Abstract

Results are summarized for a scientific project devoted to the comparison of four atmospheric radiative transfer codes incorporated into different satellite data processing algorithms, namely, 6SV1.1 (second simulation of a satellite signal in the solar spectrum, vector, version 1.1), RT3 (radiative transfer), MODTRAN (moderate resolution atmospheric transmittance and radiance code), and SHARM (spherical harmonics). The performance of the codes is tested against well-known benchmarks, such as Coulson’s tabulated values and a Monte Carlo code. The influence of revealed differences on aerosol optical thickness and surface reflectance retrieval is estimated theoretically by using a simple mathematical approach. All information about the project can be found at http://rtcodes.ltdri.org.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (4)

J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. E. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, “Third radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111 (2007) .
[CrossRef]

R. C. Levy, L. A. Remer, S. Mattoo, E. F. Vermote, and Y. Kaufman, “Second-generation algorithm for retrieving aerosol properties over land from MODIS spectral reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D13211 (2007). .
[CrossRef]

A. Lyapustin and Y. Wang, “MAIAC: multi-angle implementation of atmospheric correction for MODIS,” Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, http://neptune. gsfc.nasa.gov/bsb/subpages/index.php?section=Projects&content=MAIAC%20ATDB (2007), p. 69.

S. Y. Kotchenova and Vermote, “Validation of a vector version of the 6S radiative transfer code for atmospheric correction of satellite data. Part II: Lambertian and anisotropic surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 46, 4455-4464 (2007).

2006 (3)

S. Y. Kotchenova, E. F. Vermote, R. Matarrese, and F. Klemm, “Validation of a vector version of the 6S radiative transfer code for atmospheric correction of satellite data. Part I: path radiance,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6762-6774 (2006).

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle non-sphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, 1-34 (2006).

K. Masuda, “Infrared sea surface emissivity including multiple reflection effect for isotropic Gaussian slope distribution model,” Remote Sens. Environ. 103, 488-496 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

R. F. Cahalan, L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, K. F. Evans, A. Davis, R. Pincus, K. Yetzer, B. Mayer, R. Davies, T. Ackerman, H. Barker, E. Clothiaux, R. Ellingson, M. Garay, E. Kassianov, S. Kinne, A. Macke, W. O'Hirok, P. Partain, S. Prigarin, A. Rublev, G. Stephens, F. Szczap, E. Takara, T. Várnai, G. Wen, and T. Zhuravleva, “The I3RC: bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 1275-1293 (2005)..
[CrossRef]

A. I. Lyapustin, “Radiative transfer code SHARM for atmospheric and terrestrial application,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7764-7772(2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

N. C. Hsu, S.-C. Tsay, M. D. King, and J. R. Herman, “Aerosol properties over bright-reflecting source regions,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 557- 569 (2004).

R. C. Levy, L. A. Remer, and Y. J. Kaufman, “Effects of neglecting polarization on the MODIS aerosol retrieval over land,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 2576-2583 (2004).

M.-J. Kim, G. M. Skofronick-Jackson, and J. A. Weiman, “Intercomparison of millimeter-wave radiative transfer models,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42 (9), 1882-1890(2004).

2002 (3)

E. F. Vermote, N. Z. El Saleous, and C. O. Justice, “Atmospheric correction of MODIS data in the visible to middle infrared: first results,” Remote Sens. Environ. 83, 97-111(2002).

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).

A. Lyapustin, “Radiative transfer code SHARM-3D for radiance simulations over a non-Lambertian nonhomogeneous surface: intercomparison study,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5607-5615(2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

T. Z. Muldashev, A. I. Lyapustin, and U. M. Sultangazin, “Spherical harmonics method in the problem of radiative transfer in the atmosphere-surface system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 61, 393-404 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Jr., S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348-353 (1999).

P. K. Acharya, A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, N. F. Larsen, S.-C. Tsay, and K. H. Stamnes, “MODTRAN 4: multiple scattering and bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) upgrades to MODTRAN,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 354-362 (1999).

1998 (2)

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, J. H. Chetwynd, and S. M. Adler-Golden, “MODTRAN cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to AVIRIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 367-375 (1998).

A. A. Lacis, J. Chowdhary, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cairns, “Modeling errors in diffuse-sky radiation: vector vs. scalar treatment,” J. Geophys. Res. 25,135-138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, and L. D. Travis, “Errors induced by the neglect of polarization in radiance calculations for Rayleigh-scattering atmospheres,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 491-510 (1994).

1992 (2)

E. Vermote and D. Tanré, “Analytical expressions for radiative properties of planar Rayleigh scattering media, including polarization contributions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 305-314 (1992).

F.-M. Bréon, “Reflectance of broken cloud fields: simulation and parameterization,” J. Atmos. Sci. 49, 1221-1232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. F. Evans and G. L. Stephens, “A new polarized atmospheric radiative transfer model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 46, 413-423 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1985 (1)

J.Lenoble, ed., Radiative Transfer in Scattering and absorbing Atmospheres: Standard Computational Procedures (A. Deepak, 1985).

1983 (1)

1980 (1)

1960 (1)

K. L. Coulson, J. V. Dave, and Z. Sekera, Tables Related to Radiation Emerging from a Planetary Atmosphere with Rayleigh Scattering (U. California Press, 1960).

Acharya, P. K.

P. K. Acharya, A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, N. F. Larsen, S.-C. Tsay, and K. H. Stamnes, “MODTRAN 4: multiple scattering and bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) upgrades to MODTRAN,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 354-362 (1999).

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Jr., S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348-353 (1999).

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, J. H. Chetwynd, and S. M. Adler-Golden, “MODTRAN cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to AVIRIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 367-375 (1998).

Ackerman, T.

R. F. Cahalan, L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, K. F. Evans, A. Davis, R. Pincus, K. Yetzer, B. Mayer, R. Davies, T. Ackerman, H. Barker, E. Clothiaux, R. Ellingson, M. Garay, E. Kassianov, S. Kinne, A. Macke, W. O'Hirok, P. Partain, S. Prigarin, A. Rublev, G. Stephens, F. Szczap, E. Takara, T. Várnai, G. Wen, and T. Zhuravleva, “The I3RC: bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 1275-1293 (2005)..
[CrossRef]

Adler-Golden, S. M.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Jr., S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348-353 (1999).

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, J. H. Chetwynd, and S. M. Adler-Golden, “MODTRAN cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to AVIRIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 367-375 (1998).

Allred, C. L.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Jr., S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348-353 (1999).

Anderson, G. P.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Jr., S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348-353 (1999).

P. K. Acharya, A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, N. F. Larsen, S.-C. Tsay, and K. H. Stamnes, “MODTRAN 4: multiple scattering and bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) upgrades to MODTRAN,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 354-362 (1999).

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, J. H. Chetwynd, and S. M. Adler-Golden, “MODTRAN cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to AVIRIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 367-375 (1998).

Barker, H.

R. F. Cahalan, L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, K. F. Evans, A. Davis, R. Pincus, K. Yetzer, B. Mayer, R. Davies, T. Ackerman, H. Barker, E. Clothiaux, R. Ellingson, M. Garay, E. Kassianov, S. Kinne, A. Macke, W. O'Hirok, P. Partain, S. Prigarin, A. Rublev, G. Stephens, F. Szczap, E. Takara, T. Várnai, G. Wen, and T. Zhuravleva, “The I3RC: bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 1275-1293 (2005)..
[CrossRef]

Ben-David, A.

Berk, A.

P. K. Acharya, A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, N. F. Larsen, S.-C. Tsay, and K. H. Stamnes, “MODTRAN 4: multiple scattering and bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) upgrades to MODTRAN,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 354-362 (1999).

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Jr., S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348-353 (1999).

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, J. H. Chetwynd, and S. M. Adler-Golden, “MODTRAN cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to AVIRIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 367-375 (1998).

Bernstein, L. S.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Jr., S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348-353 (1999).

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, J. H. Chetwynd, and S. M. Adler-Golden, “MODTRAN cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to AVIRIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 367-375 (1998).

Bréon, F.-M.

F.-M. Bréon, “Reflectance of broken cloud fields: simulation and parameterization,” J. Atmos. Sci. 49, 1221-1232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bruniquel-Pinel, V.

J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. E. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, “Third radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111 (2007) .
[CrossRef]

Cahalan, R. F.

R. F. Cahalan, L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, K. F. Evans, A. Davis, R. Pincus, K. Yetzer, B. Mayer, R. Davies, T. Ackerman, H. Barker, E. Clothiaux, R. Ellingson, M. Garay, E. Kassianov, S. Kinne, A. Macke, W. O'Hirok, P. Partain, S. Prigarin, A. Rublev, G. Stephens, F. Szczap, E. Takara, T. Várnai, G. Wen, and T. Zhuravleva, “The I3RC: bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 1275-1293 (2005)..
[CrossRef]

Cairns, B.

A. A. Lacis, J. Chowdhary, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cairns, “Modeling errors in diffuse-sky radiation: vector vs. scalar treatment,” J. Geophys. Res. 25,135-138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Caudill, T. R.

Chetwynd, J. H.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Jr., S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348-353 (1999).

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, J. H. Chetwynd, and S. M. Adler-Golden, “MODTRAN cloud and multiple scattering upgrades with application to AVIRIS,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 367-375 (1998).

Chowdhary, J.

A. A. Lacis, J. Chowdhary, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cairns, “Modeling errors in diffuse-sky radiation: vector vs. scalar treatment,” J. Geophys. Res. 25,135-138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clothiaux, E.

R. F. Cahalan, L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, K. F. Evans, A. Davis, R. Pincus, K. Yetzer, B. Mayer, R. Davies, T. Ackerman, H. Barker, E. Clothiaux, R. Ellingson, M. Garay, E. Kassianov, S. Kinne, A. Macke, W. O'Hirok, P. Partain, S. Prigarin, A. Rublev, G. Stephens, F. Szczap, E. Takara, T. Várnai, G. Wen, and T. Zhuravleva, “The I3RC: bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 1275-1293 (2005)..
[CrossRef]

Coulson, K. L.

K. L. Coulson, J. V. Dave, and Z. Sekera, Tables Related to Radiation Emerging from a Planetary Atmosphere with Rayleigh Scattering (U. California Press, 1960).

Dave, J. V.

K. L. Coulson, J. V. Dave, and Z. Sekera, Tables Related to Radiation Emerging from a Planetary Atmosphere with Rayleigh Scattering (U. California Press, 1960).

Davies, R.

R. F. Cahalan, L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, K. F. Evans, A. Davis, R. Pincus, K. Yetzer, B. Mayer, R. Davies, T. Ackerman, H. Barker, E. Clothiaux, R. Ellingson, M. Garay, E. Kassianov, S. Kinne, A. Macke, W. O'Hirok, P. Partain, S. Prigarin, A. Rublev, G. Stephens, F. Szczap, E. Takara, T. Várnai, G. Wen, and T. Zhuravleva, “The I3RC: bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 1275-1293 (2005)..
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R. F. Cahalan, L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, K. F. Evans, A. Davis, R. Pincus, K. Yetzer, B. Mayer, R. Davies, T. Ackerman, H. Barker, E. Clothiaux, R. Ellingson, M. Garay, E. Kassianov, S. Kinne, A. Macke, W. O'Hirok, P. Partain, S. Prigarin, A. Rublev, G. Stephens, F. Szczap, E. Takara, T. Várnai, G. Wen, and T. Zhuravleva, “The I3RC: bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 1275-1293 (2005)..
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J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. E. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, “Third radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111 (2007) .
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A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Jr., S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348-353 (1999).

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O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle non-sphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, 1-34 (2006).

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).

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O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle non-sphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, 1-34 (2006).

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).

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E. F. Vermote, N. Z. El Saleous, and C. O. Justice, “Atmospheric correction of MODIS data in the visible to middle infrared: first results,” Remote Sens. Environ. 83, 97-111(2002).

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R. F. Cahalan, L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, K. F. Evans, A. Davis, R. Pincus, K. Yetzer, B. Mayer, R. Davies, T. Ackerman, H. Barker, E. Clothiaux, R. Ellingson, M. Garay, E. Kassianov, S. Kinne, A. Macke, W. O'Hirok, P. Partain, S. Prigarin, A. Rublev, G. Stephens, F. Szczap, E. Takara, T. Várnai, G. Wen, and T. Zhuravleva, “The I3RC: bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 1275-1293 (2005)..
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R. F. Cahalan, L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, K. F. Evans, A. Davis, R. Pincus, K. Yetzer, B. Mayer, R. Davies, T. Ackerman, H. Barker, E. Clothiaux, R. Ellingson, M. Garay, E. Kassianov, S. Kinne, A. Macke, W. O'Hirok, P. Partain, S. Prigarin, A. Rublev, G. Stephens, F. Szczap, E. Takara, T. Várnai, G. Wen, and T. Zhuravleva, “The I3RC: bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 1275-1293 (2005)..
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J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. E. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, “Third radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111 (2007) .
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Garay, M.

R. F. Cahalan, L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, K. F. Evans, A. Davis, R. Pincus, K. Yetzer, B. Mayer, R. Davies, T. Ackerman, H. Barker, E. Clothiaux, R. Ellingson, M. Garay, E. Kassianov, S. Kinne, A. Macke, W. O'Hirok, P. Partain, S. Prigarin, A. Rublev, G. Stephens, F. Szczap, E. Takara, T. Várnai, G. Wen, and T. Zhuravleva, “The I3RC: bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 1275-1293 (2005)..
[CrossRef]

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J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. E. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, “Third radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111 (2007) .
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Gobron, N.

J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. E. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, “Third radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111 (2007) .
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Herman, J. R.

N. C. Hsu, S.-C. Tsay, M. D. King, and J. R. Herman, “Aerosol properties over bright-reflecting source regions,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 557- 569 (2004).

Herman, M.

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuzé, M. Herman, J. J. Morcrette, S. Y. Kotchenova, and T. Miura, Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum (6S), 6S user guide version 3, November 2006, http://6s.ltdri.org.

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Hoke, M. L.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Jr., S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348-353 (1999).

Holben, B.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).

Holben, B. N.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle non-sphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, 1-34 (2006).

Hsu, N. C.

N. C. Hsu, S.-C. Tsay, M. D. King, and J. R. Herman, “Aerosol properties over bright-reflecting source regions,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 557- 569 (2004).

Jayaweera, K.

Jeong, L. S.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Jr., S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348-353 (1999).

Justice, C. O.

E. F. Vermote, N. Z. El Saleous, and C. O. Justice, “Atmospheric correction of MODIS data in the visible to middle infrared: first results,” Remote Sens. Environ. 83, 97-111(2002).

Kassianov, E.

R. F. Cahalan, L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, K. F. Evans, A. Davis, R. Pincus, K. Yetzer, B. Mayer, R. Davies, T. Ackerman, H. Barker, E. Clothiaux, R. Ellingson, M. Garay, E. Kassianov, S. Kinne, A. Macke, W. O'Hirok, P. Partain, S. Prigarin, A. Rublev, G. Stephens, F. Szczap, E. Takara, T. Várnai, G. Wen, and T. Zhuravleva, “The I3RC: bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 1275-1293 (2005)..
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y.

R. C. Levy, L. A. Remer, S. Mattoo, E. F. Vermote, and Y. Kaufman, “Second-generation algorithm for retrieving aerosol properties over land from MODIS spectral reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D13211 (2007). .
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y. J.

R. C. Levy, L. A. Remer, and Y. J. Kaufman, “Effects of neglecting polarization on the MODIS aerosol retrieval over land,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 2576-2583 (2004).

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).

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M.-J. Kim, G. M. Skofronick-Jackson, and J. A. Weiman, “Intercomparison of millimeter-wave radiative transfer models,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42 (9), 1882-1890(2004).

King, M. D.

N. C. Hsu, S.-C. Tsay, M. D. King, and J. R. Herman, “Aerosol properties over bright-reflecting source regions,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 557- 569 (2004).

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).

Kinne, S.

R. F. Cahalan, L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, K. F. Evans, A. Davis, R. Pincus, K. Yetzer, B. Mayer, R. Davies, T. Ackerman, H. Barker, E. Clothiaux, R. Ellingson, M. Garay, E. Kassianov, S. Kinne, A. Macke, W. O'Hirok, P. Partain, S. Prigarin, A. Rublev, G. Stephens, F. Szczap, E. Takara, T. Várnai, G. Wen, and T. Zhuravleva, “The I3RC: bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 1275-1293 (2005)..
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Kotchenova, S. Y.

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuzé, M. Herman, J. J. Morcrette, S. Y. Kotchenova, and T. Miura, Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum (6S), 6S user guide version 3, November 2006, http://6s.ltdri.org.

S. Y. Kotchenova and Vermote, “Validation of a vector version of the 6S radiative transfer code for atmospheric correction of satellite data. Part II: Lambertian and anisotropic surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 46, 4455-4464 (2007).

S. Y. Kotchenova, E. F. Vermote, R. Matarrese, and F. Klemm, “Validation of a vector version of the 6S radiative transfer code for atmospheric correction of satellite data. Part I: path radiance,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6762-6774 (2006).

S. Y. Kotchenova and E. F. Vermote, “A vector version of the 6S radiative transfer code for atmospheric correction of satellite data: an Overview,” presented at 29th Review of Atmospheric Transmission Models Meeting, Lexington, Mass., USA, (13-14 June 2007).

Kuusk, A.

J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. E. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, “Third radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111 (2007) .
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A. A. Lacis, J. Chowdhary, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cairns, “Modeling errors in diffuse-sky radiation: vector vs. scalar treatment,” J. Geophys. Res. 25,135-138 (1998).
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M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, and L. D. Travis, “Errors induced by the neglect of polarization in radiance calculations for Rayleigh-scattering atmospheres,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 491-510 (1994).

Lapyonok, T.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle non-sphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, 1-34 (2006).

Larsen, N. F.

P. K. Acharya, A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, N. F. Larsen, S.-C. Tsay, and K. H. Stamnes, “MODTRAN 4: multiple scattering and bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) upgrades to MODTRAN,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 354-362 (1999).

Laszlo, I.

K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, and I. Laszlo, “DISORT, a general-purpose FORTRAN program for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in scattering and emitting layered media: documentation of methodology,” version 1.1 (March 2000), available as “DISORTReport1.1.pdf” at ftp://climate1.gsfc.nasa.gov/wiscombe/Multiple_Scatt/.
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Lavergne, T.

J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. E. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, “Third radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111 (2007) .
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Leblanc, S.

J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. E. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, “Third radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111 (2007) .
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Leon, J.-F.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle non-sphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, 1-34 (2006).

Levy, R. C.

R. C. Levy, L. A. Remer, S. Mattoo, E. F. Vermote, and Y. Kaufman, “Second-generation algorithm for retrieving aerosol properties over land from MODIS spectral reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D13211 (2007). .
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R. C. Levy, L. A. Remer, and Y. J. Kaufman, “Effects of neglecting polarization on the MODIS aerosol retrieval over land,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 2576-2583 (2004).

Lewis, P. E.

J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. E. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, “Third radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111 (2007) .
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Lyapustin, A. I.

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Macke, A.

R. F. Cahalan, L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, K. F. Evans, A. Davis, R. Pincus, K. Yetzer, B. Mayer, R. Davies, T. Ackerman, H. Barker, E. Clothiaux, R. Ellingson, M. Garay, E. Kassianov, S. Kinne, A. Macke, W. O'Hirok, P. Partain, S. Prigarin, A. Rublev, G. Stephens, F. Szczap, E. Takara, T. Várnai, G. Wen, and T. Zhuravleva, “The I3RC: bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 1275-1293 (2005)..
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Marshak, A.

R. F. Cahalan, L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, K. F. Evans, A. Davis, R. Pincus, K. Yetzer, B. Mayer, R. Davies, T. Ackerman, H. Barker, E. Clothiaux, R. Ellingson, M. Garay, E. Kassianov, S. Kinne, A. Macke, W. O'Hirok, P. Partain, S. Prigarin, A. Rublev, G. Stephens, F. Szczap, E. Takara, T. Várnai, G. Wen, and T. Zhuravleva, “The I3RC: bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 1275-1293 (2005)..
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Martin, E.

J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. E. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, “Third radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111 (2007) .
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Matarrese, R.

Matthew, M. W.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, L. S. Bernstein, P. K. Acharya, H. Dothe, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, Jr., S. C. Richtsmeier, B. Pukall, C. L. Allred, L. S. Jeong, and M. L. Hoke, “MODTRAN4 radiative transfer modeling for atmospheric correction,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 348-353 (1999).

Mattoo, S.

R. C. Levy, L. A. Remer, S. Mattoo, E. F. Vermote, and Y. Kaufman, “Second-generation algorithm for retrieving aerosol properties over land from MODIS spectral reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D13211 (2007). .
[CrossRef]

Mayer, B.

R. F. Cahalan, L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, K. F. Evans, A. Davis, R. Pincus, K. Yetzer, B. Mayer, R. Davies, T. Ackerman, H. Barker, E. Clothiaux, R. Ellingson, M. Garay, E. Kassianov, S. Kinne, A. Macke, W. O'Hirok, P. Partain, S. Prigarin, A. Rublev, G. Stephens, F. Szczap, E. Takara, T. Várnai, G. Wen, and T. Zhuravleva, “The I3RC: bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 1275-1293 (2005)..
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Mishchenko, M.

O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle non-sphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, 1-34 (2006).

Mishchenko, M. I.

A. A. Lacis, J. Chowdhary, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cairns, “Modeling errors in diffuse-sky radiation: vector vs. scalar treatment,” J. Geophys. Res. 25,135-138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, A. A. Lacis, and L. D. Travis, “Errors induced by the neglect of polarization in radiance calculations for Rayleigh-scattering atmospheres,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 491-510 (1994).

Miura, T.

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuzé, M. Herman, J. J. Morcrette, S. Y. Kotchenova, and T. Miura, Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum (6S), 6S user guide version 3, November 2006, http://6s.ltdri.org.

Morcrette, J. J.

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuzé, M. Herman, J. J. Morcrette, S. Y. Kotchenova, and T. Miura, Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum (6S), 6S user guide version 3, November 2006, http://6s.ltdri.org.

Mõttus, M.

J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. E. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, “Third radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111 (2007) .
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[CrossRef]

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J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. E. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, “Third radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111 (2007) .
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R. F. Cahalan, L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, K. F. Evans, A. Davis, R. Pincus, K. Yetzer, B. Mayer, R. Davies, T. Ackerman, H. Barker, E. Clothiaux, R. Ellingson, M. Garay, E. Kassianov, S. Kinne, A. Macke, W. O'Hirok, P. Partain, S. Prigarin, A. Rublev, G. Stephens, F. Szczap, E. Takara, T. Várnai, G. Wen, and T. Zhuravleva, “The I3RC: bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 1275-1293 (2005)..
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R. F. Cahalan, L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, K. F. Evans, A. Davis, R. Pincus, K. Yetzer, B. Mayer, R. Davies, T. Ackerman, H. Barker, E. Clothiaux, R. Ellingson, M. Garay, E. Kassianov, S. Kinne, A. Macke, W. O'Hirok, P. Partain, S. Prigarin, A. Rublev, G. Stephens, F. Szczap, E. Takara, T. Várnai, G. Wen, and T. Zhuravleva, “The I3RC: bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 1275-1293 (2005)..
[CrossRef]

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R. F. Cahalan, L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, K. F. Evans, A. Davis, R. Pincus, K. Yetzer, B. Mayer, R. Davies, T. Ackerman, H. Barker, E. Clothiaux, R. Ellingson, M. Garay, E. Kassianov, S. Kinne, A. Macke, W. O'Hirok, P. Partain, S. Prigarin, A. Rublev, G. Stephens, F. Szczap, E. Takara, T. Várnai, G. Wen, and T. Zhuravleva, “The I3RC: bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 1275-1293 (2005)..
[CrossRef]

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R. F. Cahalan, L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, K. F. Evans, A. Davis, R. Pincus, K. Yetzer, B. Mayer, R. Davies, T. Ackerman, H. Barker, E. Clothiaux, R. Ellingson, M. Garay, E. Kassianov, S. Kinne, A. Macke, W. O'Hirok, P. Partain, S. Prigarin, A. Rublev, G. Stephens, F. Szczap, E. Takara, T. Várnai, G. Wen, and T. Zhuravleva, “The I3RC: bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 1275-1293 (2005)..
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J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. E. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, “Third radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111 (2007) .
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J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. E. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, “Third radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111 (2007) .
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R. F. Cahalan, L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, K. F. Evans, A. Davis, R. Pincus, K. Yetzer, B. Mayer, R. Davies, T. Ackerman, H. Barker, E. Clothiaux, R. Ellingson, M. Garay, E. Kassianov, S. Kinne, A. Macke, W. O'Hirok, P. Partain, S. Prigarin, A. Rublev, G. Stephens, F. Szczap, E. Takara, T. Várnai, G. Wen, and T. Zhuravleva, “The I3RC: bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 1275-1293 (2005)..
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O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle non-sphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, 1-34 (2006).

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O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590-608 (2002).

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J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. E. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, “Third radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111 (2007) .
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O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle non-sphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, 1-34 (2006).

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P. K. Acharya, A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, N. F. Larsen, S.-C. Tsay, and K. H. Stamnes, “MODTRAN 4: multiple scattering and bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) upgrades to MODTRAN,” Proc. SPIE 3756, 354-362 (1999).

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R. F. Cahalan, L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, K. F. Evans, A. Davis, R. Pincus, K. Yetzer, B. Mayer, R. Davies, T. Ackerman, H. Barker, E. Clothiaux, R. Ellingson, M. Garay, E. Kassianov, S. Kinne, A. Macke, W. O'Hirok, P. Partain, S. Prigarin, A. Rublev, G. Stephens, F. Szczap, E. Takara, T. Várnai, G. Wen, and T. Zhuravleva, “The I3RC: bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 1275-1293 (2005)..
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R. F. Cahalan, L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, K. F. Evans, A. Davis, R. Pincus, K. Yetzer, B. Mayer, R. Davies, T. Ackerman, H. Barker, E. Clothiaux, R. Ellingson, M. Garay, E. Kassianov, S. Kinne, A. Macke, W. O'Hirok, P. Partain, S. Prigarin, A. Rublev, G. Stephens, F. Szczap, E. Takara, T. Várnai, G. Wen, and T. Zhuravleva, “The I3RC: bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 1275-1293 (2005)..
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R. F. Cahalan, L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, K. F. Evans, A. Davis, R. Pincus, K. Yetzer, B. Mayer, R. Davies, T. Ackerman, H. Barker, E. Clothiaux, R. Ellingson, M. Garay, E. Kassianov, S. Kinne, A. Macke, W. O'Hirok, P. Partain, S. Prigarin, A. Rublev, G. Stephens, F. Szczap, E. Takara, T. Várnai, G. Wen, and T. Zhuravleva, “The I3RC: bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 1275-1293 (2005)..
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J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. E. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, “Third radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111 (2007) .
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O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle non-sphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, 1-34 (2006).

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R. F. Cahalan, L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, K. F. Evans, A. Davis, R. Pincus, K. Yetzer, B. Mayer, R. Davies, T. Ackerman, H. Barker, E. Clothiaux, R. Ellingson, M. Garay, E. Kassianov, S. Kinne, A. Macke, W. O'Hirok, P. Partain, S. Prigarin, A. Rublev, G. Stephens, F. Szczap, E. Takara, T. Várnai, G. Wen, and T. Zhuravleva, “The I3RC: bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 1275-1293 (2005)..
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O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle non-sphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, 1-34 (2006).

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J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. E. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, “Third radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111 (2007) .
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E. F. Vermote, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuzé, M. Herman, J. J. Morcrette, S. Y. Kotchenova, and T. Miura, Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum (6S), 6S user guide version 3, November 2006, http://6s.ltdri.org.

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J.-L. Widlowski, M. Taberner, B. Pinty, V. Bruniquel-Pinel, M. Disney, R. Fernandes, J.-P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, N. Gobron, A. Kuusk, T. Lavergne, S. Leblanc, P. E. Lewis, E. Martin, M. Mõttus, P. R. J. North, W. Qin, M. Robustelli, N. Rochdi, R. Ruiloba, C. Soler, R. Thompson, W. Verhoef, M. M. Verstraete, and D. Xie, “Third radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: documenting progress in canopy reflectance models,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D09111 (2007) .
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O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Munoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J.-F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle non-sphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, 1-34 (2006).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison scheme for a molecular atmosphere.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Results of the comparison with Coulson’s tabulated values for a molecular atmosphere with the optical thickness τ mol = { 0.1 ; 0.25 ; 0.5 } bounded by a Lambertian surface with the reflectance ρ = { 0.0 ; 0.25 } . The geometrical configurations used are listed in Table 1. Note that the errors of 6SV1 and RT3 are too small to be distinctively seen in the plots.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of the comparison between 6SV1 and Monte Carlo for a molecular atmosphere with τ mol = 0.25 bounded by a Lambertian surface with ρ surf = { 0.0 ; 0.25 } . SZA = { 0.0 ; 23.0 ° ; 50.0 ° } . The hemispherical space at the TOA is divided into a number of solid angles. The boundary VZA angles are shown as angular coordinates. The AZ space is equally divided into eight angles. The radius coordinate designates the relative difference between 6SV1 and Monte Carlo TOA reflectances.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison scheme for aerosol and mixed atmospheres.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results of the testing of 6SV1 against the MC code for the UI aerosol atmosphere with τ aer = { 0.2 ; 0.8 } , bounded by black surface. SZA = { 0.0 ; 23.0 ° ; 50.0 ° } , λ = 412 nm . The geometric configuration is explained in the caption for Fig. 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Results of the comparison of RT3, MODTRAN, and SHARM with 6SV1 for the UI aerosol model for all combinations of λ and τ aer listed in Table 2. 6SV1 is used as a reference code.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Results of the comparison between SHARM and MODTRAN for the UI aerosol model for λ = 440 nm . SS, single scattering; MS, multiple scattering. SHARM is used as a reference code.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Results of the testing of 6SV1 against the MC code for a mixed atmosphere bounded by a black surface. The aerosol is presented by the AS model, τ aer = { 0.2 ; 0.8 } , SZA = { 0.0 ; 23.0 ° ; 50.0 ° } , and λ = 412 nm . The geometric configuration is explained in the caption for Fig. 4.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Results of the comparison of RT3, MODTRAN, and SHARM with 6SV1 for a mixed atmosphere bounded by a black surface. The aerosol constituent is represented by the AS model; τ mol = { 0.303 ; 0.232 ; 0.042 } for λ = { 412 ; 440 ; 670 } nm , respectively. 6SV1 is used as a reference for all codes.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Errors in AOT ( τ aer ) retrievals obtained for six cases of a mixed atmosphere bounded by black surface. The aerosol is represented by the AF model. Each error value is averaged over three azimuths, AZ = { 0.0 ° ; 90.0 ° ; 180.0 ° } .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Errors in surface reflectance ( ρ surf ) retrievals obtained for six cases of a mixed atmosphere bounded by a Lambertian surface with the reflectance of 0.05. The aerosol is presented by the AF model. Each error value is averaged over three azimuths, AZ = { 0.0 ° ; 90.0 ° ; 180.0 ° } .

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Conditions of Comparison with Coulson’s Tabulated Values for a Molecular Atmosphere a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters of Aerosol Models Used in the Comparison a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Geometric Conditions for the Comparison of RT3, MODTRAN, and SHARM with 6SV1 for an Aerosol Atmosphere a

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ mol ( θ v , τ mol , ρ surf ) = 1 9 SZA AZ | ρ Coul ( θ s , θ v , ϕ , τ mol , ρ surf ) ρ code ( θ s , θ v , ϕ , τ mol , ρ surf ) | ρ Coul ( θ s , θ v , ϕ , τ mol , ρ surf ) × 100 % ,
τ mol ( z ) = τ mol ( 0 ) exp ( z / H mol ) , τ aer ( z ) = τ aer ( 0 ) exp ( z / H aer ) ,
η mol ( z ) = τ mol ( z ) / [ τ mol ( z ) + τ aer ( z ) ] , η aer ( z ) = τ aer ( z ) [ τ mol ( z ) + τ aer ( z ) ] .
ρ bm ( τ aer ) = ρ code ( τ aer ) + Δ ρ code ( τ aer ) ,
ρ bm ( τ aer ) = ρ code ( τ aer 1 ) .
Δ ρ code ( τ aer ) = ρ code ( τ aer 1 ) ρ code ( τ aer ) τ aer 1 τ aer ( τ aer 1 τ aer ) α ( τ aer ) Δ τ aer ,
ρ bm ( τ aer ) = ρ code ( τ aer ) + α ( τ aer ) Δ τ aer ,
Δ τ aer = ρ bm ( τ aer ) ρ code ( τ aer ) α ( τ aer ) .
Δ ρ surf = ρ bm ( ρ surf ) ρ code ( ρ surf ) α ( ρ surf ) .

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