Abstract

For the first time femtosecond-laser writing has inscribed low-loss optical waveguides in Schott BK7 glass, a commercially important type of borosilicate widely used in optical applications. The use of a variable repetition rate laser enabled the identification of a narrow processing window at 1MHz repetition rate with optimal waveguides exhibiting propagation losses of 0.3dB/cm and efficient mode matching to standard optical fibers at a 1550nm wavelength. The waveguides were characterized by complementary phase contrast and optical transmission microscopy, identifying a micrometer-sized guiding region within a larger complex structure of both positive and negative refractive index variations.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]

2007

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 21-27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Heating and rapid cooling of bulk glass after photoexcitation by a focused femtosecond laser pulse,” Opt. Express 15, 16800-16807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, I. Maxwell, J. B. Ashcom, and E. Mazur, “Optical loss measurements in femtosecond laser written waveguides in glass,” Opt. Commun. 259, 626-630(2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, E. Audouard, N. Bulgakova, and I. V. Hertel, “Direct observation of femtosecond laser induced modifications in the bulk of fused silica by phase contrast microscopy,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 1, 155-160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277-285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13, 4708-4716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, V. Maselli, A. Yin, M. Zavelani-Rossi, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, L. Aiello, S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, and G. Pierattini, “Optical properties of waveguides written by a 26 MHz stretched cavity Ti:Sapphire femtosecond oscillator,” Opt. Express 13, 612-620 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. Ehrt, T. Kittel, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond-laser-writing in various glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345, 332-337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, and I. Maksimov, “Thermal accumulation effect in three-dimensional recording by picosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5239-5241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

C. Florea and K. A. Winick, “Fabrication and characterization of photonic devices directly written in glass using femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 246-253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 367-372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, “Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 42-43 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 367-372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 21-27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, and I. Maksimov, “Thermal accumulation effect in three-dimensional recording by picosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5239-5241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277-285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, R. Stoian, A. Rosenfeld, E. Audouard, N. Bulgakova, and I. V. Hertel, “Direct observation of femtosecond laser induced modifications in the bulk of fused silica by phase contrast microscopy,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 1, 155-160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

D. Ehrt, T. Kittel, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond-laser-writing in various glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345, 332-337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Meas. Sci. Technol.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, I. Maxwell, J. B. Ashcom, and E. Mazur, “Optical loss measurements in femtosecond laser written waveguides in glass,” Opt. Commun. 259, 626-630(2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Overhead OTM images of waveguides written at a 75 μm depth, a 0.5 mm / s speed, and repetition rates of (a)  100 kHz , (b)  1 MHz , and (c)  2 MHz . Average power was 200 mW in (a) and 375 mW in (b) and (c).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) PCM and (b) OTM cross-sectional images of waveguides written at a 1 MHz repetition rate with a 375 mW power ( 375 nJ pulse energy), a 1.5 mm / s scan speed, and writing depths of 75, 150, and 300 μm . Laser radiation was incident from the top. Arrows indicate the guiding regions with positive refractive index change.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) PCM and (b) OTM cross-sectional images of waveguides written at 1 MHz with a 375 mW power ( 375 nJ pulse energy), a 150 μm depth, and scan speeds of 0.2, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 mm / s . Laser radiation was incident from the top.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OTM cross-sectional image (right) and corresponding 1550 nm wavelength near-field intensity profile (left) of waveguide fabricated with a 375 mW power, a 1.5 mm / s scan speed, and a 75 μm depth. The arrow indicates the guiding region where the mode was observed.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Waveguide Insertion Loss and MFD at a 1 MHz Repetition Rate and a 375 mW Power

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