Abstract

Estimation of the local dissociation degree and the local mass-specific enthalpy of a pure oxygen plasma flow determined mainly from laser-induced fluorescence measurements are reported. Mea surements have been conducted for several generator parameters in an inductively heated plasma wind tunnel. Additional probe measurements of total pressure together with the deduced transla tional temperature are used to estimate the local mass-specific enthalpy. For a reference condition, full dissociation has been measured. The measured translational temperature of atomic oxygen for this condition is T=3500K. Subsequently, the local mass-specific enthalpy has been derived using these local density and temperature measurements. For the reference condition the estimated value of h=27MJ/kg is in good agreement with the probe measurements and results from diode laser absorption spectroscopy.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Herdrich, M. Auweter-Kurtz, P. Endlich, and H. Kurtz, “Mars entry simulation using an inductively heated plasma generator,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 40, 690-694 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Herdrich, M. Auweter-Kurtz, T. Laux, and M. Winter, “Operational behavior of inductively heated plasma source IPG3 for entry simulations,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 16, 440-449 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Pidan, M. Auweter-Kurtz, G. Herdrich, and M. Fertig, “Determination of recombination coefficients and spectral emissivity of thermal protection materials,” AIAA PaperAIAA-2004-2274 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2004).
  4. G. Herdrich, S. Löhle, S. Pidan, M. Auweter-Kurtz, and T. Laux, “IRS ground-testing facilities: thermal protection system development, code validation and flight experiment development,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 42, 817-824 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Herdrich, “Aufbau Qualifikation und charakterisierung einer induktiven plasmawindkanalanlage zur simulation atmosphärischer eintrittsmanöver,” Doctoral dissertation (Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Raumfahrtsysteme, 2004).
  6. M. Matsui, K. Komourasaki, G. Herdrich, and M. Auweter-Kurtz, “Enthalpy measurement in inductively heated plasma generator flow by laser absorption spectroscopy,” AIAA J. 43, 2060-2064 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Matsui, K. Komurasaki, G. Herdrich, and M. Auweter-Kurtz, “Temporally resolved measurements of enthalpy in inductively heated plasma generator flows,” presented at the 4th International Symposium on Atmospheric Reentry Vehicles and Systems, Arcachon, France, 21-23 March 2005.
  8. G. Herdrich, S. Löhle, S. Pidan, M. Auweter-Kurtz, and M. Fertig, Advanced pyrometric in-flight sensor systems for expert, presented at the 4th International Symposium on Atmospheric Reentry Vehicles and Systems, Arcachon, France, 21-23 March 2005.
  9. S. Löhle and M. Auweter-Kurtz, “Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of atomic oxygen using two calibration methods,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 21, 623-629 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Löhle, “Untersuchung von wiedereintrittsplasmen mit hilfe laserinduzierter fluoreszenzmessungen”, Doctoral dissertation (Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Raumfahrsysteme, 2006).
  11. K. Niemi, V. S. von der Gathen, and H.-F. Döbele, “Absolute calibration of atomic density measurements by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy with two-photon excitation,” J. Phys. D 34, 2330-2335 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Bamford, L. Jusinski, and W. Bischel, “Absolute two-photon absorption and three-photon ionization cross sections for atomic oxygen,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 185-198 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Goehlich, T. Kawetzki, and H.-F. Döbele, “On absolute calibration with xenon of laser diagnostic methods based on two-photon absorption,” J. Chem. Phys. 108, 9362-9370 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Wiese, M. Smith, and B. Glennon, Atomic Transition Probabilities. Volume I. Hydrogen through Neon, NSRDS-NBS 4 (National Bureau of Standards, 1966).
  15. H.-F. Döbele, U. Czarnetzki, and A. Goehlich, “Diagnostics of atoms by laser spectroscopic methods in plasmas and plasma-wall interaction studies (vacuum ultraviolet and two-photon techniques),” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 9, 477-491 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H.-F. Döbele, T. Mosbach, K. Niemi, and V. S. von der Gathen, “Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of absolute atomic densities: concepts and limitations,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 14, S31-S41 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, 1964).
  18. G. Abramovich, Theory of Turbulent Jets (MIT Press, 1963).
  19. W. Vincenti and C. Kruger, Introduction to Physical Gas Dynamics (Wiley, 1965).
  20. R. Goulard, “On catalytic recombination rates in hypersonic stagnation heat transfer,” Jet Propulsion 28, 737-745(1958).
  21. C. Park, G. Raiche, D. Driver, J. Olejniczak, I. Terrazas-Salinas, T. Hightower, and T. Sakai, “Comparison of enthalpy determination methods for arc-jet facility,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 20672-679 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Löhle, M. Auweter-Kurtz, and M. Eberhart, “Local enthalpy measurements in a supersonic arcjet facility,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 21, 790-795 (2007)..
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Leipmann and A. Roshko, Elements of Gasdynamics (Wiley, 1957).
  24. A. Andriatis and I. Sokolowa, “Oxygen. transport and thermodynamic properties.” Mat. Model. 6, 88-128 (1994) (in Russian).
  25. B. Bottin, “Aerothermodynamic model of an inductively-coupled plasma wind tunnel”, Doctoral dissertation (Van Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Université de Liège, 1999).
  26. G. Herdrich, D. Petkow, and M. Auweter-Kurtz, “High enthalpy, water-cooled and thin-walled ICP-sources: characterization and MHD-optimization,” Cambridge J. Plasma Phys. 74, 1-29 (2007).

2007 (3)

S. Löhle and M. Auweter-Kurtz, “Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of atomic oxygen using two calibration methods,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 21, 623-629 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Löhle, M. Auweter-Kurtz, and M. Eberhart, “Local enthalpy measurements in a supersonic arcjet facility,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 21, 790-795 (2007)..
[CrossRef]

G. Herdrich, D. Petkow, and M. Auweter-Kurtz, “High enthalpy, water-cooled and thin-walled ICP-sources: characterization and MHD-optimization,” Cambridge J. Plasma Phys. 74, 1-29 (2007).

2006 (1)

C. Park, G. Raiche, D. Driver, J. Olejniczak, I. Terrazas-Salinas, T. Hightower, and T. Sakai, “Comparison of enthalpy determination methods for arc-jet facility,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 20672-679 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

H.-F. Döbele, T. Mosbach, K. Niemi, and V. S. von der Gathen, “Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of absolute atomic densities: concepts and limitations,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 14, S31-S41 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Herdrich, S. Löhle, S. Pidan, M. Auweter-Kurtz, and T. Laux, “IRS ground-testing facilities: thermal protection system development, code validation and flight experiment development,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 42, 817-824 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Matsui, K. Komourasaki, G. Herdrich, and M. Auweter-Kurtz, “Enthalpy measurement in inductively heated plasma generator flow by laser absorption spectroscopy,” AIAA J. 43, 2060-2064 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

G. Herdrich, M. Auweter-Kurtz, P. Endlich, and H. Kurtz, “Mars entry simulation using an inductively heated plasma generator,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 40, 690-694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. Herdrich, M. Auweter-Kurtz, T. Laux, and M. Winter, “Operational behavior of inductively heated plasma source IPG3 for entry simulations,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 16, 440-449 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. Niemi, V. S. von der Gathen, and H.-F. Döbele, “Absolute calibration of atomic density measurements by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy with two-photon excitation,” J. Phys. D 34, 2330-2335 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H.-F. Döbele, U. Czarnetzki, and A. Goehlich, “Diagnostics of atoms by laser spectroscopic methods in plasmas and plasma-wall interaction studies (vacuum ultraviolet and two-photon techniques),” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 9, 477-491 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Goehlich, T. Kawetzki, and H.-F. Döbele, “On absolute calibration with xenon of laser diagnostic methods based on two-photon absorption,” J. Chem. Phys. 108, 9362-9370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. Andriatis and I. Sokolowa, “Oxygen. transport and thermodynamic properties.” Mat. Model. 6, 88-128 (1994) (in Russian).

1986 (1)

D. Bamford, L. Jusinski, and W. Bischel, “Absolute two-photon absorption and three-photon ionization cross sections for atomic oxygen,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 185-198 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1958 (1)

R. Goulard, “On catalytic recombination rates in hypersonic stagnation heat transfer,” Jet Propulsion 28, 737-745(1958).

Abramovich, G.

G. Abramovich, Theory of Turbulent Jets (MIT Press, 1963).

Andriatis, A.

A. Andriatis and I. Sokolowa, “Oxygen. transport and thermodynamic properties.” Mat. Model. 6, 88-128 (1994) (in Russian).

Auweter-Kurtz, M.

G. Herdrich, D. Petkow, and M. Auweter-Kurtz, “High enthalpy, water-cooled and thin-walled ICP-sources: characterization and MHD-optimization,” Cambridge J. Plasma Phys. 74, 1-29 (2007).

S. Löhle, M. Auweter-Kurtz, and M. Eberhart, “Local enthalpy measurements in a supersonic arcjet facility,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 21, 790-795 (2007)..
[CrossRef]

S. Löhle and M. Auweter-Kurtz, “Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of atomic oxygen using two calibration methods,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 21, 623-629 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Matsui, K. Komourasaki, G. Herdrich, and M. Auweter-Kurtz, “Enthalpy measurement in inductively heated plasma generator flow by laser absorption spectroscopy,” AIAA J. 43, 2060-2064 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Herdrich, S. Löhle, S. Pidan, M. Auweter-Kurtz, and T. Laux, “IRS ground-testing facilities: thermal protection system development, code validation and flight experiment development,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 42, 817-824 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Herdrich, M. Auweter-Kurtz, P. Endlich, and H. Kurtz, “Mars entry simulation using an inductively heated plasma generator,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 40, 690-694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Herdrich, M. Auweter-Kurtz, T. Laux, and M. Winter, “Operational behavior of inductively heated plasma source IPG3 for entry simulations,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 16, 440-449 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Pidan, M. Auweter-Kurtz, G. Herdrich, and M. Fertig, “Determination of recombination coefficients and spectral emissivity of thermal protection materials,” AIAA PaperAIAA-2004-2274 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2004).

M. Matsui, K. Komurasaki, G. Herdrich, and M. Auweter-Kurtz, “Temporally resolved measurements of enthalpy in inductively heated plasma generator flows,” presented at the 4th International Symposium on Atmospheric Reentry Vehicles and Systems, Arcachon, France, 21-23 March 2005.

G. Herdrich, S. Löhle, S. Pidan, M. Auweter-Kurtz, and M. Fertig, Advanced pyrometric in-flight sensor systems for expert, presented at the 4th International Symposium on Atmospheric Reentry Vehicles and Systems, Arcachon, France, 21-23 March 2005.

Bamford, D.

D. Bamford, L. Jusinski, and W. Bischel, “Absolute two-photon absorption and three-photon ionization cross sections for atomic oxygen,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 185-198 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bischel, W.

D. Bamford, L. Jusinski, and W. Bischel, “Absolute two-photon absorption and three-photon ionization cross sections for atomic oxygen,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 185-198 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bottin, B.

B. Bottin, “Aerothermodynamic model of an inductively-coupled plasma wind tunnel”, Doctoral dissertation (Van Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Université de Liège, 1999).

Czarnetzki, U.

H.-F. Döbele, U. Czarnetzki, and A. Goehlich, “Diagnostics of atoms by laser spectroscopic methods in plasmas and plasma-wall interaction studies (vacuum ultraviolet and two-photon techniques),” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 9, 477-491 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Döbele, H.-F.

H.-F. Döbele, T. Mosbach, K. Niemi, and V. S. von der Gathen, “Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of absolute atomic densities: concepts and limitations,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 14, S31-S41 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Niemi, V. S. von der Gathen, and H.-F. Döbele, “Absolute calibration of atomic density measurements by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy with two-photon excitation,” J. Phys. D 34, 2330-2335 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H.-F. Döbele, U. Czarnetzki, and A. Goehlich, “Diagnostics of atoms by laser spectroscopic methods in plasmas and plasma-wall interaction studies (vacuum ultraviolet and two-photon techniques),” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 9, 477-491 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Goehlich, T. Kawetzki, and H.-F. Döbele, “On absolute calibration with xenon of laser diagnostic methods based on two-photon absorption,” J. Chem. Phys. 108, 9362-9370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Driver, D.

C. Park, G. Raiche, D. Driver, J. Olejniczak, I. Terrazas-Salinas, T. Hightower, and T. Sakai, “Comparison of enthalpy determination methods for arc-jet facility,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 20672-679 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eberhart, M.

S. Löhle, M. Auweter-Kurtz, and M. Eberhart, “Local enthalpy measurements in a supersonic arcjet facility,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 21, 790-795 (2007)..
[CrossRef]

Endlich, P.

G. Herdrich, M. Auweter-Kurtz, P. Endlich, and H. Kurtz, “Mars entry simulation using an inductively heated plasma generator,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 40, 690-694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fertig, M.

G. Herdrich, S. Löhle, S. Pidan, M. Auweter-Kurtz, and M. Fertig, Advanced pyrometric in-flight sensor systems for expert, presented at the 4th International Symposium on Atmospheric Reentry Vehicles and Systems, Arcachon, France, 21-23 March 2005.

S. Pidan, M. Auweter-Kurtz, G. Herdrich, and M. Fertig, “Determination of recombination coefficients and spectral emissivity of thermal protection materials,” AIAA PaperAIAA-2004-2274 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2004).

Glennon, B.

W. Wiese, M. Smith, and B. Glennon, Atomic Transition Probabilities. Volume I. Hydrogen through Neon, NSRDS-NBS 4 (National Bureau of Standards, 1966).

Goehlich, A.

H.-F. Döbele, U. Czarnetzki, and A. Goehlich, “Diagnostics of atoms by laser spectroscopic methods in plasmas and plasma-wall interaction studies (vacuum ultraviolet and two-photon techniques),” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 9, 477-491 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Goehlich, T. Kawetzki, and H.-F. Döbele, “On absolute calibration with xenon of laser diagnostic methods based on two-photon absorption,” J. Chem. Phys. 108, 9362-9370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goulard, R.

R. Goulard, “On catalytic recombination rates in hypersonic stagnation heat transfer,” Jet Propulsion 28, 737-745(1958).

Griem, H.

H. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, 1964).

Herdrich, G.

G. Herdrich, D. Petkow, and M. Auweter-Kurtz, “High enthalpy, water-cooled and thin-walled ICP-sources: characterization and MHD-optimization,” Cambridge J. Plasma Phys. 74, 1-29 (2007).

M. Matsui, K. Komourasaki, G. Herdrich, and M. Auweter-Kurtz, “Enthalpy measurement in inductively heated plasma generator flow by laser absorption spectroscopy,” AIAA J. 43, 2060-2064 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Herdrich, S. Löhle, S. Pidan, M. Auweter-Kurtz, and T. Laux, “IRS ground-testing facilities: thermal protection system development, code validation and flight experiment development,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 42, 817-824 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Herdrich, M. Auweter-Kurtz, P. Endlich, and H. Kurtz, “Mars entry simulation using an inductively heated plasma generator,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 40, 690-694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Herdrich, M. Auweter-Kurtz, T. Laux, and M. Winter, “Operational behavior of inductively heated plasma source IPG3 for entry simulations,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 16, 440-449 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Pidan, M. Auweter-Kurtz, G. Herdrich, and M. Fertig, “Determination of recombination coefficients and spectral emissivity of thermal protection materials,” AIAA PaperAIAA-2004-2274 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2004).

G. Herdrich, “Aufbau Qualifikation und charakterisierung einer induktiven plasmawindkanalanlage zur simulation atmosphärischer eintrittsmanöver,” Doctoral dissertation (Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Raumfahrtsysteme, 2004).

M. Matsui, K. Komurasaki, G. Herdrich, and M. Auweter-Kurtz, “Temporally resolved measurements of enthalpy in inductively heated plasma generator flows,” presented at the 4th International Symposium on Atmospheric Reentry Vehicles and Systems, Arcachon, France, 21-23 March 2005.

G. Herdrich, S. Löhle, S. Pidan, M. Auweter-Kurtz, and M. Fertig, Advanced pyrometric in-flight sensor systems for expert, presented at the 4th International Symposium on Atmospheric Reentry Vehicles and Systems, Arcachon, France, 21-23 March 2005.

Hightower, T.

C. Park, G. Raiche, D. Driver, J. Olejniczak, I. Terrazas-Salinas, T. Hightower, and T. Sakai, “Comparison of enthalpy determination methods for arc-jet facility,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 20672-679 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jusinski, L.

D. Bamford, L. Jusinski, and W. Bischel, “Absolute two-photon absorption and three-photon ionization cross sections for atomic oxygen,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 185-198 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawetzki, T.

A. Goehlich, T. Kawetzki, and H.-F. Döbele, “On absolute calibration with xenon of laser diagnostic methods based on two-photon absorption,” J. Chem. Phys. 108, 9362-9370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Komourasaki, K.

M. Matsui, K. Komourasaki, G. Herdrich, and M. Auweter-Kurtz, “Enthalpy measurement in inductively heated plasma generator flow by laser absorption spectroscopy,” AIAA J. 43, 2060-2064 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Komurasaki, K.

M. Matsui, K. Komurasaki, G. Herdrich, and M. Auweter-Kurtz, “Temporally resolved measurements of enthalpy in inductively heated plasma generator flows,” presented at the 4th International Symposium on Atmospheric Reentry Vehicles and Systems, Arcachon, France, 21-23 March 2005.

Kruger, C.

W. Vincenti and C. Kruger, Introduction to Physical Gas Dynamics (Wiley, 1965).

Kurtz, H.

G. Herdrich, M. Auweter-Kurtz, P. Endlich, and H. Kurtz, “Mars entry simulation using an inductively heated plasma generator,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 40, 690-694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laux, T.

G. Herdrich, S. Löhle, S. Pidan, M. Auweter-Kurtz, and T. Laux, “IRS ground-testing facilities: thermal protection system development, code validation and flight experiment development,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 42, 817-824 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Herdrich, M. Auweter-Kurtz, T. Laux, and M. Winter, “Operational behavior of inductively heated plasma source IPG3 for entry simulations,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 16, 440-449 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leipmann, H.

H. Leipmann and A. Roshko, Elements of Gasdynamics (Wiley, 1957).

Löhle, S.

S. Löhle, M. Auweter-Kurtz, and M. Eberhart, “Local enthalpy measurements in a supersonic arcjet facility,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 21, 790-795 (2007)..
[CrossRef]

S. Löhle and M. Auweter-Kurtz, “Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of atomic oxygen using two calibration methods,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 21, 623-629 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Herdrich, S. Löhle, S. Pidan, M. Auweter-Kurtz, and T. Laux, “IRS ground-testing facilities: thermal protection system development, code validation and flight experiment development,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 42, 817-824 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Löhle, “Untersuchung von wiedereintrittsplasmen mit hilfe laserinduzierter fluoreszenzmessungen”, Doctoral dissertation (Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Raumfahrsysteme, 2006).

G. Herdrich, S. Löhle, S. Pidan, M. Auweter-Kurtz, and M. Fertig, Advanced pyrometric in-flight sensor systems for expert, presented at the 4th International Symposium on Atmospheric Reentry Vehicles and Systems, Arcachon, France, 21-23 March 2005.

Matsui, M.

M. Matsui, K. Komourasaki, G. Herdrich, and M. Auweter-Kurtz, “Enthalpy measurement in inductively heated plasma generator flow by laser absorption spectroscopy,” AIAA J. 43, 2060-2064 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Matsui, K. Komurasaki, G. Herdrich, and M. Auweter-Kurtz, “Temporally resolved measurements of enthalpy in inductively heated plasma generator flows,” presented at the 4th International Symposium on Atmospheric Reentry Vehicles and Systems, Arcachon, France, 21-23 March 2005.

Mosbach, T.

H.-F. Döbele, T. Mosbach, K. Niemi, and V. S. von der Gathen, “Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of absolute atomic densities: concepts and limitations,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 14, S31-S41 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Niemi, K.

H.-F. Döbele, T. Mosbach, K. Niemi, and V. S. von der Gathen, “Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of absolute atomic densities: concepts and limitations,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 14, S31-S41 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Niemi, V. S. von der Gathen, and H.-F. Döbele, “Absolute calibration of atomic density measurements by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy with two-photon excitation,” J. Phys. D 34, 2330-2335 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Olejniczak, J.

C. Park, G. Raiche, D. Driver, J. Olejniczak, I. Terrazas-Salinas, T. Hightower, and T. Sakai, “Comparison of enthalpy determination methods for arc-jet facility,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 20672-679 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, C.

C. Park, G. Raiche, D. Driver, J. Olejniczak, I. Terrazas-Salinas, T. Hightower, and T. Sakai, “Comparison of enthalpy determination methods for arc-jet facility,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 20672-679 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petkow, D.

G. Herdrich, D. Petkow, and M. Auweter-Kurtz, “High enthalpy, water-cooled and thin-walled ICP-sources: characterization and MHD-optimization,” Cambridge J. Plasma Phys. 74, 1-29 (2007).

Pidan, S.

G. Herdrich, S. Löhle, S. Pidan, M. Auweter-Kurtz, and T. Laux, “IRS ground-testing facilities: thermal protection system development, code validation and flight experiment development,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 42, 817-824 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Pidan, M. Auweter-Kurtz, G. Herdrich, and M. Fertig, “Determination of recombination coefficients and spectral emissivity of thermal protection materials,” AIAA PaperAIAA-2004-2274 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2004).

G. Herdrich, S. Löhle, S. Pidan, M. Auweter-Kurtz, and M. Fertig, Advanced pyrometric in-flight sensor systems for expert, presented at the 4th International Symposium on Atmospheric Reentry Vehicles and Systems, Arcachon, France, 21-23 March 2005.

Raiche, G.

C. Park, G. Raiche, D. Driver, J. Olejniczak, I. Terrazas-Salinas, T. Hightower, and T. Sakai, “Comparison of enthalpy determination methods for arc-jet facility,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 20672-679 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roshko, A.

H. Leipmann and A. Roshko, Elements of Gasdynamics (Wiley, 1957).

Sakai, T.

C. Park, G. Raiche, D. Driver, J. Olejniczak, I. Terrazas-Salinas, T. Hightower, and T. Sakai, “Comparison of enthalpy determination methods for arc-jet facility,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 20672-679 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M.

W. Wiese, M. Smith, and B. Glennon, Atomic Transition Probabilities. Volume I. Hydrogen through Neon, NSRDS-NBS 4 (National Bureau of Standards, 1966).

Sokolowa, I.

A. Andriatis and I. Sokolowa, “Oxygen. transport and thermodynamic properties.” Mat. Model. 6, 88-128 (1994) (in Russian).

Terrazas-Salinas, I.

C. Park, G. Raiche, D. Driver, J. Olejniczak, I. Terrazas-Salinas, T. Hightower, and T. Sakai, “Comparison of enthalpy determination methods for arc-jet facility,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 20672-679 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vincenti, W.

W. Vincenti and C. Kruger, Introduction to Physical Gas Dynamics (Wiley, 1965).

von der Gathen, V. S.

H.-F. Döbele, T. Mosbach, K. Niemi, and V. S. von der Gathen, “Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of absolute atomic densities: concepts and limitations,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 14, S31-S41 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Niemi, V. S. von der Gathen, and H.-F. Döbele, “Absolute calibration of atomic density measurements by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy with two-photon excitation,” J. Phys. D 34, 2330-2335 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wiese, W.

W. Wiese, M. Smith, and B. Glennon, Atomic Transition Probabilities. Volume I. Hydrogen through Neon, NSRDS-NBS 4 (National Bureau of Standards, 1966).

Winter, M.

G. Herdrich, M. Auweter-Kurtz, T. Laux, and M. Winter, “Operational behavior of inductively heated plasma source IPG3 for entry simulations,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 16, 440-449 (2002).
[CrossRef]

AIAA J. (1)

M. Matsui, K. Komourasaki, G. Herdrich, and M. Auweter-Kurtz, “Enthalpy measurement in inductively heated plasma generator flow by laser absorption spectroscopy,” AIAA J. 43, 2060-2064 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cambridge J. Plasma Phys. (1)

G. Herdrich, D. Petkow, and M. Auweter-Kurtz, “High enthalpy, water-cooled and thin-walled ICP-sources: characterization and MHD-optimization,” Cambridge J. Plasma Phys. 74, 1-29 (2007).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

A. Goehlich, T. Kawetzki, and H.-F. Döbele, “On absolute calibration with xenon of laser diagnostic methods based on two-photon absorption,” J. Chem. Phys. 108, 9362-9370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

K. Niemi, V. S. von der Gathen, and H.-F. Döbele, “Absolute calibration of atomic density measurements by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy with two-photon excitation,” J. Phys. D 34, 2330-2335 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Spacecr. Rockets (2)

G. Herdrich, M. Auweter-Kurtz, P. Endlich, and H. Kurtz, “Mars entry simulation using an inductively heated plasma generator,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 40, 690-694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Herdrich, S. Löhle, S. Pidan, M. Auweter-Kurtz, and T. Laux, “IRS ground-testing facilities: thermal protection system development, code validation and flight experiment development,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 42, 817-824 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer (4)

G. Herdrich, M. Auweter-Kurtz, T. Laux, and M. Winter, “Operational behavior of inductively heated plasma source IPG3 for entry simulations,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 16, 440-449 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Löhle and M. Auweter-Kurtz, “Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of atomic oxygen using two calibration methods,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 21, 623-629 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Park, G. Raiche, D. Driver, J. Olejniczak, I. Terrazas-Salinas, T. Hightower, and T. Sakai, “Comparison of enthalpy determination methods for arc-jet facility,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 20672-679 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Löhle, M. Auweter-Kurtz, and M. Eberhart, “Local enthalpy measurements in a supersonic arcjet facility,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 21, 790-795 (2007)..
[CrossRef]

Jet Propulsion (1)

R. Goulard, “On catalytic recombination rates in hypersonic stagnation heat transfer,” Jet Propulsion 28, 737-745(1958).

Mat. Model. (1)

A. Andriatis and I. Sokolowa, “Oxygen. transport and thermodynamic properties.” Mat. Model. 6, 88-128 (1994) (in Russian).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. Bamford, L. Jusinski, and W. Bischel, “Absolute two-photon absorption and three-photon ionization cross sections for atomic oxygen,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 185-198 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. (2)

H.-F. Döbele, U. Czarnetzki, and A. Goehlich, “Diagnostics of atoms by laser spectroscopic methods in plasmas and plasma-wall interaction studies (vacuum ultraviolet and two-photon techniques),” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 9, 477-491 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H.-F. Döbele, T. Mosbach, K. Niemi, and V. S. von der Gathen, “Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of absolute atomic densities: concepts and limitations,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 14, S31-S41 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

H. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, 1964).

G. Abramovich, Theory of Turbulent Jets (MIT Press, 1963).

W. Vincenti and C. Kruger, Introduction to Physical Gas Dynamics (Wiley, 1965).

W. Wiese, M. Smith, and B. Glennon, Atomic Transition Probabilities. Volume I. Hydrogen through Neon, NSRDS-NBS 4 (National Bureau of Standards, 1966).

S. Löhle, “Untersuchung von wiedereintrittsplasmen mit hilfe laserinduzierter fluoreszenzmessungen”, Doctoral dissertation (Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Raumfahrsysteme, 2006).

M. Matsui, K. Komurasaki, G. Herdrich, and M. Auweter-Kurtz, “Temporally resolved measurements of enthalpy in inductively heated plasma generator flows,” presented at the 4th International Symposium on Atmospheric Reentry Vehicles and Systems, Arcachon, France, 21-23 March 2005.

G. Herdrich, S. Löhle, S. Pidan, M. Auweter-Kurtz, and M. Fertig, Advanced pyrometric in-flight sensor systems for expert, presented at the 4th International Symposium on Atmospheric Reentry Vehicles and Systems, Arcachon, France, 21-23 March 2005.

S. Pidan, M. Auweter-Kurtz, G. Herdrich, and M. Fertig, “Determination of recombination coefficients and spectral emissivity of thermal protection materials,” AIAA PaperAIAA-2004-2274 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2004).

G. Herdrich, “Aufbau Qualifikation und charakterisierung einer induktiven plasmawindkanalanlage zur simulation atmosphärischer eintrittsmanöver,” Doctoral dissertation (Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Raumfahrtsysteme, 2004).

B. Bottin, “Aerothermodynamic model of an inductively-coupled plasma wind tunnel”, Doctoral dissertation (Van Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Université de Liège, 1999).

H. Leipmann and A. Roshko, Elements of Gasdynamics (Wiley, 1957).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photograph of PWK3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Inductive plasma generator IPG3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy level diagram for atomic oxygen.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal profile of the laser pulse.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Quadratic dependence of the fluorescence on the laser energy (logarithmic scale).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

LIF signal as a function of laser excitation wavelength ( m ˙ = 3   g / s , p A = 26 Pa , U A = 6300 V ).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Local dissociation degree derived from LIF measure ments versus anode voltage of the facility as well as measured total pressure.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Local dissociation degree derived from LIF measurements compared with Phlux and probe measurements ( m ˙ = 3 g / s , p A = 26 Pa , U A = 6300 V ).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated isentropic exponents for different ambient pressures according to Andriatis and Sokolowa [24] ( 1 atm = 1013.25   hPa ).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured translational temperature and derived free stream velocity.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Local mass-specific enthalpy and enthalpy distribution in thermal, kinetic, and chemical modes as a function of the anode voltage of the plasma generator.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Test Conditions and Deduced Mach Number Ma

Equations (11)

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S = Ω 4 π V c η ω 21 ω 02 2 A 21 A + Q E L 2 A L 2 σ ω ( 2 ) n 0 F 2 ( t ) d t ,
A 21 A + Q = A 21 τ LT .
n 0 | O = S η , O S η , Xe E L , Xe 2 E L , O 2 η Xe η O A 21 LT τ | Xe 1 A 21 τ LT | O σ ω , Xe ( 2 ) σ ω , O ( 2 ) g ( Δ ω Xe ) g ( Δ ω O ) n 0 | Xe ,
Δ λ temp = Δ λ tot 2 Δ λ instr .
Δ λ Doppler = 8 ln ( 2 ) N A k T M O c 2 λ 0 .
Δ = n O n = n O p a / k T ,
h = 1 2 v 2 + ξ O 2 c p rot , trans T + ξ O c p rot , trans T + ξ O 2 h vib + ξ O ( h O + h el , O ) ,
p tot p a = ( γ + 1 2 Ma 2 ) γ / ( γ - 1 ) ( 2 γ γ + 1 Ma 2 γ 1 γ + 1 ) 1 / ( 1 γ ) .
p tot p a = ( 1 + γ 1 2 Ma 2 ) γ / ( γ 1 ) .
v = Ma a = Ma γ RT ,
h vib , O 2 = M O 2 θ vib , O 2 e θ vib , O 2 / T 1 .

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