Abstract

Dynamics of the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric permittivity of a photoexcited silver layer has been investigated by means of femtosecond pump–probe spectroscopy in a surface plasmon resonance Kretschmann configuration. Both real and imaginary permittivity parts experience changes in the visible–near-IR regions under silver excitation at 400nm. The changes are stronger, particularly those of the imaginary part, at longer wavelengths. Three excited states are formed during the relaxation process, which are attributed to the nonequilibrium and equilibrium heated electron distributions and lattice heating. Different time evolutions of the real and imaginary dielectric permittivity parts are explained by different contributions from interband and intraband transitions caused by plasma frequency and electron scattering frequency variations.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Bonn, D. N. Denzler, S. Funk, M. Wolf, S.-S. Wellershoff, and J. Hohlfeld, “Ultrafast electron dynamics at metal surfaces: competition between electron-phonon coupling and hot-electron transport,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 1101-1105 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. I. Anisimov, B. L. Kapeliovich, and T. L. Perel'man, “Electron emission from metal surfaces exposed to ultrashort laser pulses,” Sov. Phys. JETP 39, 375-377 (1974).
  3. J. Hohlfeld, S. S. Wellershoff, J. Gudde, U. Conrad, V. Jahnke, and E. Matthias, “Electron and lattice dynamics following optical excitation of metals,” Chem. Phys. 251, 237-258 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Del Fatti, R. Bouffanais, F. Vallée, and C. Flytzanis, “Nonequilibrium electron interactions in metal films,” Phys. Rev lett. 81, 922-925 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. E. Elsayed-Ali, T. Juhasz, G. O. Smith, and W. E. Bron, “Femtosecond thermoreflectivity and thermotransmissivity of polycrystalline and single-crystalline gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 4488-4491 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Voisin, D. Christofilos, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallee, “Femtosecond surface plasmon resonance dynamics and electron-electron interactions in silver nanoparticles,” Eur. Phys. J. D 16, 139-144 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. H. M. Groeneveld, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Ultrafast relaxation of electrons probed by surface plasmons at a thin silver film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 784-787 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Devižis, V. Vaicikauskas, and V. Gulbinas, “Ultrafast pump-probe surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of thin gold films,” Appl. Opt. 45, 2535-2539 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).
  10. M. van Exter and A. Lagendijk, “Ultrashort surface--plasmon and phonon dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 49-52 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. H. M. Groeneveld, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of electron-electron and electron-phonon energy relaxation in Ag and Au,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 11433-11445 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Kretschmann, “Die Bestimmung optischer Konstanten von Metallen durch Anregung von Oberflachenplasmaschwingungen,” Z. Phys. 241, 313-324 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. A. Taft and H. R. Philipp, “Optical constants of silver,” Phys. Rev. 121, 1100-1103 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Del Fatti, C. Voisin, M. Achermann, S. Tzortzakis, D. Christofilos, and F. Valle, “Nonequilibrium electron dynamics in noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 16956-16965 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Rosei, C. H. Culp, and J. H. Weaver, “Temperature modulation of the optical transition involving Fermi surface in Ag: experimental,” Phys. Rev. B 10, 484-489 (1974).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2001 (1)

C. Voisin, D. Christofilos, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallee, “Femtosecond surface plasmon resonance dynamics and electron-electron interactions in silver nanoparticles,” Eur. Phys. J. D 16, 139-144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

M. Bonn, D. N. Denzler, S. Funk, M. Wolf, S.-S. Wellershoff, and J. Hohlfeld, “Ultrafast electron dynamics at metal surfaces: competition between electron-phonon coupling and hot-electron transport,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 1101-1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Hohlfeld, S. S. Wellershoff, J. Gudde, U. Conrad, V. Jahnke, and E. Matthias, “Electron and lattice dynamics following optical excitation of metals,” Chem. Phys. 251, 237-258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Del Fatti, C. Voisin, M. Achermann, S. Tzortzakis, D. Christofilos, and F. Valle, “Nonequilibrium electron dynamics in noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 16956-16965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

N. Del Fatti, R. Bouffanais, F. Vallée, and C. Flytzanis, “Nonequilibrium electron interactions in metal films,” Phys. Rev lett. 81, 922-925 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R. H. M. Groeneveld, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of electron-electron and electron-phonon energy relaxation in Ag and Au,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 11433-11445 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

H. E. Elsayed-Ali, T. Juhasz, G. O. Smith, and W. E. Bron, “Femtosecond thermoreflectivity and thermotransmissivity of polycrystalline and single-crystalline gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 4488-4491 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. H. M. Groeneveld, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Ultrafast relaxation of electrons probed by surface plasmons at a thin silver film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 784-787 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

M. van Exter and A. Lagendijk, “Ultrashort surface--plasmon and phonon dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 49-52 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (2)

S. I. Anisimov, B. L. Kapeliovich, and T. L. Perel'man, “Electron emission from metal surfaces exposed to ultrashort laser pulses,” Sov. Phys. JETP 39, 375-377 (1974).

R. Rosei, C. H. Culp, and J. H. Weaver, “Temperature modulation of the optical transition involving Fermi surface in Ag: experimental,” Phys. Rev. B 10, 484-489 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

E. Kretschmann, “Die Bestimmung optischer Konstanten von Metallen durch Anregung von Oberflachenplasmaschwingungen,” Z. Phys. 241, 313-324 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

E. A. Taft and H. R. Philipp, “Optical constants of silver,” Phys. Rev. 121, 1100-1103 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Achermann, M.

N. Del Fatti, C. Voisin, M. Achermann, S. Tzortzakis, D. Christofilos, and F. Valle, “Nonequilibrium electron dynamics in noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 16956-16965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Anisimov, S. I.

S. I. Anisimov, B. L. Kapeliovich, and T. L. Perel'man, “Electron emission from metal surfaces exposed to ultrashort laser pulses,” Sov. Phys. JETP 39, 375-377 (1974).

Bonn, M.

M. Bonn, D. N. Denzler, S. Funk, M. Wolf, S.-S. Wellershoff, and J. Hohlfeld, “Ultrafast electron dynamics at metal surfaces: competition between electron-phonon coupling and hot-electron transport,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 1101-1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bouffanais, R.

N. Del Fatti, R. Bouffanais, F. Vallée, and C. Flytzanis, “Nonequilibrium electron interactions in metal films,” Phys. Rev lett. 81, 922-925 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bron, W. E.

H. E. Elsayed-Ali, T. Juhasz, G. O. Smith, and W. E. Bron, “Femtosecond thermoreflectivity and thermotransmissivity of polycrystalline and single-crystalline gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 4488-4491 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Christofilos, D.

C. Voisin, D. Christofilos, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallee, “Femtosecond surface plasmon resonance dynamics and electron-electron interactions in silver nanoparticles,” Eur. Phys. J. D 16, 139-144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Del Fatti, C. Voisin, M. Achermann, S. Tzortzakis, D. Christofilos, and F. Valle, “Nonequilibrium electron dynamics in noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 16956-16965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Conrad, U.

J. Hohlfeld, S. S. Wellershoff, J. Gudde, U. Conrad, V. Jahnke, and E. Matthias, “Electron and lattice dynamics following optical excitation of metals,” Chem. Phys. 251, 237-258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Culp, C. H.

R. Rosei, C. H. Culp, and J. H. Weaver, “Temperature modulation of the optical transition involving Fermi surface in Ag: experimental,” Phys. Rev. B 10, 484-489 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Del Fatti, N.

C. Voisin, D. Christofilos, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallee, “Femtosecond surface plasmon resonance dynamics and electron-electron interactions in silver nanoparticles,” Eur. Phys. J. D 16, 139-144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Del Fatti, C. Voisin, M. Achermann, S. Tzortzakis, D. Christofilos, and F. Valle, “Nonequilibrium electron dynamics in noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 16956-16965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Del Fatti, R. Bouffanais, F. Vallée, and C. Flytzanis, “Nonequilibrium electron interactions in metal films,” Phys. Rev lett. 81, 922-925 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Denzler, D. N.

M. Bonn, D. N. Denzler, S. Funk, M. Wolf, S.-S. Wellershoff, and J. Hohlfeld, “Ultrafast electron dynamics at metal surfaces: competition between electron-phonon coupling and hot-electron transport,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 1101-1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Devižis, A.

Elsayed-Ali, H. E.

H. E. Elsayed-Ali, T. Juhasz, G. O. Smith, and W. E. Bron, “Femtosecond thermoreflectivity and thermotransmissivity of polycrystalline and single-crystalline gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 4488-4491 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Flytzanis, C.

N. Del Fatti, R. Bouffanais, F. Vallée, and C. Flytzanis, “Nonequilibrium electron interactions in metal films,” Phys. Rev lett. 81, 922-925 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Funk, S.

M. Bonn, D. N. Denzler, S. Funk, M. Wolf, S.-S. Wellershoff, and J. Hohlfeld, “Ultrafast electron dynamics at metal surfaces: competition between electron-phonon coupling and hot-electron transport,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 1101-1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Groeneveld, R. H. M.

R. H. M. Groeneveld, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of electron-electron and electron-phonon energy relaxation in Ag and Au,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 11433-11445 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. H. M. Groeneveld, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Ultrafast relaxation of electrons probed by surface plasmons at a thin silver film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 784-787 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gudde, J.

J. Hohlfeld, S. S. Wellershoff, J. Gudde, U. Conrad, V. Jahnke, and E. Matthias, “Electron and lattice dynamics following optical excitation of metals,” Chem. Phys. 251, 237-258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gulbinas, V.

Hohlfeld, J.

M. Bonn, D. N. Denzler, S. Funk, M. Wolf, S.-S. Wellershoff, and J. Hohlfeld, “Ultrafast electron dynamics at metal surfaces: competition between electron-phonon coupling and hot-electron transport,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 1101-1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Hohlfeld, S. S. Wellershoff, J. Gudde, U. Conrad, V. Jahnke, and E. Matthias, “Electron and lattice dynamics following optical excitation of metals,” Chem. Phys. 251, 237-258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jahnke, V.

J. Hohlfeld, S. S. Wellershoff, J. Gudde, U. Conrad, V. Jahnke, and E. Matthias, “Electron and lattice dynamics following optical excitation of metals,” Chem. Phys. 251, 237-258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Juhasz, T.

H. E. Elsayed-Ali, T. Juhasz, G. O. Smith, and W. E. Bron, “Femtosecond thermoreflectivity and thermotransmissivity of polycrystalline and single-crystalline gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 4488-4491 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kapeliovich, B. L.

S. I. Anisimov, B. L. Kapeliovich, and T. L. Perel'man, “Electron emission from metal surfaces exposed to ultrashort laser pulses,” Sov. Phys. JETP 39, 375-377 (1974).

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann, “Die Bestimmung optischer Konstanten von Metallen durch Anregung von Oberflachenplasmaschwingungen,” Z. Phys. 241, 313-324 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

R. H. M. Groeneveld, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of electron-electron and electron-phonon energy relaxation in Ag and Au,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 11433-11445 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. H. M. Groeneveld, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Ultrafast relaxation of electrons probed by surface plasmons at a thin silver film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 784-787 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. van Exter and A. Lagendijk, “Ultrashort surface--plasmon and phonon dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 49-52 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthias, E.

J. Hohlfeld, S. S. Wellershoff, J. Gudde, U. Conrad, V. Jahnke, and E. Matthias, “Electron and lattice dynamics following optical excitation of metals,” Chem. Phys. 251, 237-258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perel'man, T. L.

S. I. Anisimov, B. L. Kapeliovich, and T. L. Perel'man, “Electron emission from metal surfaces exposed to ultrashort laser pulses,” Sov. Phys. JETP 39, 375-377 (1974).

Philipp, H. R.

E. A. Taft and H. R. Philipp, “Optical constants of silver,” Phys. Rev. 121, 1100-1103 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

Rosei, R.

R. Rosei, C. H. Culp, and J. H. Weaver, “Temperature modulation of the optical transition involving Fermi surface in Ag: experimental,” Phys. Rev. B 10, 484-489 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. O.

H. E. Elsayed-Ali, T. Juhasz, G. O. Smith, and W. E. Bron, “Femtosecond thermoreflectivity and thermotransmissivity of polycrystalline and single-crystalline gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 4488-4491 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sprik, R.

R. H. M. Groeneveld, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of electron-electron and electron-phonon energy relaxation in Ag and Au,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 11433-11445 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. H. M. Groeneveld, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Ultrafast relaxation of electrons probed by surface plasmons at a thin silver film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 784-787 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taft, E. A.

E. A. Taft and H. R. Philipp, “Optical constants of silver,” Phys. Rev. 121, 1100-1103 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Tzortzakis, S.

N. Del Fatti, C. Voisin, M. Achermann, S. Tzortzakis, D. Christofilos, and F. Valle, “Nonequilibrium electron dynamics in noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 16956-16965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vaicikauskas, V.

Valle, F.

N. Del Fatti, C. Voisin, M. Achermann, S. Tzortzakis, D. Christofilos, and F. Valle, “Nonequilibrium electron dynamics in noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 16956-16965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vallee, F.

C. Voisin, D. Christofilos, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallee, “Femtosecond surface plasmon resonance dynamics and electron-electron interactions in silver nanoparticles,” Eur. Phys. J. D 16, 139-144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vallée, F.

N. Del Fatti, R. Bouffanais, F. Vallée, and C. Flytzanis, “Nonequilibrium electron interactions in metal films,” Phys. Rev lett. 81, 922-925 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

M. van Exter and A. Lagendijk, “Ultrashort surface--plasmon and phonon dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 49-52 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voisin, C.

C. Voisin, D. Christofilos, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallee, “Femtosecond surface plasmon resonance dynamics and electron-electron interactions in silver nanoparticles,” Eur. Phys. J. D 16, 139-144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Del Fatti, C. Voisin, M. Achermann, S. Tzortzakis, D. Christofilos, and F. Valle, “Nonequilibrium electron dynamics in noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 16956-16965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, J. H.

R. Rosei, C. H. Culp, and J. H. Weaver, “Temperature modulation of the optical transition involving Fermi surface in Ag: experimental,” Phys. Rev. B 10, 484-489 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Wellershoff, S. S.

J. Hohlfeld, S. S. Wellershoff, J. Gudde, U. Conrad, V. Jahnke, and E. Matthias, “Electron and lattice dynamics following optical excitation of metals,” Chem. Phys. 251, 237-258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wellershoff, S.-S.

M. Bonn, D. N. Denzler, S. Funk, M. Wolf, S.-S. Wellershoff, and J. Hohlfeld, “Ultrafast electron dynamics at metal surfaces: competition between electron-phonon coupling and hot-electron transport,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 1101-1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, M.

M. Bonn, D. N. Denzler, S. Funk, M. Wolf, S.-S. Wellershoff, and J. Hohlfeld, “Ultrafast electron dynamics at metal surfaces: competition between electron-phonon coupling and hot-electron transport,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 1101-1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chem. Phys. (1)

J. Hohlfeld, S. S. Wellershoff, J. Gudde, U. Conrad, V. Jahnke, and E. Matthias, “Electron and lattice dynamics following optical excitation of metals,” Chem. Phys. 251, 237-258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

C. Voisin, D. Christofilos, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallee, “Femtosecond surface plasmon resonance dynamics and electron-electron interactions in silver nanoparticles,” Eur. Phys. J. D 16, 139-144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev lett. (1)

N. Del Fatti, R. Bouffanais, F. Vallée, and C. Flytzanis, “Nonequilibrium electron interactions in metal films,” Phys. Rev lett. 81, 922-925 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. A. Taft and H. R. Philipp, “Optical constants of silver,” Phys. Rev. 121, 1100-1103 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (6)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

N. Del Fatti, C. Voisin, M. Achermann, S. Tzortzakis, D. Christofilos, and F. Valle, “Nonequilibrium electron dynamics in noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 16956-16965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Rosei, C. H. Culp, and J. H. Weaver, “Temperature modulation of the optical transition involving Fermi surface in Ag: experimental,” Phys. Rev. B 10, 484-489 (1974).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Elsayed-Ali, T. Juhasz, G. O. Smith, and W. E. Bron, “Femtosecond thermoreflectivity and thermotransmissivity of polycrystalline and single-crystalline gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 4488-4491 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Bonn, D. N. Denzler, S. Funk, M. Wolf, S.-S. Wellershoff, and J. Hohlfeld, “Ultrafast electron dynamics at metal surfaces: competition between electron-phonon coupling and hot-electron transport,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 1101-1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. H. M. Groeneveld, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of electron-electron and electron-phonon energy relaxation in Ag and Au,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 11433-11445 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

R. H. M. Groeneveld, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, “Ultrafast relaxation of electrons probed by surface plasmons at a thin silver film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 784-787 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. van Exter and A. Lagendijk, “Ultrashort surface--plasmon and phonon dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 49-52 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

S. I. Anisimov, B. L. Kapeliovich, and T. L. Perel'man, “Electron emission from metal surfaces exposed to ultrashort laser pulses,” Sov. Phys. JETP 39, 375-377 (1974).

Z. Phys. (1)

E. Kretschmann, “Die Bestimmung optischer Konstanten von Metallen durch Anregung von Oberflachenplasmaschwingungen,” Z. Phys. 241, 313-324 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectivity dependence on the incidence angle at the 490 nm wavelength. Solid curve, calculation results assuming that the thickness and complex dielectric permittivity of the silver film are 37 nm and 7.94 + i 0.733 [14], respectively, at a given wavelength. Open squares are experimental data; intensity of reflected light in arbitrary units.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectivity kinetics at different angles of incidence of the 490 nm wavelength probe pulse. Angles of incidence are given in degrees relative to the resonant angle (reflectivity minimum).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectivity kinetics at different angles of incidence of the 800 nm wavelength probe pulse. Angles of incidence are given in degrees relative to the resonant angle (reflectivity minimum).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflectivity change dependence on the incidence angle at different probe pulse delays with respect to the pump pulse at a 490 nm wavelength.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Complex dielectric permittivity dynamics of the silver film after excitation at the (a) 490, (b) 600, and (c)  800 nm probe wavelength.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ε ( ω ) = ε b ( ω ) + ε free ( ω ) = ε b ( ω ) ω p 2 ω 2 + i ω γ .
Δ Re ε free Δ Im ε free 2 γ ω ,
Im ε free * = ω p 2 ω 2 + γ 2 γ ω ω p 2 γ ω 3 .

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