## Abstract

The total-field–scattered-field formulation of the finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD) is used to analyze the diffraction of finite incident beams by finite-number-of-periods holographic and surface-relief gratings. Both second-order and fourth-order FDTD formulations are used with various averaging schemes to treat permittivity discontinuities and a comparative study is made with alternative numerical methods. The diffraction efficiencies for gratings of several periods and various beam sizes, for both TE and TM polarization cases, are calculated and the FDTD results are compared with the finite- difference frequency-domain (FDFD) method results in the case of holographic gratings, and with the boundary element method results in the case of surface-relief gratings. Furthermore, the convergence of the FDTD results to the rigorous coupled-wave analysis results is investigated as the number of grating periods and the incident beam size increase.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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