Abstract

We present an adaptive feature-specific imaging (AFSI) system and consider its application to a face recognition task. The proposed system makes use of previous measurements to adapt the projection basis at each step. Using sequential hypothesis testing, we compare AFSI with static-FSI (SFSI) and static or adaptive conventional imaging in terms of the number of measurements required to achieve a specified probability of misclassification (Pe). The AFSI system exhibits significant improvement compared to SFSI and conventional imaging at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). It is shown that for M=4 hypotheses and desired Pe=102, AFSI requires 100 times fewer measurements than the adaptive conventional imager at SNR=20  dB. We also show a trade-off, in terms of average detection time, between measurement SNR and adaptation advantage, resulting in an optimal value of integration time (equivalent to SNR) per measurement.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. A. Turk and A. P. Pentland, "Face recognition using eigenfaces," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1991), pp. 586-591.
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Zhao, R. Chellapa, P. J. Phillips, and A. Rosenfeld, "Face recognition: a literature survey," ACM Comput. Surveys 35, 399-458 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. H. Barrett, T. Gooley, K. Girodias, J. Rolland, T. White, and J. Lao, "Linear discriminants and image quality," Image Vision Comput. 10, 451-460 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. VanderLugt, "Signal detection by complex spatial filtering," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 10, 139-145 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Mahanalobis, B. V. K. Kumar, S. R. F. Sims, and J. Epperson, "Unconstrained correlation filters," Appl. Opt. 33, 3751-3759 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Javidi, P. Refregier, and P. Willett, "Optimum receiver design for pattern recognition with nonoverlapping target and scene noise," Opt. Lett. 18, 1660-1662 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Yuille, D. Cohen, and P. Hallinan, "Feature extraction from faces using deformable templates," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1989), pp. 104-109.
  8. S. Lawrence, C. L. Giles, A. C. Tsoi, and A. D. Back, "Face recognition: a convolutional neural network approach," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 8, 98-113 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. T. Cathey and E. R. Dowsky, "New paradigm for imaging systems," Appl. Opt. 41, 6080-6092 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Prasad, T. C. Torgersen, V. P. Pauca, R. J. Plemmons, and J. van der Gracht, "Engineering the pupil phase to improve image quality," Proc. SPIE 5108, 1-12 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. J. Brady, "Multiplex sensors and the constant radiance theorem," Opt. Lett. 27, 16-18 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Funatsu, Y. Nitta, Y. Miyake, T. Toyoda, J. Ohta, and K. Kyuma, "An artificial retina chip with current-mode focal plane image processing functions," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1777-1782 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. A. Neifeld and P. Shankar, "Feature-specific imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3379-3389 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. K. Baheti and M. A. Neifeld, "Feature-specific structured imaging," Appl. Opt. 45, 7382-7391 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, M. B. Wakin, and R. G. Baraniuk, "Sparse signal detection from incoherent projections," in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2006), Vol. 3, pp. 14-19.
  16. D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, M. B. Wakin, M. F. Duarte, D. Baron, S. Sarvotham, K. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, "A new compressive imaging camera architecture using optical-domain compression," Proc. SPIE 6065, 43-52 (2006).
  17. N. P. Pitsianis, D. J. Brady, and X. Sun, "The quantized cosine transform for sensor-layer image compression," in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis Topical Meetings, on CD-ROM, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper JMA4.
  18. M. A. Neifeld and J. Ke, "Optical architectures for compressive imaging," Appl. Opt. 46, 5293-5303 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. S. Pal, D. Ganotra, and M. A. Neifeld, "Face recognition by using feature-specific imaging," Appl. Opt. 44, 3784-3794 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. N. A. Goodman, P. R. Venkata, and M. A. Neifeld, "Adaptive waveform design and sequential hypothesis testing for target recognition using cognitive radar," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 1, 105-113 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. R. Guerci and S. U. Pillai, "Adaptive transmission radar: the next wave," in Proceedings of the IEEE National Aerospace and Electronics Conference, 2000, pp. 779-786.
  22. A. Wald, "Sequential analysis of statistical hypotheses," Ann. Math. Stat. 16(2), 117-176 (1945).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. Armitage, "Sequential analysis with more than two alternative hypotheses and its relation to discriminant function analysis," J. R. Stat. Soc. 12(1), 137-144 (1950).
  24. S. Kay, Statistical Signal Processing--Detection Theory (Prentice-Hall, 1998).
  25. H. H. Barrett and K. J. Myers, Foundations of Image Science, Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics (Wiley, 2004).
  26. E. Marszalec, B. Martinkauppi, M. Soriano, and M. Pietikäinen, "A physics-based face database for color research," J. Electron. Imaging 9(1), 32-38 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Genz, "Numerical computation of multivariate normal probabilities," J. Comput. Graph. Stat. 1(2), 141-149 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. R. Bell, "Information theory and radar waveform design," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 39, 1578-1597 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

N. A. Goodman, P. R. Venkata, and M. A. Neifeld, "Adaptive waveform design and sequential hypothesis testing for target recognition using cognitive radar," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 1, 105-113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Neifeld and J. Ke, "Optical architectures for compressive imaging," Appl. Opt. 46, 5293-5303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

P. K. Baheti and M. A. Neifeld, "Feature-specific structured imaging," Appl. Opt. 45, 7382-7391 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, M. B. Wakin, M. F. Duarte, D. Baron, S. Sarvotham, K. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, "A new compressive imaging camera architecture using optical-domain compression," Proc. SPIE 6065, 43-52 (2006).

2005 (1)

H. S. Pal, D. Ganotra, and M. A. Neifeld, "Face recognition by using feature-specific imaging," Appl. Opt. 44, 3784-3794 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

M. A. Neifeld and P. Shankar, "Feature-specific imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3379-3389 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhao, R. Chellapa, P. J. Phillips, and A. Rosenfeld, "Face recognition: a literature survey," ACM Comput. Surveys 35, 399-458 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Prasad, T. C. Torgersen, V. P. Pauca, R. J. Plemmons, and J. van der Gracht, "Engineering the pupil phase to improve image quality," Proc. SPIE 5108, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

D. J. Brady, "Multiplex sensors and the constant radiance theorem," Opt. Lett. 27, 16-18 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Cathey and E. R. Dowsky, "New paradigm for imaging systems," Appl. Opt. 41, 6080-6092 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

E. Marszalec, B. Martinkauppi, M. Soriano, and M. Pietikäinen, "A physics-based face database for color research," J. Electron. Imaging 9(1), 32-38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

E. Funatsu, Y. Nitta, Y. Miyake, T. Toyoda, J. Ohta, and K. Kyuma, "An artificial retina chip with current-mode focal plane image processing functions," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1777-1782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Lawrence, C. L. Giles, A. C. Tsoi, and A. D. Back, "Face recognition: a convolutional neural network approach," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 8, 98-113 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

A. Mahanalobis, B. V. K. Kumar, S. R. F. Sims, and J. Epperson, "Unconstrained correlation filters," Appl. Opt. 33, 3751-3759 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1992 (2)

A. Genz, "Numerical computation of multivariate normal probabilities," J. Comput. Graph. Stat. 1(2), 141-149 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Barrett, T. Gooley, K. Girodias, J. Rolland, T. White, and J. Lao, "Linear discriminants and image quality," Image Vision Comput. 10, 451-460 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

A. VanderLugt, "Signal detection by complex spatial filtering," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 10, 139-145 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1950 (1)

P. Armitage, "Sequential analysis with more than two alternative hypotheses and its relation to discriminant function analysis," J. R. Stat. Soc. 12(1), 137-144 (1950).

1945 (1)

A. Wald, "Sequential analysis of statistical hypotheses," Ann. Math. Stat. 16(2), 117-176 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Armitage, P.

P. Armitage, "Sequential analysis with more than two alternative hypotheses and its relation to discriminant function analysis," J. R. Stat. Soc. 12(1), 137-144 (1950).

Back, A. D.

S. Lawrence, C. L. Giles, A. C. Tsoi, and A. D. Back, "Face recognition: a convolutional neural network approach," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 8, 98-113 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baheti, P. K.

Baraniuk, R. G.

D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, M. B. Wakin, M. F. Duarte, D. Baron, S. Sarvotham, K. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, "A new compressive imaging camera architecture using optical-domain compression," Proc. SPIE 6065, 43-52 (2006).

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, M. B. Wakin, and R. G. Baraniuk, "Sparse signal detection from incoherent projections," in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2006), Vol. 3, pp. 14-19.

Baron, D.

D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, M. B. Wakin, M. F. Duarte, D. Baron, S. Sarvotham, K. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, "A new compressive imaging camera architecture using optical-domain compression," Proc. SPIE 6065, 43-52 (2006).

Barrett, H. H.

H. H. Barrett, T. Gooley, K. Girodias, J. Rolland, T. White, and J. Lao, "Linear discriminants and image quality," Image Vision Comput. 10, 451-460 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Barrett and K. J. Myers, Foundations of Image Science, Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics (Wiley, 2004).

Bell, M. R.

M. R. Bell, "Information theory and radar waveform design," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 39, 1578-1597 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brady, D. J.

D. J. Brady, "Multiplex sensors and the constant radiance theorem," Opt. Lett. 27, 16-18 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Pitsianis, D. J. Brady, and X. Sun, "The quantized cosine transform for sensor-layer image compression," in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis Topical Meetings, on CD-ROM, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper JMA4.

Cathey, W. T.

Chellapa, R.

W. Zhao, R. Chellapa, P. J. Phillips, and A. Rosenfeld, "Face recognition: a literature survey," ACM Comput. Surveys 35, 399-458 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, D.

A. Yuille, D. Cohen, and P. Hallinan, "Feature extraction from faces using deformable templates," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1989), pp. 104-109.

Davenport, M. A.

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, M. B. Wakin, and R. G. Baraniuk, "Sparse signal detection from incoherent projections," in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2006), Vol. 3, pp. 14-19.

Dowsky, E. R.

Duarte, M. F.

D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, M. B. Wakin, M. F. Duarte, D. Baron, S. Sarvotham, K. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, "A new compressive imaging camera architecture using optical-domain compression," Proc. SPIE 6065, 43-52 (2006).

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, M. B. Wakin, and R. G. Baraniuk, "Sparse signal detection from incoherent projections," in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2006), Vol. 3, pp. 14-19.

Epperson, J.

A. Mahanalobis, B. V. K. Kumar, S. R. F. Sims, and J. Epperson, "Unconstrained correlation filters," Appl. Opt. 33, 3751-3759 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Funatsu, E.

E. Funatsu, Y. Nitta, Y. Miyake, T. Toyoda, J. Ohta, and K. Kyuma, "An artificial retina chip with current-mode focal plane image processing functions," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1777-1782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ganotra, D.

H. S. Pal, D. Ganotra, and M. A. Neifeld, "Face recognition by using feature-specific imaging," Appl. Opt. 44, 3784-3794 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genz, A.

A. Genz, "Numerical computation of multivariate normal probabilities," J. Comput. Graph. Stat. 1(2), 141-149 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Giles, C. L.

S. Lawrence, C. L. Giles, A. C. Tsoi, and A. D. Back, "Face recognition: a convolutional neural network approach," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 8, 98-113 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girodias, K.

H. H. Barrett, T. Gooley, K. Girodias, J. Rolland, T. White, and J. Lao, "Linear discriminants and image quality," Image Vision Comput. 10, 451-460 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, N. A.

N. A. Goodman, P. R. Venkata, and M. A. Neifeld, "Adaptive waveform design and sequential hypothesis testing for target recognition using cognitive radar," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 1, 105-113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gooley, T.

H. H. Barrett, T. Gooley, K. Girodias, J. Rolland, T. White, and J. Lao, "Linear discriminants and image quality," Image Vision Comput. 10, 451-460 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Guerci, J. R.

J. R. Guerci and S. U. Pillai, "Adaptive transmission radar: the next wave," in Proceedings of the IEEE National Aerospace and Electronics Conference, 2000, pp. 779-786.

Hallinan, P.

A. Yuille, D. Cohen, and P. Hallinan, "Feature extraction from faces using deformable templates," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1989), pp. 104-109.

Javidi, B.

Kay, S.

S. Kay, Statistical Signal Processing--Detection Theory (Prentice-Hall, 1998).

Ke, J.

Kelly, K.

D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, M. B. Wakin, M. F. Duarte, D. Baron, S. Sarvotham, K. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, "A new compressive imaging camera architecture using optical-domain compression," Proc. SPIE 6065, 43-52 (2006).

Kumar, B. V. K.

A. Mahanalobis, B. V. K. Kumar, S. R. F. Sims, and J. Epperson, "Unconstrained correlation filters," Appl. Opt. 33, 3751-3759 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kyuma, K.

E. Funatsu, Y. Nitta, Y. Miyake, T. Toyoda, J. Ohta, and K. Kyuma, "An artificial retina chip with current-mode focal plane image processing functions," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1777-1782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lao, J.

H. H. Barrett, T. Gooley, K. Girodias, J. Rolland, T. White, and J. Lao, "Linear discriminants and image quality," Image Vision Comput. 10, 451-460 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Laska, J. N.

D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, M. B. Wakin, M. F. Duarte, D. Baron, S. Sarvotham, K. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, "A new compressive imaging camera architecture using optical-domain compression," Proc. SPIE 6065, 43-52 (2006).

Lawrence, S.

S. Lawrence, C. L. Giles, A. C. Tsoi, and A. D. Back, "Face recognition: a convolutional neural network approach," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 8, 98-113 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahanalobis, A.

A. Mahanalobis, B. V. K. Kumar, S. R. F. Sims, and J. Epperson, "Unconstrained correlation filters," Appl. Opt. 33, 3751-3759 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Marszalec, E.

E. Marszalec, B. Martinkauppi, M. Soriano, and M. Pietikäinen, "A physics-based face database for color research," J. Electron. Imaging 9(1), 32-38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martinkauppi, B.

E. Marszalec, B. Martinkauppi, M. Soriano, and M. Pietikäinen, "A physics-based face database for color research," J. Electron. Imaging 9(1), 32-38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miyake, Y.

E. Funatsu, Y. Nitta, Y. Miyake, T. Toyoda, J. Ohta, and K. Kyuma, "An artificial retina chip with current-mode focal plane image processing functions," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1777-1782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Myers, K. J.

H. H. Barrett and K. J. Myers, Foundations of Image Science, Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics (Wiley, 2004).

Neifeld, M. A.

N. A. Goodman, P. R. Venkata, and M. A. Neifeld, "Adaptive waveform design and sequential hypothesis testing for target recognition using cognitive radar," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 1, 105-113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Neifeld and J. Ke, "Optical architectures for compressive imaging," Appl. Opt. 46, 5293-5303 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Baheti and M. A. Neifeld, "Feature-specific structured imaging," Appl. Opt. 45, 7382-7391 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Pal, D. Ganotra, and M. A. Neifeld, "Face recognition by using feature-specific imaging," Appl. Opt. 44, 3784-3794 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Neifeld and P. Shankar, "Feature-specific imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3379-3389 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nitta, Y.

E. Funatsu, Y. Nitta, Y. Miyake, T. Toyoda, J. Ohta, and K. Kyuma, "An artificial retina chip with current-mode focal plane image processing functions," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1777-1782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, J.

E. Funatsu, Y. Nitta, Y. Miyake, T. Toyoda, J. Ohta, and K. Kyuma, "An artificial retina chip with current-mode focal plane image processing functions," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1777-1782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pal, H. S.

H. S. Pal, D. Ganotra, and M. A. Neifeld, "Face recognition by using feature-specific imaging," Appl. Opt. 44, 3784-3794 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pauca, V. P.

S. Prasad, T. C. Torgersen, V. P. Pauca, R. J. Plemmons, and J. van der Gracht, "Engineering the pupil phase to improve image quality," Proc. SPIE 5108, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pentland, A. P.

M. A. Turk and A. P. Pentland, "Face recognition using eigenfaces," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1991), pp. 586-591.
[CrossRef]

Phillips, P. J.

W. Zhao, R. Chellapa, P. J. Phillips, and A. Rosenfeld, "Face recognition: a literature survey," ACM Comput. Surveys 35, 399-458 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pietikäinen, M.

E. Marszalec, B. Martinkauppi, M. Soriano, and M. Pietikäinen, "A physics-based face database for color research," J. Electron. Imaging 9(1), 32-38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pillai, S. U.

J. R. Guerci and S. U. Pillai, "Adaptive transmission radar: the next wave," in Proceedings of the IEEE National Aerospace and Electronics Conference, 2000, pp. 779-786.

Pitsianis, N. P.

N. P. Pitsianis, D. J. Brady, and X. Sun, "The quantized cosine transform for sensor-layer image compression," in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis Topical Meetings, on CD-ROM, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper JMA4.

Plemmons, R. J.

S. Prasad, T. C. Torgersen, V. P. Pauca, R. J. Plemmons, and J. van der Gracht, "Engineering the pupil phase to improve image quality," Proc. SPIE 5108, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, S.

S. Prasad, T. C. Torgersen, V. P. Pauca, R. J. Plemmons, and J. van der Gracht, "Engineering the pupil phase to improve image quality," Proc. SPIE 5108, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Refregier, P.

Rolland, J.

H. H. Barrett, T. Gooley, K. Girodias, J. Rolland, T. White, and J. Lao, "Linear discriminants and image quality," Image Vision Comput. 10, 451-460 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

W. Zhao, R. Chellapa, P. J. Phillips, and A. Rosenfeld, "Face recognition: a literature survey," ACM Comput. Surveys 35, 399-458 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sarvotham, S.

D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, M. B. Wakin, M. F. Duarte, D. Baron, S. Sarvotham, K. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, "A new compressive imaging camera architecture using optical-domain compression," Proc. SPIE 6065, 43-52 (2006).

Shankar, P.

M. A. Neifeld and P. Shankar, "Feature-specific imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3379-3389 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sims, S. R. F.

A. Mahanalobis, B. V. K. Kumar, S. R. F. Sims, and J. Epperson, "Unconstrained correlation filters," Appl. Opt. 33, 3751-3759 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Soriano, M.

E. Marszalec, B. Martinkauppi, M. Soriano, and M. Pietikäinen, "A physics-based face database for color research," J. Electron. Imaging 9(1), 32-38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

N. P. Pitsianis, D. J. Brady, and X. Sun, "The quantized cosine transform for sensor-layer image compression," in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis Topical Meetings, on CD-ROM, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper JMA4.

Takhar, D.

D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, M. B. Wakin, M. F. Duarte, D. Baron, S. Sarvotham, K. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, "A new compressive imaging camera architecture using optical-domain compression," Proc. SPIE 6065, 43-52 (2006).

Torgersen, T. C.

S. Prasad, T. C. Torgersen, V. P. Pauca, R. J. Plemmons, and J. van der Gracht, "Engineering the pupil phase to improve image quality," Proc. SPIE 5108, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, T.

E. Funatsu, Y. Nitta, Y. Miyake, T. Toyoda, J. Ohta, and K. Kyuma, "An artificial retina chip with current-mode focal plane image processing functions," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1777-1782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsoi, A. C.

S. Lawrence, C. L. Giles, A. C. Tsoi, and A. D. Back, "Face recognition: a convolutional neural network approach," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 8, 98-113 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turk, M. A.

M. A. Turk and A. P. Pentland, "Face recognition using eigenfaces," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1991), pp. 586-591.
[CrossRef]

van der Gracht, J.

S. Prasad, T. C. Torgersen, V. P. Pauca, R. J. Plemmons, and J. van der Gracht, "Engineering the pupil phase to improve image quality," Proc. SPIE 5108, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

VanderLugt, A.

A. VanderLugt, "Signal detection by complex spatial filtering," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 10, 139-145 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Venkata, P. R.

N. A. Goodman, P. R. Venkata, and M. A. Neifeld, "Adaptive waveform design and sequential hypothesis testing for target recognition using cognitive radar," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 1, 105-113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wakin, M. B.

D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, M. B. Wakin, M. F. Duarte, D. Baron, S. Sarvotham, K. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, "A new compressive imaging camera architecture using optical-domain compression," Proc. SPIE 6065, 43-52 (2006).

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, M. B. Wakin, and R. G. Baraniuk, "Sparse signal detection from incoherent projections," in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2006), Vol. 3, pp. 14-19.

Wald, A.

A. Wald, "Sequential analysis of statistical hypotheses," Ann. Math. Stat. 16(2), 117-176 (1945).
[CrossRef]

White, T.

H. H. Barrett, T. Gooley, K. Girodias, J. Rolland, T. White, and J. Lao, "Linear discriminants and image quality," Image Vision Comput. 10, 451-460 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Willett, P.

Yuille, A.

A. Yuille, D. Cohen, and P. Hallinan, "Feature extraction from faces using deformable templates," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 1989), pp. 104-109.

Zhao, W.

W. Zhao, R. Chellapa, P. J. Phillips, and A. Rosenfeld, "Face recognition: a literature survey," ACM Comput. Surveys 35, 399-458 (2003).
[CrossRef]

ACM Comput. Surveys (1)

W. Zhao, R. Chellapa, P. J. Phillips, and A. Rosenfeld, "Face recognition: a literature survey," ACM Comput. Surveys 35, 399-458 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Math. Stat. (1)

A. Wald, "Sequential analysis of statistical hypotheses," Ann. Math. Stat. 16(2), 117-176 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of (a) feature extraction after measuring a conventional image. (b) Optical feature extraction using a feature-specific imager.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Example of M = 2 objects considered in the recognition problem. (b) Example of noisy images obtained from SCONV with T int = 0.1 and σ 2 = 10 . (c) Comparison of SCONV and SFSI in terms of P e versus K. (d) Comparison of SCONV and SFSI in terms of K versus T int for P e = 10 2 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Example of M = 4 objects considered in the recognition problem. (b) Comparison of SCONV and SFSI for M = 4 , P e = 10 2 , and σ 2 = 10 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

System flow diagram for adaptive-FSI and adaptive-conventional imaging.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Example to demonstrate the update for a sample experiment where object 2 was actually chosen. (b) Updated projection vector at each iteration corresponding to the experiment in (a).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of AFSI and SFSI for M = 4 , P e * = 10 2 , and σ 2 = 10 .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of ACONV and SCONV for M = 4 , P e * = 10 2 , and σ 2 = 10 .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of AFSI and ACONV for M = 4 , P e * = 10 2 , and σ 2 = 10 .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Average detection time versus integration time per measurement for M = 4 , P e * = 10 2 , and σ 2 = 10 .

Equations (28)

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C = max k { j = 1 L P k j } .
H 1 : r c o n v = P T ( T int G 1 + n c o n v ) ,
H 2 : r c o n v = P T ( T int G 2 + n c o n v ) .
Pr ( H 1 H 1 ) = R 1 Pr [ T ( r c o n v ) < γ c o n v ; H 1 ] d r c o n v ,
Pr ( H 2 H 2 ) = R 2 Pr [ T ( r c o n v ) > γ c o n v ; H 2 ] d r c o n v ,
J ( P ) = [ P T ( G 2 G 1 ) T int ] 2 σ 2 [ P T P ] .
H 1 : r F S I = P F S I T G 1 + n F S I ,
H 2 : r F S I = P F S I T G 2 + n F S I .
J ( P F S I ) = P F S I T ( G 2 G 1 ) 2 2 σ 2 .
P F S I = ( G 2 G 1 ) T int max ( G 2 G 1 ) ,
Pr ( H 1 H 2 ) = R 2 Pr [ T ( r ) > γ ; H 1 ] d r ,
Pr ( H 2 H 1 ) = R 1 Pr [ T ( r ) < γ ; H 2 ] d r ,
r c o n v = P T ( T int G i + n c o n v ) .
r F S I = P F S I T G i + n F S I .
R = j = 1... M i = 1... M , i j P i P j ( G i G j ) ( G i G j ) T .
P e = i = 1 M Pr ( H 1 . . . . H i 1 , H i + 1 ,   . . . H M H i ) P i .
r F S I k = P F S I k T G i + n F S I ,
r c o n v k = P k T ( T int G i + n c o n v ) .
T ( r̿ k ) = p ( r̿ k H 2 ) p ( r̿ k H 1 ) < B ,
T ( r̿ k ) = p ( r̿ k H 2 ) p ( r̿ k H 1 ) > A ,
A = P 1 P 2 P e * 1 P e * , B = P 1 P 2 1 P e * P e * .
λ i , j k = m = 1... k p i , m l = 1... k p j , l × P i P j ,
p i , l = 1 ( 4 π σ 2 ) L / 2 exp [ 1 4 σ 2 ( r F S I l P F S I l T G i ) T × ( r F S I l P F S I l T G i ) ]
p i , l = 1 ( 2 π σ 2 ) L / 2 exp [ 1 2 σ 2 ( r c o n v l P l T T int G i ) T ( P l T P l ) 1 × ( r c o n v l P l T T int G i ) ]
R k + 1 = j = 1 M i = 1 ; i j M P j k P i k ( G j G i ) ( G j G i ) T .
P j k = Pr ( r F S I k H j ) P j k 1 m = 1... M Pr ( r F S I k H m ) P m k 1 ,
P F S I = T int ( G 2 G 1 ) max ( G 2 G 1 ) .
P o p t k = T int [ sgn ( V k ) ] .

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