Abstract

A display system that simultaneously displays two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) images using a pinhole array on a liquid crystal (LC) panel is proposed. Using the transparent structure of the LC panel, the system can generate or eliminate pinholes electrically and can display a 3D image in a selectable specific area of the display panel, while 2D images are displayed on the rest of the screen. An analysis showing the advantages and limitations of the proposed system is provided. Finally, the proposed principle is proven by experimental results.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrale,” C. R. Acad, Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).
  2. Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Display, T. -C. Poon, ed. (Springer, 2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yuyama, “Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1598-1603 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S.-S. Kim, K. Sohn, V. Savaljev, E. F. Pen, J.-Y. Son, and J. Chun, “Optical design and analysis for super multiview three-dimensional imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 4297, 222-226 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 94, 591-607 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J.-H. Park, H.-R. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, J. Hong, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2734-2736 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S.-W. Cho, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Convertible two-dimensional-three-dimensional display using an LED array based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2852-2854 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Choi, S.-W. Cho, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “A thin 3D-2D convertible integral imaging system using a pinhole array on a polarizer,” Opt. Express 14, 5183-5190 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Choi, Y. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “A 3D/2D convertible display with pinhole array on a LC panel,” in Proceeding of the 13th International Display Workshops, Vol. 2 (Society for Information Display, 2006), pp. 1361-1364.
  10. D.-S. Kim, S. D. Se, K. H. Cha, and J. P. Ku, “2D/3D compatible display by autostereoscopy,” in Proceeding of the K-IDS Three-Dimensional Display Workshop 2006 (Korean Information Display Society, 2006), pp. 17-22.
  11. O. H. Willemsen, S. T. de Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, D. K. G. de Boer, and M. P. C. M. Krijn, “Multi-view 3D displays,” in Proceedings of Society for Information Display 2007 (Society for Information Display, 2007), pp. 1154-1157.
  12. Y. Kim, J. Kim, J.-M. Kang, J.-H. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Point light source integral imaging with improved resolution and viewing angle by the use of electrically movable pinhole array,” Opt. Express 15, 18253-18267 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

O. H. Willemsen, S. T. de Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, D. K. G. de Boer, and M. P. C. M. Krijn, “Multi-view 3D displays,” in Proceedings of Society for Information Display 2007 (Society for Information Display, 2007), pp. 1154-1157.

Y. Kim, J. Kim, J.-M. Kang, J.-H. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Point light source integral imaging with improved resolution and viewing angle by the use of electrically movable pinhole array,” Opt. Express 15, 18253-18267 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (6)

A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 94, 591-607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Display, T. -C. Poon, ed. (Springer, 2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Cho, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Convertible two-dimensional-three-dimensional display using an LED array based on modified integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2852-2854 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Choi, S.-W. Cho, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “A thin 3D-2D convertible integral imaging system using a pinhole array on a polarizer,” Opt. Express 14, 5183-5190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Choi, Y. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “A 3D/2D convertible display with pinhole array on a LC panel,” in Proceeding of the 13th International Display Workshops, Vol. 2 (Society for Information Display, 2006), pp. 1361-1364.

D.-S. Kim, S. D. Se, K. H. Cha, and J. P. Ku, “2D/3D compatible display by autostereoscopy,” in Proceeding of the K-IDS Three-Dimensional Display Workshop 2006 (Korean Information Display Society, 2006), pp. 17-22.

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

S.-S. Kim, K. Sohn, V. Savaljev, E. F. Pen, J.-Y. Son, and J. Chun, “Optical design and analysis for super multiview three-dimensional imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 4297, 222-226 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1908 (1)

G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrale,” C. R. Acad, Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

Arai, J.

Cha, K. H.

D.-S. Kim, S. D. Se, K. H. Cha, and J. P. Ku, “2D/3D compatible display by autostereoscopy,” in Proceeding of the K-IDS Three-Dimensional Display Workshop 2006 (Korean Information Display Society, 2006), pp. 17-22.

Cho, S.-W.

Choi, H.

Chun, J.

S.-S. Kim, K. Sohn, V. Savaljev, E. F. Pen, J.-Y. Son, and J. Chun, “Optical design and analysis for super multiview three-dimensional imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 4297, 222-226 (2001).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, D. K. G.

O. H. Willemsen, S. T. de Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, D. K. G. de Boer, and M. P. C. M. Krijn, “Multi-view 3D displays,” in Proceedings of Society for Information Display 2007 (Society for Information Display, 2007), pp. 1154-1157.

de Zwart, S. T.

O. H. Willemsen, S. T. de Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, D. K. G. de Boer, and M. P. C. M. Krijn, “Multi-view 3D displays,” in Proceedings of Society for Information Display 2007 (Society for Information Display, 2007), pp. 1154-1157.

Hiddink, M. G. H.

O. H. Willemsen, S. T. de Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, D. K. G. de Boer, and M. P. C. M. Krijn, “Multi-view 3D displays,” in Proceedings of Society for Information Display 2007 (Society for Information Display, 2007), pp. 1154-1157.

Hong, J.

Hoshino, H.

Javidi, B.

A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 94, 591-607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jung, J.-H.

Kang, J.-M.

Kim, D.-S.

D.-S. Kim, S. D. Se, K. H. Cha, and J. P. Ku, “2D/3D compatible display by autostereoscopy,” in Proceeding of the K-IDS Three-Dimensional Display Workshop 2006 (Korean Information Display Society, 2006), pp. 17-22.

Kim, H.-R.

Kim, J.

Kim, S.-S.

S.-S. Kim, K. Sohn, V. Savaljev, E. F. Pen, J.-Y. Son, and J. Chun, “Optical design and analysis for super multiview three-dimensional imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 4297, 222-226 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

Krijn, M. P. C. M.

O. H. Willemsen, S. T. de Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, D. K. G. de Boer, and M. P. C. M. Krijn, “Multi-view 3D displays,” in Proceedings of Society for Information Display 2007 (Society for Information Display, 2007), pp. 1154-1157.

Ku, J. P.

D.-S. Kim, S. D. Se, K. H. Cha, and J. P. Ku, “2D/3D compatible display by autostereoscopy,” in Proceeding of the K-IDS Three-Dimensional Display Workshop 2006 (Korean Information Display Society, 2006), pp. 17-22.

Lee, B.

Lee, S.-D.

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrale,” C. R. Acad, Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

Okano, F.

Park, J.-H.

Pen, E. F.

S.-S. Kim, K. Sohn, V. Savaljev, E. F. Pen, J.-Y. Son, and J. Chun, “Optical design and analysis for super multiview three-dimensional imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 4297, 222-226 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Savaljev, V.

S.-S. Kim, K. Sohn, V. Savaljev, E. F. Pen, J.-Y. Son, and J. Chun, “Optical design and analysis for super multiview three-dimensional imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 4297, 222-226 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Se, S. D.

D.-S. Kim, S. D. Se, K. H. Cha, and J. P. Ku, “2D/3D compatible display by autostereoscopy,” in Proceeding of the K-IDS Three-Dimensional Display Workshop 2006 (Korean Information Display Society, 2006), pp. 17-22.

Sohn, K.

S.-S. Kim, K. Sohn, V. Savaljev, E. F. Pen, J.-Y. Son, and J. Chun, “Optical design and analysis for super multiview three-dimensional imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 4297, 222-226 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Son, J.-Y.

S.-S. Kim, K. Sohn, V. Savaljev, E. F. Pen, J.-Y. Son, and J. Chun, “Optical design and analysis for super multiview three-dimensional imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 4297, 222-226 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stern, A.

A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 94, 591-607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Willemsen, O. H.

O. H. Willemsen, S. T. de Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, D. K. G. de Boer, and M. P. C. M. Krijn, “Multi-view 3D displays,” in Proceedings of Society for Information Display 2007 (Society for Information Display, 2007), pp. 1154-1157.

Yuyama, I.

Appl. Opt. (1)

C. R. Acad, Sci. (1)

G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrale,” C. R. Acad, Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. IEEE (1)

A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 94, 591-607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S.-S. Kim, K. Sohn, V. Savaljev, E. F. Pen, J.-Y. Son, and J. Chun, “Optical design and analysis for super multiview three-dimensional imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 4297, 222-226 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Display, T. -C. Poon, ed. (Springer, 2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, Y. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “A 3D/2D convertible display with pinhole array on a LC panel,” in Proceeding of the 13th International Display Workshops, Vol. 2 (Society for Information Display, 2006), pp. 1361-1364.

D.-S. Kim, S. D. Se, K. H. Cha, and J. P. Ku, “2D/3D compatible display by autostereoscopy,” in Proceeding of the K-IDS Three-Dimensional Display Workshop 2006 (Korean Information Display Society, 2006), pp. 17-22.

O. H. Willemsen, S. T. de Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, D. K. G. de Boer, and M. P. C. M. Krijn, “Multi-view 3D displays,” in Proceedings of Society for Information Display 2007 (Society for Information Display, 2007), pp. 1154-1157.

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of the proposed 2D–3D convertible system: (a) device setting and (b) polarizer setting.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Basic principles of (a) full 3D mode and (b) full 2D mode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Principle of the 2D–3D mixed mode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PALC in (a) full 3D mode (pinhole array), (b) full 2D mode (white screen), and (c) partial 3D mode with white-level adjustment (pinhole array/gray screen).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Principle of 3D display using the PALC and the DLC.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of aperture ratios when (a)  N H = N V = 2 and (b)  N H = N V = 4 .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measuring brightness with changing N H and N V .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relationship between T 3 D / T 2 D and N H N V and experimental results. Dashed line is the calculated data and the dots are experimental data.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

γ curves of PALC when γ = 1 and γ = 2.2 .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimental setup.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Elemental images and 2D image of partial 3D mode; (b) pinhole array in PALC with gray screen.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Experimental results of 2D–3D mixed mode.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Principle of local resolution degradation when the observer is (a) at the center viewpoint and (b) at the upper viewpoint.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Experimental pictures of area with degraded resolution in 2D images.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(a) Elemental images surrounded by black backgrounds; (b) pinhole array in PALC with gray screen.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Experimental results of 2D–3D mixed mode without local resolution degradation of 2D background.

Equations (5)

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R 3 D _ H = R 2 D _ H N H ,
R 3 D _ V = R 2 D _ V N V ,
T 3 D T 2 D = 1 N H N V .
T PALC T 2 D = ( Gray Level 255 ) γ .
Gray Level = 255 ( N H N V ) 1 / γ .

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