Abstract

In the analysis of Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction, it is necessary to calculate the derivative of the logarithm of the ratio between the atmospheric number density and the range-corrected lidar-received power. The statistical fluctuations of the Raman signal can produce large fluctuations in the derivative and thus in the aerosol extinction profile. To overcome this difficult situation we discuss three methods: Tikhonov regularization, variational, and the sliding best-fit (SBF). Three methods are performed on the profiles taken from the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network lidar database simulated at the Raman shifted wavelengths of 387 and 607nm associated with the emitted signals at 355 and 532nm. Our results show that the SBF method does not deliver good results for low fluctuation in the profile. However, Tikhonov regularization and the variational method yield very good aerosol extinction coefficient profiles for our examples. With regard to, e.g., the 532nm wavelength, the L2 errors of the aerosol extinction coefficient profile by using the SBF, Tikhonov, and variational methods with respect to synthetic noisy data are 0.0015(0.0024), 0.00049(0.00086), and 0.00048(0.00082), respectively. Moreover, the L2 errors by using the Tikhonov and variational methods with respect to a more realistic noisy profile are 0.0014(0.0016) and 0.0012(0.0016), respectively. In both cases the L2 error given in parentheses concerns the second example.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007

Y. Wang, S. Fan, and X. Feng, “Retrieval of the aerosol particle size distribution function by incorporating a priori information,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38, 885-901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, D. Müller, L. Schneidenbach, and R. Nessler, “Microphysical aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 22, 518-528 (2005); http://josaa.osa.org/abstract.cfm?id=82767.
[CrossRef]

2004

2002

2001

M. Hanke and O. Scherzer, “Inverse problem light: numerical differentiation,” Am. Math. Monthly 108, 512-521 (2001); http://www.ams.org/mathscinet-getitem?mr=1840657.
[CrossRef]

C. Böckmann, “Hybrid regularization method for the ill-posed inversion of multi-wavelength lidar data in the retrieval of aerosol size distributions,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1329-1342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

1995

I. Knowles and R. Wallace, “A variational method for numerical differentiation,” Numer. Math. 70, 91-110 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

1990

1972

1969

J. A. Cooney, J. Orr, and C. Tomasetti, “Measurements separating the gaseous and aerosol components of laser atmospheric backscattering,” Nature 224, 1098-1099 (1969); http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v224/n5224/abs/2241098a0.html.
[CrossRef]

1967

C. H. Reinsch, “Smoothing by spline functions,” Numer. Math. 10, 177-183 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1964

A. Savityky and M. Golay, “Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified least squares procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36, 1627-1639 (1964).
[CrossRef]

G. Fiocco and G. Grams, “Observations of the aerosol layer at 20 km by optical radar,” J. Atmos. Sci. 21, 323-324 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Amiridis, V.

Amodeo, A.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Mathias, V. Amiridis, F. de Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5370-5385 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Matthais, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, I. Balin, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodrigues, U. Wandinger, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961-971 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

Amoridis, V.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

Ansmann, A.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Mathias, V. Amiridis, F. de Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5370-5385 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977-989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346-2357 (1999); http://ao.osa.org/abstract.cfm?&id=44053
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter Lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113-7131 (1992); http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-31-33-7113.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebsell, and C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15, 746-748 (1990); http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-15-13-746.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann and D. Müller, “Lidar and atmospheric aerosol particles,” in Lidar-Range-resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, C. Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2004), pp. 105-141.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

Baldasano, J. M.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

Balin, I.

V. Matthais, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, I. Balin, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodrigues, U. Wandinger, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961-971 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

Balis, D.

V. Matthais, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, I. Balin, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodrigues, U. Wandinger, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961-971 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, D. Balis, A. Boselli, L. Komguem, G. Larcheveque, V. Matthias, L. Mona, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, and V. Rizi, “EARLINET Measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio,” in Proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference Part I (2002), pp. 301-304.

Bevington, P. R.

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C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977-989 (2004).
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J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

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C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977-989 (2004).
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J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

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G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, D. Balis, A. Boselli, L. Komguem, G. Larcheveque, V. Matthias, L. Mona, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, and V. Rizi, “EARLINET Measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio,” in Proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference Part I (2002), pp. 301-304.

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C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977-989 (2004).
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V. Matthais, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, I. Balin, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodrigues, U. Wandinger, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961-971 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Mathias, V. Amiridis, F. de Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5370-5385 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

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J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

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J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

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V. Matthais, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, I. Balin, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodrigues, U. Wandinger, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961-971 (2004).
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J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

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V. Matthais, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, I. Balin, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodrigues, U. Wandinger, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961-971 (2004).
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G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Mathias, V. Amiridis, F. de Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5370-5385 (2004).
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J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

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Y. Wang, S. Fan, X. Feng, G. Yan, and Y. Guan, “Regularized inversion method for retrieval of aerosol particle size distribution function in W1,2 space,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7456-7467 (2006).
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V. Matthais, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, I. Balin, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodrigues, U. Wandinger, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961-971 (2004).
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J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

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J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

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V. Matthais, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, I. Balin, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodrigues, U. Wandinger, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961-971 (2004).
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C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977-989 (2004).
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J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

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Horvat, M.

Iarlori, M.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977-989 (2004).
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G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Mathias, V. Amiridis, F. de Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5370-5385 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

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C. Böckmann and A. Kirsche, “Iterative regularization method for lidar remote sensing,” Comput. Phys. Commum. 174, 607-615 (2006); http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006CoPhC.174..607B.
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J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

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Kolarov, G.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

Kolgotin, A.

Komguem, L.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977-989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Matthais, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, I. Balin, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodrigues, U. Wandinger, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961-971 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Mathias, V. Amiridis, F. de Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5370-5385 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, D. Balis, A. Boselli, L. Komguem, G. Larcheveque, V. Matthias, L. Mona, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, and V. Rizi, “EARLINET Measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio,” in Proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference Part I (2002), pp. 301-304.

Kreipl, S.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977-989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Matthais, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, I. Balin, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodrigues, U. Wandinger, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961-971 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

Kumpf, W.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

Larcheveque, G.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, D. Balis, A. Boselli, L. Komguem, G. Larcheveque, V. Matthias, L. Mona, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, and V. Rizi, “EARLINET Measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio,” in Proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference Part I (2002), pp. 301-304.

Larchevêque, G.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977-989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

Linné, H.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

Mathias, V.

Matthais, V.

Matthey, R.

V. Matthais, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, I. Balin, D. Balis, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hågård, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, V. Rizi, J. A. Rodrigues, U. Wandinger, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments,” Appl. Opt. 43, 961-971 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

Matthias, V.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977-989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, D. Balis, A. Boselli, L. Komguem, G. Larcheveque, V. Matthias, L. Mona, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, and V. Rizi, “EARLINET Measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio,” in Proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference Part I (2002), pp. 301-304.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

Mattis, I.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, D. Balis, A. Boselli, L. Komguem, G. Larcheveque, V. Matthias, L. Mona, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, and V. Rizi, “EARLINET Measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio,” in Proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference Part I (2002), pp. 301-304.

Mekler, A.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

Melfi, S. H.

Michaelis, W.

Mironova, I.

C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, D. Müller, L. Schneidenbach, and R. Nessler, “Microphysical aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 22, 518-528 (2005); http://josaa.osa.org/abstract.cfm?id=82767.
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

Mitev, V.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

Mona, L.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, D. Balis, A. Boselli, L. Komguem, G. Larcheveque, V. Matthias, L. Mona, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, and V. Rizi, “EARLINET Measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio,” in Proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference Part I (2002), pp. 301-304.

Müller, D.

C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, D. Müller, L. Schneidenbach, and R. Nessler, “Microphysical aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 22, 518-528 (2005); http://josaa.osa.org/abstract.cfm?id=82767.
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. Whitemann, “Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3685-3699 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346-2357 (1999); http://ao.osa.org/abstract.cfm?&id=44053
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann and D. Müller, “Lidar and atmospheric aerosol particles,” in Lidar-Range-resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, C. Weitkamp, ed. (Springer, 2004), pp. 105-141.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

Music, S.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

Nessler, R.

C. Böckmann, I. Mironova, D. Müller, L. Schneidenbach, and R. Nessler, “Microphysical aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 22, 518-528 (2005); http://josaa.osa.org/abstract.cfm?id=82767.
[CrossRef]

Nickovic, S.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

Orr, J.

J. A. Cooney, J. Orr, and C. Tomasetti, “Measurements separating the gaseous and aerosol components of laser atmospheric backscattering,” Nature 224, 1098-1099 (1969); http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v224/n5224/abs/2241098a0.html.
[CrossRef]

Pandis, S. N.

J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change (Wiley, 1998).

Pandolfi, M.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Mathias, V. Amiridis, F. de Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5370-5385 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

Papayannis, A.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Mathias, V. Amiridis, F. de Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5370-5385 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977-989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, D. Balis, A. Boselli, L. Komguem, G. Larcheveque, V. Matthias, L. Mona, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, and V. Rizi, “EARLINET Measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio,” in Proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference Part I (2002), pp. 301-304.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

Pappalardo, G.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Mathias, V. Amiridis, F. de Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5370-5385 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977-989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Böckmann and G. Pappalardo, “Report on the inter-comparison of algorithms for new stations” (personal communication, 2007), http://earlinet.org/.

G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, D. Balis, A. Boselli, L. Komguem, G. Larcheveque, V. Matthias, L. Mona, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, and V. Rizi, “EARLINET Measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio,” in Proceedings of the XXI International Laser Radar Conference Part I (2002), pp. 301-304.

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J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

Sobolewski, P.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

Spinelli, N.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

Stachlewska, I.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

Stoyanov, D.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

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J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

Tsaknakis, G.

J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

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Weitkamp, C.

Whiteman, D. N.

Whitemann, D.

Wiegner, M.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, I. V. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Horvat, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, and M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977-989 (2004).
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J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, A. Amodeo, V. Amoridis, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, I. Balin, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, A. Boselli, G. Carlsson, A. Chaikovsky, G. Chourdakis, A. Comerón, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, I. Grigorov, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, A. Kirsche, G. Kolarov, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, W. Kumpf, G. Larchevêque, H. Linné, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Mekler, I. Mironova, V. Mitev, L. Mona, D. Müller, S. Music, S. Nickovic, M. Pandolfi, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, C. Pérez, R. M. Perrone, R. Persson, D. P. Resendes, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. A. Rodrigues, L. Sauvage, L. Schneidenbach, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, I. Stachlewska, D. Stoyanov, T. Trickl, G. Tsaknakis, G. Vaughan, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, M. Zavrtanik, and C. Zerefos, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network to establish an aerosol climatology,” Rep. 348 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003), http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet.

Yan, G.

Zavrtanik, M.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Aerosol extinction coefficient profile of (a) and (b) Ex.1 and (c) and (d) Ex.2, for wavelengths of (a), (c) 355 and (b), (d) 532 nm without noise incorporation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cumulative probability (CP) of the selected model of z 2 P ( λ R , z ) for (a) Ex.1, and (b) Ex.2, without noise incorporation. The cumulative probabilities are extensively larger than 0.5.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Logarithm of the ratio between the atmospheric number density and the range-corrected lidar-received power Ex.1 [(c), (d)] corresponding to aerosol extinction coefficient incorporated uniformly distributed random noise [(a), (b)]. For Ex.1, the noisy levels are 0.64% for ln [ N ( z ) / ( z 2 P ( λ 387 , z ) ) ] and 0.87% for ln [ N ( z ) / ( z 2 P ( λ 607 , z ) ) ] .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Logarithm of the ratio between the atmospheric number density and the range-corrected lidar-received power Ex.2 [(c), (d)] corresponding to aerosol extinction coefficient incorporated uniformly distributed random noise [(a), (b)]. For Ex.2, the noisy levels are 2.48% for ln [ N ( z ) / ( z 2 P ( λ 387 , z ) ) ] and 2.22% for ln [ N ( z ) / ( z 2 P ( λ 607 , z ) ) ] .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Aerosol extinction coefficient profiles of (a) Ex.1 and (b) Ex.2 corresponding to the noise profile in Figs. 3c, 4c, respectively. (a) and (b) are performed by Tikhonov regularization with various regularization parameters μ.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Aerosol extinction coefficient profile of Ex.1 for wavelengths of (a), (b) 355 nm and (c), (d) 532 nm corresponding to the noise profile in Figs. 3c, 3d. (a) and (c) are computed by using Tikhonov regularization and the variational method. (b) and (d) are computed by using the SBF method. Here the regularization parameter μ and the iteration number are 0.5 × 10 7 and 1000, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Aerosol extinction coefficient profile of Ex.2 for wavelengths of (a), (b) 355 nm and (c), (d) 532 nm corresponding to the noise profile in Figs. 4c, 4d. (a) and (c) are computed by using Tikhonov regularization and the variational method. (b) and (d) are computed by using the SBF method. Here the regularization parameter μ and the iteration number are 0.5 × 10 7 and 1000, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Cumulative probability (CP) of the selected model of z 2 P ( λ R , z ) for (a) Ex.1 and (b) Ex.2 corresponding to the noise profile in Figs. 3c, 3d and Figs. 4c, 4d, respectively. The cumulative probabilities are extensively larger than 0.5.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Logarithm of the ratio between the atmospheric number density and the range-corrected lidar-received power (a), (b) Ex.1 and (c), (d) Ex.2 with the realistic noise profile taken from [18] and [19], respectively, after the Poisson average approach. For Ex.1, the noise levels are 1.60% for ln [ N ( z ) / ( z 2 P ( λ 387 , z ) ) ] and 2.09% for ln [ N ( z ) / ( z 2 P ( λ 607 , z ) ) ] . For Ex.2, the noise levels are 5.12% for ln [ N ( z ) / ( z 2 P ( λ 387 , z ) ) ] and 4.20% for ln [ N ( z ) / ( z 2 P ( λ 607 , z ) ) ] .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Aerosol extinction coefficient profile of (a), (b) Ex.1 and (c), (d) Ex.2 associated with a realistic noise profile. Here the regularization parameter μ and the iteration number are 0.5 × 10 7 and 1000, respectively.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 L 2 ( z min , z max ) Error of Ex.1 for SBF, Tikhonov and Variational Methods Applied to the Synthetic Noisy Raman Lidar Signals a

Tables Icon

Table 2 L 2 ( z min , z max ) Error of Ex.2 for SBF, Tikhonov, and Variational Methods Applied to the Synthetic Noisy Raman Lidar Signals

Tables Icon

Table 3 L 2 ( z min , z max ) Error of Ex.1 for Tikhonov and Variational Methods Associated With a Realistic Noise Profile a

Tables Icon

Table 4 L 2 ( z min , z max ) Error of Ex.2 for Tikhonov and Variational Methods Associated With a Realistic Noise Profile a

Equations (27)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P ( λ R , z ) = P ( λ L ) C R O ( z ) β R ( λ L , z ) z 2 exp { 0 z [ α ( λ L , ζ ) + α ( λ R , ζ ) ] d ζ } ,
α ( λ L , z ) + α ( λ R , z ) = d d z ln [ N ( z ) z 2 P ( λ R , z ) ] ,
α aer ( λ L , z ) = { d d z ln [ N ( z ) z 2 P ( λ R , z ) ] α mol ( λ L , z ) α mol ( λ R , z ) } / { 1 + ( λ L λ R ) k } ,
d d z ln [ N ( z ) z 2 P ( λ R , z ) ] = 1 N ( z ) d d z N ( z ) 1 z 2 P ( λ R , z ) d d z [ z 2 P ( λ R , z ) ] .
L 2 ( x min , x max ) { f | ( x min x max | f ( x ) | 2 d x ) 1 / 2 < } , H 2 ( x min , x max ) { f | f , f L 2 ( x min , x max ) } , f L 2 ( x min , x max ) ( x min x max | f ( x ) | 2 d x ) 1 / 2 .
i = 1 n 1 h i + h i + 1 2 ( y ˜ i f ( x i ) ) 2 δ 2 .
Φ ( f ) i = 1 n 1 h i + h i + 1 2 ( y ˜ i f ( x i ) ) 2 + μ f L 2 ( x min , x max ) 2
f * ( x i + ) f * ( x i ) = 1 μ h i + h i + 1 2 ( y ˜ i f * ( x i ) ) , i = 1 , , n 1.
x min x max s ( x ) f * ( x ) d x = 1 μ i = 1 n 1 ( h i + h i + 1 2 s ( x i ) ( y ˜ i f * ( x i ) ) )
Φ ( f ) Φ ( f * ) = i = 1 n 1 h i + h i + 1 2 ( f ( x i ) f * ( x i ) ) ( f ( x i ) + f * ( x i ) 2 y ˜ i ) + μ f f * L 2 ( x min , x max ) 2 + 2 μ x min x max ( f ( x ) f * ( x ) ) f * ( x ) d x
f * y L 2 ( x min , x max ) ( 2 h + 4 μ 1 4 + h π ) y L 2 ( x min , x max ) + h μ δ 2 + 2 δ μ 1 4
f * y L 2 ( x min , x max ) ( 2 h + 4 δ + h π ) y L 2 ( x min , x max ) + h + 2 δ .
f * ( x ) = a i + b i ( x x i ) + c i ( x x i ) 2 + d i ( x x i ) 3 for x [ x i , x i + 1 ) ,
( 2 μ G T E 1 G + P ) V = G T Y , U = Y 2 μ E 1 G V ,
b i = a i + 1 a i h 2 3 c i h 1 3 c i + 1 h = f * ( x i ) ,
v + Q ( x ) v = 0 ,
H ( q ) = x min x max ( y 2 + q y 2 ) d x x min x max ( u q 2 + q u q 2 ) d x ,
H ( q ) = x min x max [ ( y u q ) 2 + q ( y u q ) 2 ] d x ,
H ( q ) [ g ] = x min x max ( y 2 u q 2 ) g d x .
H ( q ) = y 2 u q 2 ,
H ( q ) [ g , g ] = 2 x min x max v u q g d x ,
H ( q ω g ) H ( q ) ω H ( q ) [ g ] + ω 2 2 H ( q ) [ g , g ] .
ω * = H ( q ) [ g ] H ( q ) [ g , g ] .
H ( q 1 ) H ( q 2 ) = x min x max ( q 1 q 2 ) ( y 2 u q 1 u q 2 ) d x ,
u q ( j ) ( x ) = u q ( j ) ( x min ) + x min x q ( j ) ( s ) u q ( j ) ( s ) d s .
B A = x min x max u q ( j ) ( s ) d s = ( x max x min ) u q ( j ) ( x min ) + x min x max ( x max s ) q ( j ) ( s ) u q ( j ) ( s ) d s ,
u q ( j ) ( x ) = B A x max x min x min x max ( x max s x max x min ) q ( j ) ( s ) u q ( j ) ( s ) d s + x min x q ( j ) ( s ) u q ( j ) ( s ) d s .

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