resolution space-borne echelle grating spectrometer with AOTF based on order sorting for the infrared domain from 2.2 to 4.3 micrometer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5191-5206 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Vandaele, M. De Mazière, R. Drummond, A. Mahieux, E. Neefs, V. Wilquet, D. Belayev, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, F. Montmessin, and J.-L. Bertaux are preparing a manuscript to be called “Composition of the Venus mesosphere measured by SOIR onboard Venus Express.”

Nevejans, D.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Nevejans, O. Korablev, E. Villard, E. Quémerais, E. Neefs, F. Montmessin, F. Leblanc, J. P. Dubois, and E. Dimarellis, “SPICAV on Venus Express: three spectrometers to study the global structure and composition of the Venus atmosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1673-1700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, O. Korablev, E. Villard, A. Fedorova, D. Fussen, E. Quémerais, D. Beliaev, A. Mahieux, F. Montmessin, C. Müller, E. Neefs, D. Nevejans, V. Wilquet, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, A. Stepanov, I. Vinogradov, R. A., and a. t. S. team, “A warm layer in Venus'cryosphere and high altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO,” Nature 450, 646-649, doi:10.1038/nature05974 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Nevejans, E. Neefs, E. Van Ransbeeck, S. Berkenbosch, R. Clairquin, L. De Vos, W. Moelans, S. Glorieux, A. Baeke, O. Korablev, I. Vinogradov, Y. Kalinnikov, B. Bach, J.-P. Dubois, and E. Villard, “Compact high-resolution space-borne echelle grating spectrometer with AOTF based on order sorting for the infrared domain from 2.2 to 4.3 micrometer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5191-5206 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Titov, H. Svedhem, D. Koschny, R. Hoofs, S. Barabash, J.-L. Bertaux, P. Drossart, V. Formisano, B. Häusler, O. Korablev, W. J. Markiewicz, D. Nevejans, M. Pätzold, G. Piccioni, T. L. Zhang, D. Merritt, O. Witasse, J. Zender, A. Accomazzo, and M. Sweeney, “Venus Express science planning,” Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1279-1297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pätzold, M.

D. V. Titov, H. Svedhem, D. Koschny, R. Hoofs, S. Barabash, J.-L. Bertaux, P. Drossart, V. Formisano, B. Häusler, O. Korablev, W. J. Markiewicz, D. Nevejans, M. Pätzold, G. Piccioni, T. L. Zhang, D. Merritt, O. Witasse, J. Zender, A. Accomazzo, and M. Sweeney, “Venus Express science planning,” Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1279-1297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perevalov, V. I.

V. Wilquet, A. Mahieux, A. C. Vandaele, V. I. Perevalov, S. A. Tashkun, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, F. Montmessin, R. Dahoo, and J.-L. Bertaux, “Line parameters for the 01111-00001 band of C12O16O18 from SOIR measurements of the Venus atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 895-905 (2008).

Piccioni, G.

D. V. Titov, H. Svedhem, D. Koschny, R. Hoofs, S. Barabash, J.-L. Bertaux, P. Drossart, V. Formisano, B. Häusler, O. Korablev, W. J. Markiewicz, D. Nevejans, M. Pätzold, G. Piccioni, T. L. Zhang, D. Merritt, O. Witasse, J. Zender, A. Accomazzo, and M. Sweeney, “Venus Express science planning,” Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1279-1297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Quémerais, E.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Nevejans, O. Korablev, E. Villard, E. Quémerais, E. Neefs, F. Montmessin, F. Leblanc, J. P. Dubois, and E. Dimarellis, “SPICAV on Venus Express: three spectrometers to study the global structure and composition of the Venus atmosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1673-1700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, O. Korablev, E. Villard, A. Fedorova, D. Fussen, E. Quémerais, D. Beliaev, A. Mahieux, F. Montmessin, C. Müller, E. Neefs, D. Nevejans, V. Wilquet, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, A. Stepanov, I. Vinogradov, R. A., and a. t. S. team, “A warm layer in Venus'cryosphere and high altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO,” Nature 450, 646-649, doi:10.1038/nature05974 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rannou, P.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

F. Hase, P. Demoulin, A. J. Sauval, G. C. Toon, P. F. Bernath, A. Goldman, J. W. Hannigan, and C. P. Rinsland, “An empirical line-by-line model for the infrared solar transmittance spectrum from 700 to 5000 cm−1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 102, 450-463 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rodin, A. V.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sandel, B.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sauval, A. J.

F. Hase, P. Demoulin, A. J. Sauval, G. C. Toon, P. F. Bernath, A. Goldman, J. W. Hannigan, and C. P. Rinsland, “An empirical line-by-line model for the infrared solar transmittance spectrum from 700 to 5000 cm−1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 102, 450-463 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Simon, P. C.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A.

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, O. Korablev, E. Villard, A. Fedorova, D. Fussen, E. Quémerais, D. Beliaev, A. Mahieux, F. Montmessin, C. Müller, E. Neefs, D. Nevejans, V. Wilquet, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, A. Stepanov, I. Vinogradov, R. A., and a. t. S. team, “A warm layer in Venus'cryosphere and high altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO,” Nature 450, 646-649, doi:10.1038/nature05974 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stern, A.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sun, T.-P.

C.-C. Hsieh, C.-Y. Wu, F.-W. Jih, and T.-P. Sun, “Focal-plane-arrays and CMOS readout techniques of infrared imaging systems,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 7, 594-605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Svedhem, H.

D. V. Titov, H. Svedhem, D. Koschny, R. Hoofs, S. Barabash, J.-L. Bertaux, P. Drossart, V. Formisano, B. Häusler, O. Korablev, W. J. Markiewicz, D. Nevejans, M. Pätzold, G. Piccioni, T. L. Zhang, D. Merritt, O. Witasse, J. Zender, A. Accomazzo, and M. Sweeney, “Venus Express science planning,” Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1279-1297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, M.

D. V. Titov, H. Svedhem, D. Koschny, R. Hoofs, S. Barabash, J.-L. Bertaux, P. Drossart, V. Formisano, B. Häusler, O. Korablev, W. J. Markiewicz, D. Nevejans, M. Pätzold, G. Piccioni, T. L. Zhang, D. Merritt, O. Witasse, J. Zender, A. Accomazzo, and M. Sweeney, “Venus Express science planning,” Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1279-1297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Talagrand, O.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tashkun, S. A.

V. Wilquet, A. Mahieux, A. C. Vandaele, V. I. Perevalov, S. A. Tashkun, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, F. Montmessin, R. Dahoo, and J.-L. Bertaux, “Line parameters for the 01111-00001 band of C12O16O18 from SOIR measurements of the Venus atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 895-905 (2008).

Titov, D. V.

D. V. Titov, H. Svedhem, D. Koschny, R. Hoofs, S. Barabash, J.-L. Bertaux, P. Drossart, V. Formisano, B. Häusler, O. Korablev, W. J. Markiewicz, D. Nevejans, M. Pätzold, G. Piccioni, T. L. Zhang, D. Merritt, O. Witasse, J. Zender, A. Accomazzo, and M. Sweeney, “Venus Express science planning,” Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1279-1297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toon, G. C.

F. Hase, P. Demoulin, A. J. Sauval, G. C. Toon, P. F. Bernath, A. Goldman, J. W. Hannigan, and C. P. Rinsland, “An empirical line-by-line model for the infrared solar transmittance spectrum from 700 to 5000 cm−1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 102, 450-463 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, N.

N. Uchida, “Optical properties of single-crystal paratellurite (TeO2),” Phys. Rev. B 4, 3736-3745 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Van Ransbeeck, E.

Vandaele, A. C.

V. Wilquet, A. Mahieux, A. C. Vandaele, V. I. Perevalov, S. A. Tashkun, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, F. Montmessin, R. Dahoo, and J.-L. Bertaux, “Line parameters for the 01111-00001 band of C12O16O18 from SOIR measurements of the Venus atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 895-905 (2008).

V. Wilquet, A. Mahieux, A. C. Vandaele, F. Montmessin, O. Korablev, A. Fedorova, and J.-L. Bertaux, “Characterization of the upper Venusian haze from UV to mid-IR by SPICAV/SOIR on Venus Express,” J. Geophys. Res. (2008).

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, O. Korablev, E. Villard, A. Fedorova, D. Fussen, E. Quémerais, D. Beliaev, A. Mahieux, F. Montmessin, C. Müller, E. Neefs, D. Nevejans, V. Wilquet, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, A. Stepanov, I. Vinogradov, R. A., and a. t. S. team, “A warm layer in Venus'cryosphere and high altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO,” Nature 450, 646-649, doi:10.1038/nature05974 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, V. Wilquet, F. Montmessin, R. Dahoo, E. Villard, O. Korablev, and A. Fedorova, “First observation of 628 CO2 isotopologue band at 3.3 μm in the atmosphere of Venus by solar occultation from Venus Express,” Icarus (2007), doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2008.01.001.

A. C. Vandaele, M. De Mazière, R. Drummond, A. Mahieux, E. Neefs, V. Wilquet, D. Belayev, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, F. Montmessin, and J.-L. Bertaux are preparing a manuscript to be called “Composition of the Venus mesosphere measured by SOIR onboard Venus Express.”

Villard, E.

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, V. Wilquet, F. Montmessin, R. Dahoo, E. Villard, O. Korablev, and A. Fedorova, “First observation of 628 CO2 isotopologue band at 3.3 μm in the atmosphere of Venus by solar occultation from Venus Express,” Icarus (2007), doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2008.01.001.

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, O. Korablev, E. Villard, A. Fedorova, D. Fussen, E. Quémerais, D. Beliaev, A. Mahieux, F. Montmessin, C. Müller, E. Neefs, D. Nevejans, V. Wilquet, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, A. Stepanov, I. Vinogradov, R. A., and a. t. S. team, “A warm layer in Venus'cryosphere and high altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO,” Nature 450, 646-649, doi:10.1038/nature05974 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Bertaux, D. Nevejans, O. Korablev, E. Villard, E. Quémerais, E. Neefs, F. Montmessin, F. Leblanc, J. P. Dubois, and E. Dimarellis, “SPICAV on Venus Express: three spectrometers to study the global structure and composition of the Venus atmosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1673-1700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Nevejans, E. Neefs, E. Van Ransbeeck, S. Berkenbosch, R. Clairquin, L. De Vos, W. Moelans, S. Glorieux, A. Baeke, O. Korablev, I. Vinogradov, Y. Kalinnikov, B. Bach, J.-P. Dubois, and E. Villard, “Compact high-resolution space-borne echelle grating spectrometer with AOTF based on order sorting for the infrared domain from 2.2 to 4.3 micrometer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5191-5206 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vinogradov, I.

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, O. Korablev, E. Villard, A. Fedorova, D. Fussen, E. Quémerais, D. Beliaev, A. Mahieux, F. Montmessin, C. Müller, E. Neefs, D. Nevejans, V. Wilquet, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, A. Stepanov, I. Vinogradov, R. A., and a. t. S. team, “A warm layer in Venus'cryosphere and high altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO,” Nature 450, 646-649, doi:10.1038/nature05974 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Nevejans, E. Neefs, E. Van Ransbeeck, S. Berkenbosch, R. Clairquin, L. De Vos, W. Moelans, S. Glorieux, A. Baeke, O. Korablev, I. Vinogradov, Y. Kalinnikov, B. Bach, J.-P. Dubois, and E. Villard, “Compact high-resolution space-borne echelle grating spectrometer with AOTF based on order sorting for the infrared domain from 2.2 to 4.3 micrometer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5191-5206 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, A.

Wilquet, V.

V. Wilquet, A. Mahieux, A. C. Vandaele, V. I. Perevalov, S. A. Tashkun, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, F. Montmessin, R. Dahoo, and J.-L. Bertaux, “Line parameters for the 01111-00001 band of C12O16O18 from SOIR measurements of the Venus atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 895-905 (2008).

V. Wilquet, A. Mahieux, A. C. Vandaele, F. Montmessin, O. Korablev, A. Fedorova, and J.-L. Bertaux, “Characterization of the upper Venusian haze from UV to mid-IR by SPICAV/SOIR on Venus Express,” J. Geophys. Res. (2008).

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, O. Korablev, E. Villard, A. Fedorova, D. Fussen, E. Quémerais, D. Beliaev, A. Mahieux, F. Montmessin, C. Müller, E. Neefs, D. Nevejans, V. Wilquet, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, A. Stepanov, I. Vinogradov, R. A., and a. t. S. team, “A warm layer in Venus'cryosphere and high altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO,” Nature 450, 646-649, doi:10.1038/nature05974 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, V. Wilquet, F. Montmessin, R. Dahoo, E. Villard, O. Korablev, and A. Fedorova, “First observation of 628 CO2 isotopologue band at 3.3 μm in the atmosphere of Venus by solar occultation from Venus Express,” Icarus (2007), doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2008.01.001.

A. C. Vandaele, M. De Mazière, R. Drummond, A. Mahieux, E. Neefs, V. Wilquet, D. Belayev, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, F. Montmessin, and J.-L. Bertaux are preparing a manuscript to be called “Composition of the Venus mesosphere measured by SOIR onboard Venus Express.”

Witasse, O.

D. V. Titov, H. Svedhem, D. Koschny, R. Hoofs, S. Barabash, J.-L. Bertaux, P. Drossart, V. Formisano, B. Häusler, O. Korablev, W. J. Markiewicz, D. Nevejans, M. Pätzold, G. Piccioni, T. L. Zhang, D. Merritt, O. Witasse, J. Zender, A. Accomazzo, and M. Sweeney, “Venus Express science planning,” Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1279-1297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-Y.

C.-C. Hsieh, C.-Y. Wu, F.-W. Jih, and T.-P. Sun, “Focal-plane-arrays and CMOS readout techniques of infrared imaging systems,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 7, 594-605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yano, T.

Zender, J.

D. V. Titov, H. Svedhem, D. Koschny, R. Hoofs, S. Barabash, J.-L. Bertaux, P. Drossart, V. Formisano, B. Häusler, O. Korablev, W. J. Markiewicz, D. Nevejans, M. Pätzold, G. Piccioni, T. L. Zhang, D. Merritt, O. Witasse, J. Zender, A. Accomazzo, and M. Sweeney, “Venus Express science planning,” Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1279-1297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, T. L.

D. V. Titov, H. Svedhem, D. Koschny, R. Hoofs, S. Barabash, J.-L. Bertaux, P. Drossart, V. Formisano, B. Häusler, O. Korablev, W. J. Markiewicz, D. Nevejans, M. Pätzold, G. Piccioni, T. L. Zhang, D. Merritt, O. Witasse, J. Zender, A. Accomazzo, and M. Sweeney, “Venus Express science planning,” Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1279-1297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol.

C.-C. Hsieh, C.-Y. Wu, F.-W. Jih, and T.-P. Sun, “Focal-plane-arrays and CMOS readout techniques of infrared imaging systems,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 7, 594-605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

V. Wilquet, A. Mahieux, A. C. Vandaele, F. Montmessin, O. Korablev, A. Fedorova, and J.-L. Bertaux, “Characterization of the upper Venusian haze from UV to mid-IR by SPICAV/SOIR on Venus Express,” J. Geophys. Res. (2008).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

F. Hase, P. Demoulin, A. J. Sauval, G. C. Toon, P. F. Bernath, A. Goldman, J. W. Hannigan, and C. P. Rinsland, “An empirical line-by-line model for the infrared solar transmittance spectrum from 700 to 5000 cm−1,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 102, 450-463 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, O. Korablev, E. Villard, A. Fedorova, D. Fussen, E. Quémerais, D. Beliaev, A. Mahieux, F. Montmessin, C. Müller, E. Neefs, D. Nevejans, V. Wilquet, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, A. Stepanov, I. Vinogradov, R. A., and a. t. S. team, “A warm layer in Venus'cryosphere and high altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO,” Nature 450, 646-649, doi:10.1038/nature05974 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B

N. Uchida, “Optical properties of single-crystal paratellurite (TeO2),” Phys. Rev. B 4, 3736-3745 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci.

J. L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. P. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. C. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quémerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. De Mazière, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. C. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. I. Moroz, A. V. Rodin, B. Sandel, and A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303-1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Bertaux, D. Nevejans, O. Korablev, E. Villard, E. Quémerais, E. Neefs, F. Montmessin, F. Leblanc, J. P. Dubois, and E. Dimarellis, “SPICAV on Venus Express: three spectrometers to study the global structure and composition of the Venus atmosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1673-1700 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Titov, H. Svedhem, D. Koschny, R. Hoofs, S. Barabash, J.-L. Bertaux, P. Drossart, V. Formisano, B. Häusler, O. Korablev, W. J. Markiewicz, D. Nevejans, M. Pätzold, G. Piccioni, T. L. Zhang, D. Merritt, O. Witasse, J. Zender, A. Accomazzo, and M. Sweeney, “Venus Express science planning,” Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1279-1297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. C. Vandaele, M. De Mazière, R. Drummond, A. Mahieux, E. Neefs, V. Wilquet, D. Belayev, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, F. Montmessin, and J.-L. Bertaux are preparing a manuscript to be called “Composition of the Venus mesosphere measured by SOIR onboard Venus Express.”

J.-L. Bertaux, A. C. Vandaele, V. Wilquet, F. Montmessin, R. Dahoo, E. Villard, O. Korablev, and A. Fedorova, “First observation of 628 CO2 isotopologue band at 3.3 μm in the atmosphere of Venus by solar occultation from Venus Express,” Icarus (2007), doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2008.01.001.

V. Wilquet, A. Mahieux, A. C. Vandaele, V. I. Perevalov, S. A. Tashkun, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, F. Montmessin, R. Dahoo, and J.-L. Bertaux, “Line parameters for the 01111-00001 band of C12O16O18 from SOIR measurements of the Venus atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 895-905 (2008).

I. C. Chang, “Acousto-optic tunable filters,” in Acousto-Optic Signal Processing: Theory and Implementation, N. Berg and J. Pellegrino, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 1996).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical scheme of the SOIR spectrometer: (1) AOTF entrance optics, (2) diaphragm; (3) AOTF, (4) AOTF exit optics, (5) spectrometer entrance slit, (6) collimating and camera lens merged into one off-axis parabolic mirror, (7) echelle grating, (8) folding mirror, (9) folded detector optics, and (10) detector assembly placed upright.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Detector is an array of 320 × 256 pixels. Because of the dimension of the slit, only 32 rows are illuminated. Several binning configurations have been defined: two bins of 16 rows, two bins of 12 rows, eight bins of four rows, and four bins of four rows.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Modeled view of solar occultation measurements (orbit 209) with (bold ellipses and dotted line) and without (dashed line) refraction. The position of the slit on the solar disk is indicated by a rectangle. The coordinates are the tangent altitude of the unrefracted Sun and the horizontal displacement of the solar tangent point from the point where the slit is parallel to the limb.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Method for detector nonlinearity correction. ADC S :     ADC is the value available on ground, ADC S + B and ADC B are approximation of codes for signal plus background and background, and ACU S + B , ACU B , and ACU S are the total, signal, and background pixel charge in arbitrary units.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pixel-to-pixel nonuniformity: (a) a spectrum where weak solar lines are present is selected, (b) high-pass filtering is applied, and (c) other spectra where weak solar lines are present are selected and filtered ( 1600 in total), then the global average is calculated (top panel). The percentage difference relative to the mean is shown in the bottom panel.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Overall sensitivity of the SOIR instrument: (a) sensitivity of bin 4 of the detector in a binning case of eight bins of four rows and (b) sensitivity of row 150 with respect to the AOTF frequency. This row is highlighted in the top figure.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured AOTF bandpass functions at 2943.69 cm 1 (binning 4 × 8 ): (a) presents the measurements of the intensity (bin 4 on the detector) versus the AOTF frequency and the pixel number after correction for the pixel-to-pixel variability and instrument sensitivity, showing the residual background level, (b) is obtained when this background is removed from the measurements, and (c) shows the AOTF bandpass corresponding to the 2943.69 cm 1 solar line.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

AOTF bandpass functions for a binning of 12 for bin 1 by analyzing the solar lines situated at (a)  2583.79 cm 1 , (b)  3012.03 cm 1 , and (c)  4193.03 cm 1 . Top panel of each figure shows the measured value on the detector with respect to the AOTF frequency. Concerned pixel line is highlighted. Middle panel shows the measured bandpass function (dashed) and fitted function (plain). Bottom panel shows the retrieved AOTF bandpass function.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Evaluation of the FWHM of the passband function using the dedicated miniscan: (a) bin 1 and (b) bin 2. In both panels, color indicates temperature of the AOTF at the time of measurement of the maximum of the bandpass function.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Tuning relations for bins 1 and 2 of the detector: (a) wavenumber-frequency relation for bin 1 derived from miniscan measurements; a zoom on the right side of the fit is included; and (b) wavenumber-frequency relation for bin 2 derived from miniscansmeasurements. In both panels, color indicates temperature of the AOTF at the time of measurement of the maximum of the bandpass function.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Determination of the spectral resolution of the SOIR instrument. The observed solar line at 3012.96 cm 1 (dashed curve) measured in order 134, during orbit 227 and the fitted line (solid curve) are compared. The latter was obtained by convoluting a high-resolution solar spectrum with a sinc square function of 0.149 cm 1 FWHM.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Evolution of the observed FWHM of the instrument line profile throughout the spectral domain.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Evolution in time of the signal intensity (sunset 3 September 2006). The plotted intensity is an average value over all 320 pixels (wavelenghts) for each of the recorded orders. The eight curves correspond to the eight spectra recorded in 1 s (bin 1 and bin 2 part of the detector for each of the four selected orders). First direct solar radiation is measured when the light path does not cross the Venusian atmosphere. During the occultation, the observed signal decreases. Finally, the light path is intercepted by the cloud cover lying at 60 65 km and no light reaches the detector anymore. The dashed line shows the linear regression representing the solar reference spectrum. At time t, the observed signal is I ( t ) corresponding to an effective reference spectrum I 0 ( t ) .

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Example of spectra obtained during one occultation (sunset 15 April 2007). Each transmittance is obtained by taking the ratio of the solar spectrum seen through the Venus atmosphere to the nonattenuated solar spectrum measured above the atmosphere. The selection of a spectral interval is achieved through the AOTF, tuned in this case to (a)  15 809 kHz for diffraction order 121, (b)  19 869 kHz for diffraction order 149, (c)  23 031 kHz for diffraction order 171, (d)  25 742 kHz for diffraction order 121. In these particular ranges of wavenumber, the main absorption lines are from (a) HDO, (b)  CO 2 , (c)  H 2 O , (d) CO.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Coefficients for the Wavenumber-to-Frequency Relation (Tuning Function) for Bins 1 and 2 a

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Table 2 Adjacent Orders Contribution from the AOTF Transfer Function for a Central Order Equal to 148 a

Equations (10)

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f = v Δ n λ ( sin 4 θ i + sin 2 2 θ i ) 1 / 2 ,
Δ n = a λ λ c + b ,
T = T 0 sinc 2 ( 0.886 λ λ 0 Δ λ FWHM ) ,
Δ λ FWHM = 1.8 π λ 0 2 b λ L sin 2 θ i ,
L = W cos ( θ i α ) ,
b λ = 2 π ( Δ n λ Δ n λ ) = 2 π ( Δ n + λ · a ( λ λ c ) 2 ) ,
Δ ν FWHM = 1.8 π b λ L sin 2 θ i ,
I ( ν ) = I · [ sinc ( 0.886 · ν ν 0 Δ ν 0 ) ] 2 ,
ν = a · f 2 + b · f + c ,
S N = 1 1 P x · n x + 1 ν y · P y · n y ,

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