Abstract

The effect of laser pulse duration on the morphology, composition, crystallinity and optical properties of self-organized Si microcones fabricated using 248nm laser pulses (500fs, 5ps and 15ns) in an SF6 atmosphere, is presented in this paper. Despite distinct differences in the morphology, the Si cones show similar structure and composition independently of the laser pulse duration used: a core of single- crystalline Si, covered by a few hundred nanometer thick, sulfur-doped nanocrystalline Si layer, where no amorphous Si is present. The obtained features exhibit strong below-bandgap absorptance, making them excellent candidates for Si based photodetectors with improved spectral response.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, and D. H. Lowndes, “Silicon microcolumn arrays grown by nanosecond pulsed-excimer-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2322-2324 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. H. Lowndes, J. D. Fowlkes, and A. J. Pedraza, “Early stages of pulsed-laser growth of silicon microcolumns and microcones in air and SF6,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 154, 647-658 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Zorba, P. Tzanetakis, C. Fotakis, E. Spanakis, E. Stratakis, D. G. Papazoglou, and I. Zergioti, “Silicon electron emitters fabricated by ultraviolet laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. Zorba, I. Alexandrou, I. Zergioti, A. Manousaki, C. Ducati, A. Neumeister, C. Fotakis, and G. A. J. Amaratunga, “Laser microstructuring of Si surfaces for low-threshold field-electron emission,” Thin Solid Films 453-454, 492-495 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. V. Karabutov, V. D. Frolov, E. N. Loubnin, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, “Low-threshold field electron emission of Si micro-tip arrays produced by laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 413-416 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Zorba, L. Persano, D. Pisignano, A. Athanassiou, E. Stratakis, R. Cingolani, P. Tzanetakis, and C. Fotakis, “Making silicon hydrophobic: wettability control by two-lengthscale simultaneous patterning with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nanotechnology 17, 3234-3238 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farreli, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850-1852 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Genin, “Comparison of structure and properties of femtosecond and nanosecond laser-structured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850-1852 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, M. Y. Shen, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Genin, “Infrared absorption by sulfur-doped silicon formed by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 1635-1641 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Mills and K. W. Kolasinski, “Solidification driven extrusion of spikes during laser melting of silicon pillars,” Nanotechnology 17, 2741-2744 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. F. Egerton, Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy in the Electron Microscope (Plenum Press, 1996).
  12. W. M. Skiff, R. W. Carpenter, and S. H. Lin, “Near-edge fine-structure analysis of core-shell electronic absorption edges in silicon and its refractory compounds with the use of electron-energy-loss microspectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 2439-2449(1987).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Worchl, H. J. Engelmann, W. Blum, and E. Zschech, “Cross-sectional thin film characterization of Si compounds in semiconductor device structures using both elemental and ELNES mapping by EFTEM,” Thin Solid Films 405, 198-204 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. A. Botton and M. W. Phaneuf, “Imaging, spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging with an energy filtered field emission TEM,” Micron 30, 109-119 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Duscher, R. Buczko, S. J. Pennycook, and S. T. Pantelides, “Core-hole effects on energy-loss near-edge structure,” Ultramicroscopy 86, 355-362 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. Hayakawa, T. Fujikawa, and S. Muto, “Experimental and full multiple scattering approaches to energy-loss near-edge structures for c-Si, a-Si and a-Si:H,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 371, 498-503 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2006

V. Zorba, P. Tzanetakis, C. Fotakis, E. Spanakis, E. Stratakis, D. G. Papazoglou, and I. Zergioti, “Silicon electron emitters fabricated by ultraviolet laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Zorba, L. Persano, D. Pisignano, A. Athanassiou, E. Stratakis, R. Cingolani, P. Tzanetakis, and C. Fotakis, “Making silicon hydrophobic: wettability control by two-lengthscale simultaneous patterning with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nanotechnology 17, 3234-3238 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Mills and K. W. Kolasinski, “Solidification driven extrusion of spikes during laser melting of silicon pillars,” Nanotechnology 17, 2741-2744 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Genin, “Comparison of structure and properties of femtosecond and nanosecond laser-structured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850-1852 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, M. Y. Shen, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Genin, “Infrared absorption by sulfur-doped silicon formed by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 1635-1641 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Zorba, I. Alexandrou, I. Zergioti, A. Manousaki, C. Ducati, A. Neumeister, C. Fotakis, and G. A. J. Amaratunga, “Laser microstructuring of Si surfaces for low-threshold field-electron emission,” Thin Solid Films 453-454, 492-495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. V. Karabutov, V. D. Frolov, E. N. Loubnin, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, “Low-threshold field electron emission of Si micro-tip arrays produced by laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 413-416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Hayakawa, T. Fujikawa, and S. Muto, “Experimental and full multiple scattering approaches to energy-loss near-edge structures for c-Si, a-Si and a-Si:H,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 371, 498-503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Worchl, H. J. Engelmann, W. Blum, and E. Zschech, “Cross-sectional thin film characterization of Si compounds in semiconductor device structures using both elemental and ELNES mapping by EFTEM,” Thin Solid Films 405, 198-204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. Duscher, R. Buczko, S. J. Pennycook, and S. T. Pantelides, “Core-hole effects on energy-loss near-edge structure,” Ultramicroscopy 86, 355-362 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farreli, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850-1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. H. Lowndes, J. D. Fowlkes, and A. J. Pedraza, “Early stages of pulsed-laser growth of silicon microcolumns and microcones in air and SF6,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 154, 647-658 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, and D. H. Lowndes, “Silicon microcolumn arrays grown by nanosecond pulsed-excimer-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2322-2324 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Botton and M. W. Phaneuf, “Imaging, spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging with an energy filtered field emission TEM,” Micron 30, 109-119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1987

W. M. Skiff, R. W. Carpenter, and S. H. Lin, “Near-edge fine-structure analysis of core-shell electronic absorption edges in silicon and its refractory compounds with the use of electron-energy-loss microspectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 2439-2449(1987).
[CrossRef]

Alexandrou, I.

V. Zorba, I. Alexandrou, I. Zergioti, A. Manousaki, C. Ducati, A. Neumeister, C. Fotakis, and G. A. J. Amaratunga, “Laser microstructuring of Si surfaces for low-threshold field-electron emission,” Thin Solid Films 453-454, 492-495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Amaratunga, G. A. J.

V. Zorba, I. Alexandrou, I. Zergioti, A. Manousaki, C. Ducati, A. Neumeister, C. Fotakis, and G. A. J. Amaratunga, “Laser microstructuring of Si surfaces for low-threshold field-electron emission,” Thin Solid Films 453-454, 492-495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Athanassiou, A.

V. Zorba, L. Persano, D. Pisignano, A. Athanassiou, E. Stratakis, R. Cingolani, P. Tzanetakis, and C. Fotakis, “Making silicon hydrophobic: wettability control by two-lengthscale simultaneous patterning with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nanotechnology 17, 3234-3238 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aziz, M. J.

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Genin, “Comparison of structure and properties of femtosecond and nanosecond laser-structured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850-1852 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blum, W.

M. Worchl, H. J. Engelmann, W. Blum, and E. Zschech, “Cross-sectional thin film characterization of Si compounds in semiconductor device structures using both elemental and ELNES mapping by EFTEM,” Thin Solid Films 405, 198-204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Botton, G. A.

G. A. Botton and M. W. Phaneuf, “Imaging, spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging with an energy filtered field emission TEM,” Micron 30, 109-119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buczko, R.

G. Duscher, R. Buczko, S. J. Pennycook, and S. T. Pantelides, “Core-hole effects on energy-loss near-edge structure,” Ultramicroscopy 86, 355-362 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carey, J. E.

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Genin, “Comparison of structure and properties of femtosecond and nanosecond laser-structured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850-1852 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, M. Y. Shen, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Genin, “Infrared absorption by sulfur-doped silicon formed by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 1635-1641 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farreli, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850-1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carpenter, R. W.

W. M. Skiff, R. W. Carpenter, and S. H. Lin, “Near-edge fine-structure analysis of core-shell electronic absorption edges in silicon and its refractory compounds with the use of electron-energy-loss microspectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 2439-2449(1987).
[CrossRef]

Cingolani, R.

V. Zorba, L. Persano, D. Pisignano, A. Athanassiou, E. Stratakis, R. Cingolani, P. Tzanetakis, and C. Fotakis, “Making silicon hydrophobic: wettability control by two-lengthscale simultaneous patterning with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nanotechnology 17, 3234-3238 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Crouch, C. H.

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Genin, “Comparison of structure and properties of femtosecond and nanosecond laser-structured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850-1852 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, M. Y. Shen, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Genin, “Infrared absorption by sulfur-doped silicon formed by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 1635-1641 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farreli, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850-1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ducati, C.

V. Zorba, I. Alexandrou, I. Zergioti, A. Manousaki, C. Ducati, A. Neumeister, C. Fotakis, and G. A. J. Amaratunga, “Laser microstructuring of Si surfaces for low-threshold field-electron emission,” Thin Solid Films 453-454, 492-495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duscher, G.

G. Duscher, R. Buczko, S. J. Pennycook, and S. T. Pantelides, “Core-hole effects on energy-loss near-edge structure,” Ultramicroscopy 86, 355-362 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Egerton, R. F.

R. F. Egerton, Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy in the Electron Microscope (Plenum Press, 1996).

Engelmann, H. J.

M. Worchl, H. J. Engelmann, W. Blum, and E. Zschech, “Cross-sectional thin film characterization of Si compounds in semiconductor device structures using both elemental and ELNES mapping by EFTEM,” Thin Solid Films 405, 198-204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Farreli, R. M.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farreli, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850-1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fotakis, C.

V. Zorba, P. Tzanetakis, C. Fotakis, E. Spanakis, E. Stratakis, D. G. Papazoglou, and I. Zergioti, “Silicon electron emitters fabricated by ultraviolet laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Zorba, L. Persano, D. Pisignano, A. Athanassiou, E. Stratakis, R. Cingolani, P. Tzanetakis, and C. Fotakis, “Making silicon hydrophobic: wettability control by two-lengthscale simultaneous patterning with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nanotechnology 17, 3234-3238 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Zorba, I. Alexandrou, I. Zergioti, A. Manousaki, C. Ducati, A. Neumeister, C. Fotakis, and G. A. J. Amaratunga, “Laser microstructuring of Si surfaces for low-threshold field-electron emission,” Thin Solid Films 453-454, 492-495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fowlkes, J. D.

D. H. Lowndes, J. D. Fowlkes, and A. J. Pedraza, “Early stages of pulsed-laser growth of silicon microcolumns and microcones in air and SF6,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 154, 647-658 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, and D. H. Lowndes, “Silicon microcolumn arrays grown by nanosecond pulsed-excimer-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2322-2324 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Frolov, V. D.

A. V. Karabutov, V. D. Frolov, E. N. Loubnin, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, “Low-threshold field electron emission of Si micro-tip arrays produced by laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 413-416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fujikawa, T.

K. Hayakawa, T. Fujikawa, and S. Muto, “Experimental and full multiple scattering approaches to energy-loss near-edge structures for c-Si, a-Si and a-Si:H,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 371, 498-503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Genin, F. Y.

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Genin, “Comparison of structure and properties of femtosecond and nanosecond laser-structured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850-1852 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, M. Y. Shen, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Genin, “Infrared absorption by sulfur-doped silicon formed by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 1635-1641 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gothoskar, P.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farreli, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850-1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hayakawa, K.

K. Hayakawa, T. Fujikawa, and S. Muto, “Experimental and full multiple scattering approaches to energy-loss near-edge structures for c-Si, a-Si and a-Si:H,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 371, 498-503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Karabutov, A. V.

A. V. Karabutov, V. D. Frolov, E. N. Loubnin, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, “Low-threshold field electron emission of Si micro-tip arrays produced by laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 413-416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Karger, A.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farreli, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850-1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kolasinski, K. W.

D. Mills and K. W. Kolasinski, “Solidification driven extrusion of spikes during laser melting of silicon pillars,” Nanotechnology 17, 2741-2744 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Levinson, J. A.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farreli, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850-1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. H.

W. M. Skiff, R. W. Carpenter, and S. H. Lin, “Near-edge fine-structure analysis of core-shell electronic absorption edges in silicon and its refractory compounds with the use of electron-energy-loss microspectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 2439-2449(1987).
[CrossRef]

Loubnin, E. N.

A. V. Karabutov, V. D. Frolov, E. N. Loubnin, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, “Low-threshold field electron emission of Si micro-tip arrays produced by laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 413-416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lowndes, D. H.

D. H. Lowndes, J. D. Fowlkes, and A. J. Pedraza, “Early stages of pulsed-laser growth of silicon microcolumns and microcones in air and SF6,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 154, 647-658 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, and D. H. Lowndes, “Silicon microcolumn arrays grown by nanosecond pulsed-excimer-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2322-2324 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Manousaki, A.

V. Zorba, I. Alexandrou, I. Zergioti, A. Manousaki, C. Ducati, A. Neumeister, C. Fotakis, and G. A. J. Amaratunga, “Laser microstructuring of Si surfaces for low-threshold field-electron emission,” Thin Solid Films 453-454, 492-495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, M. Y. Shen, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Genin, “Infrared absorption by sulfur-doped silicon formed by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 1635-1641 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Genin, “Comparison of structure and properties of femtosecond and nanosecond laser-structured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850-1852 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farreli, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850-1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mills, D.

D. Mills and K. W. Kolasinski, “Solidification driven extrusion of spikes during laser melting of silicon pillars,” Nanotechnology 17, 2741-2744 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Muto, S.

K. Hayakawa, T. Fujikawa, and S. Muto, “Experimental and full multiple scattering approaches to energy-loss near-edge structures for c-Si, a-Si and a-Si:H,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 371, 498-503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Neumeister, A.

V. Zorba, I. Alexandrou, I. Zergioti, A. Manousaki, C. Ducati, A. Neumeister, C. Fotakis, and G. A. J. Amaratunga, “Laser microstructuring of Si surfaces for low-threshold field-electron emission,” Thin Solid Films 453-454, 492-495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pantelides, S. T.

G. Duscher, R. Buczko, S. J. Pennycook, and S. T. Pantelides, “Core-hole effects on energy-loss near-edge structure,” Ultramicroscopy 86, 355-362 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papazoglou, D. G.

V. Zorba, P. Tzanetakis, C. Fotakis, E. Spanakis, E. Stratakis, D. G. Papazoglou, and I. Zergioti, “Silicon electron emitters fabricated by ultraviolet laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pedraza, A. J.

D. H. Lowndes, J. D. Fowlkes, and A. J. Pedraza, “Early stages of pulsed-laser growth of silicon microcolumns and microcones in air and SF6,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 154, 647-658 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, and D. H. Lowndes, “Silicon microcolumn arrays grown by nanosecond pulsed-excimer-laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2322-2324 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pennycook, S. J.

G. Duscher, R. Buczko, S. J. Pennycook, and S. T. Pantelides, “Core-hole effects on energy-loss near-edge structure,” Ultramicroscopy 86, 355-362 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Persano, L.

V. Zorba, L. Persano, D. Pisignano, A. Athanassiou, E. Stratakis, R. Cingolani, P. Tzanetakis, and C. Fotakis, “Making silicon hydrophobic: wettability control by two-lengthscale simultaneous patterning with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nanotechnology 17, 3234-3238 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phaneuf, M. W.

G. A. Botton and M. W. Phaneuf, “Imaging, spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging with an energy filtered field emission TEM,” Micron 30, 109-119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pisignano, D.

V. Zorba, L. Persano, D. Pisignano, A. Athanassiou, E. Stratakis, R. Cingolani, P. Tzanetakis, and C. Fotakis, “Making silicon hydrophobic: wettability control by two-lengthscale simultaneous patterning with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nanotechnology 17, 3234-3238 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shafeev, G. A.

A. V. Karabutov, V. D. Frolov, E. N. Loubnin, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, “Low-threshold field electron emission of Si micro-tip arrays produced by laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 413-416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shen, M. Y.

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, M. Y. Shen, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Genin, “Infrared absorption by sulfur-doped silicon formed by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 1635-1641 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simakin, A. V.

A. V. Karabutov, V. D. Frolov, E. N. Loubnin, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, “Low-threshold field electron emission of Si micro-tip arrays produced by laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 413-416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Skiff, W. M.

W. M. Skiff, R. W. Carpenter, and S. H. Lin, “Near-edge fine-structure analysis of core-shell electronic absorption edges in silicon and its refractory compounds with the use of electron-energy-loss microspectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 2439-2449(1987).
[CrossRef]

Spanakis, E.

V. Zorba, P. Tzanetakis, C. Fotakis, E. Spanakis, E. Stratakis, D. G. Papazoglou, and I. Zergioti, “Silicon electron emitters fabricated by ultraviolet laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stratakis, E.

V. Zorba, P. Tzanetakis, C. Fotakis, E. Spanakis, E. Stratakis, D. G. Papazoglou, and I. Zergioti, “Silicon electron emitters fabricated by ultraviolet laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Zorba, L. Persano, D. Pisignano, A. Athanassiou, E. Stratakis, R. Cingolani, P. Tzanetakis, and C. Fotakis, “Making silicon hydrophobic: wettability control by two-lengthscale simultaneous patterning with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nanotechnology 17, 3234-3238 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tzanetakis, P.

V. Zorba, L. Persano, D. Pisignano, A. Athanassiou, E. Stratakis, R. Cingolani, P. Tzanetakis, and C. Fotakis, “Making silicon hydrophobic: wettability control by two-lengthscale simultaneous patterning with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nanotechnology 17, 3234-3238 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Zorba, P. Tzanetakis, C. Fotakis, E. Spanakis, E. Stratakis, D. G. Papazoglou, and I. Zergioti, “Silicon electron emitters fabricated by ultraviolet laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Warrender, J. M.

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Genin, “Comparison of structure and properties of femtosecond and nanosecond laser-structured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850-1852 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Worchl, M.

M. Worchl, H. J. Engelmann, W. Blum, and E. Zschech, “Cross-sectional thin film characterization of Si compounds in semiconductor device structures using both elemental and ELNES mapping by EFTEM,” Thin Solid Films 405, 198-204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farreli, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850-1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Younkin, R.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farreli, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850-1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zergioti, I.

V. Zorba, P. Tzanetakis, C. Fotakis, E. Spanakis, E. Stratakis, D. G. Papazoglou, and I. Zergioti, “Silicon electron emitters fabricated by ultraviolet laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Zorba, I. Alexandrou, I. Zergioti, A. Manousaki, C. Ducati, A. Neumeister, C. Fotakis, and G. A. J. Amaratunga, “Laser microstructuring of Si surfaces for low-threshold field-electron emission,” Thin Solid Films 453-454, 492-495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farreli, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850-1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zorba, V.

V. Zorba, L. Persano, D. Pisignano, A. Athanassiou, E. Stratakis, R. Cingolani, P. Tzanetakis, and C. Fotakis, “Making silicon hydrophobic: wettability control by two-lengthscale simultaneous patterning with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nanotechnology 17, 3234-3238 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Zorba, P. Tzanetakis, C. Fotakis, E. Spanakis, E. Stratakis, D. G. Papazoglou, and I. Zergioti, “Silicon electron emitters fabricated by ultraviolet laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Zorba, I. Alexandrou, I. Zergioti, A. Manousaki, C. Ducati, A. Neumeister, C. Fotakis, and G. A. J. Amaratunga, “Laser microstructuring of Si surfaces for low-threshold field-electron emission,” Thin Solid Films 453-454, 492-495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zschech, E.

M. Worchl, H. J. Engelmann, W. Blum, and E. Zschech, “Cross-sectional thin film characterization of Si compounds in semiconductor device structures using both elemental and ELNES mapping by EFTEM,” Thin Solid Films 405, 198-204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A

A. V. Karabutov, V. D. Frolov, E. N. Loubnin, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, “Low-threshold field electron emission of Si micro-tip arrays produced by laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 413-416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, M. Y. Shen, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Genin, “Infrared absorption by sulfur-doped silicon formed by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 1635-1641 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farreli, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1850-1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, E. Mazur, and F. Y. Genin, “Comparison of structure and properties of femtosecond and nanosecond laser-structured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1850-1852 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

V. Zorba, P. Tzanetakis, C. Fotakis, E. Spanakis, E. Stratakis, D. G. Papazoglou, and I. Zergioti, “Silicon electron emitters fabricated by ultraviolet laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

D. H. Lowndes, J. D. Fowlkes, and A. J. Pedraza, “Early stages of pulsed-laser growth of silicon microcolumns and microcones in air and SF6,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 154, 647-658 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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K. Hayakawa, T. Fujikawa, and S. Muto, “Experimental and full multiple scattering approaches to energy-loss near-edge structures for c-Si, a-Si and a-Si:H,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 371, 498-503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

W. M. Skiff, R. W. Carpenter, and S. H. Lin, “Near-edge fine-structure analysis of core-shell electronic absorption edges in silicon and its refractory compounds with the use of electron-energy-loss microspectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 2439-2449(1987).
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Micron

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Nanotechnology

D. Mills and K. W. Kolasinski, “Solidification driven extrusion of spikes during laser melting of silicon pillars,” Nanotechnology 17, 2741-2744 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Zorba, L. Persano, D. Pisignano, A. Athanassiou, E. Stratakis, R. Cingolani, P. Tzanetakis, and C. Fotakis, “Making silicon hydrophobic: wettability control by two-lengthscale simultaneous patterning with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nanotechnology 17, 3234-3238 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

V. Zorba, I. Alexandrou, I. Zergioti, A. Manousaki, C. Ducati, A. Neumeister, C. Fotakis, and G. A. J. Amaratunga, “Laser microstructuring of Si surfaces for low-threshold field-electron emission,” Thin Solid Films 453-454, 492-495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Worchl, H. J. Engelmann, W. Blum, and E. Zschech, “Cross-sectional thin film characterization of Si compounds in semiconductor device structures using both elemental and ELNES mapping by EFTEM,” Thin Solid Films 405, 198-204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Side SEM view of Si spikes formed on Si (100) in a 500 Torr SF 6 atmosphere using (a) the ns laser source ( 2.14 J / cm 2 , 2000 pulses), (b) the ps laser source ( 0.83 J / cm 2 , 1000 pulses), and (c) the fs laser source ( 0.53 J / cm 2 , 750 pulses). Bright field cross-section images near the sample tip are shown for (d) the ns, (e) the ps, and (f) the fs laser source fabricated samples, as well as the corresponding SAED patterns of the external layer and the spikes interior (upper and lower insets respectively). Bright field cross-section images near the bases of the cones for the samples fabricated using (g) the ns, (h) the ps, and (i) the fs laser source, are also shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

HRTEM image of Si structures fabricated using the ps laser source, at the external layer–core interface. The associated FFT diffraction patterns for the core and the surrounding layer are shown in the upper and lower insets respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Typical electron energy loss spectra and (b) typical EDS spectra from the core and the outer layer of the spikes. In both figures the corresponding spectra have been vertically translated with respect to each other for clarity. These spectra remain the same, independently of the laser pulse duration used.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorptance of the ns laser and ps laser-fabricated Si structures as a function of the wavelength, before and after thermal annealing at 600 ° C for 90 min in a vacuum. The absorptance of the unstructured Si substrate is also shown for comparison.

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