Abstract

We present observations of cirrus clouds from June 2006 to July 2007 performed by using a two- wavelength lidar located at Hampton University. For this time period, cirrus clouds were observed mostly in 713.5km altitudes. Data analyses have been performed focusing on a color-ratio retrieval. In total, 86,369 samples from 1,689 profiles (1min average and 15m range resolution) containing cirrus clouds with attenuated backscatter ratio (ratio of attenuated total backscatter to the molecular backscatter) larger than 10 have been selected. The cirrus color ratio distribution shows a peak value at about 0.88 and a full width at half-maximum of 0.12.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2006 (1)

2004 (1)

Z. Liu, M. A. Vaughan, D. M. Winker, C. A. Hostetler, L. R. Poole, D. Hlavka, W. Hart, and M. McGill, “Use of probability distribution functions for discriminating between cloud and aerosol in lidar backscatter data,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D15202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, and M. P. McCormick, “The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds,” Proc. SPIE 4893, 1-11 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, “Examination of the traditional Raman lidar technique. II. Evaluating the ratios for water vapor and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2593-2608 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

W. N. Chen, C. W. Chiang, and J. B. Nee, “Lidar ratio and depolarization ratio for cirrus clouds,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6470-6476(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Reagan, X. Wang, and M. T. Osborn, “Spaceborne lidar calibration from cirrus and molecular backscatter returns,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 2285-2290(2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. Beyerle, M. R. Gross, D. A. Haner, N. T. Kjome, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, J. M. Rosen, H. J. Schafer, and O. Schrems, “A lidar and backscatter sonde measurement campaign at Table Mountain during February-March 1997: observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 1275-1287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

D. P. Wylie and W. P. Menzel, “Eight years of high cloud statistics using HIRS,” J. Clim. 12, 170-184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. B. Baker, “Cloud microphysics and climate,” Science 276, 1072-1078 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linn, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Thro, U. Wandinger, and C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case analysis and statistical study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608-1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

K. N. Liou, “Influence of cirrus clouds on the weather and climate process: a global perspective,” Mon. Weather Rev. 114, 1167-1199 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1982 (1)

1979 (1)

Ansmann, A.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linn, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Thro, U. Wandinger, and C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case analysis and statistical study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608-1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baker, M. B.

M. B. Baker, “Cloud microphysics and climate,” Science 276, 1072-1078 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beyerle, G.

G. Beyerle, M. R. Gross, D. A. Haner, N. T. Kjome, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, J. M. Rosen, H. J. Schafer, and O. Schrems, “A lidar and backscatter sonde measurement campaign at Table Mountain during February-March 1997: observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 1275-1287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Bösenberg, J.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linn, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Thro, U. Wandinger, and C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case analysis and statistical study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608-1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brogniez, G.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linn, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Thro, U. Wandinger, and C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case analysis and statistical study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608-1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. N.

Chiang, C. W.

Elouragini, S.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linn, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Thro, U. Wandinger, and C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case analysis and statistical study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608-1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fan, A.

J. Zhou, Y. Wu, F. Qi, A. Fan, G. Yue, and M. Mao, “Two-wavelength Mie lidar for tropospheric aerosol measurements,” in proceedings of 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 71-75.

Fernald, F. G.

Flamant, P. H.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linn, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Thro, U. Wandinger, and C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case analysis and statistical study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608-1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grams, G. W.

Gross, M. R.

G. Beyerle, M. R. Gross, D. A. Haner, N. T. Kjome, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, J. M. Rosen, H. J. Schafer, and O. Schrems, “A lidar and backscatter sonde measurement campaign at Table Mountain during February-March 1997: observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 1275-1287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haner, D. A.

G. Beyerle, M. R. Gross, D. A. Haner, N. T. Kjome, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, J. M. Rosen, H. J. Schafer, and O. Schrems, “A lidar and backscatter sonde measurement campaign at Table Mountain during February-March 1997: observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 1275-1287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hart, W.

Z. Liu, M. A. Vaughan, D. M. Winker, C. A. Hostetler, L. R. Poole, D. Hlavka, W. Hart, and M. McGill, “Use of probability distribution functions for discriminating between cloud and aerosol in lidar backscatter data,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D15202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hlavka, D.

Z. Liu, M. A. Vaughan, D. M. Winker, C. A. Hostetler, L. R. Poole, D. Hlavka, W. Hart, and M. McGill, “Use of probability distribution functions for discriminating between cloud and aerosol in lidar backscatter data,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D15202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hostetler, C.

Hostetler, C. A.

Z. Liu, M. A. Vaughan, D. M. Winker, C. A. Hostetler, L. R. Poole, D. Hlavka, W. Hart, and M. McGill, “Use of probability distribution functions for discriminating between cloud and aerosol in lidar backscatter data,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D15202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Hunt, W.

Kjome, N. T.

G. Beyerle, M. R. Gross, D. A. Haner, N. T. Kjome, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, J. M. Rosen, H. J. Schafer, and O. Schrems, “A lidar and backscatter sonde measurement campaign at Table Mountain during February-March 1997: observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 1275-1287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Klapheck, K.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linn, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Thro, U. Wandinger, and C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case analysis and statistical study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608-1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Linn, H.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linn, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Thro, U. Wandinger, and C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case analysis and statistical study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608-1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Liou, K. N.

K. N. Liou, “Influence of cirrus clouds on the weather and climate process: a global perspective,” Mon. Weather Rev. 114, 1167-1199 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Livingston, J. M.

Mao, M.

J. Zhou, Y. Wu, F. Qi, A. Fan, G. Yue, and M. Mao, “Two-wavelength Mie lidar for tropospheric aerosol measurements,” in proceedings of 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 71-75.

McCormick, M. P.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, and M. P. McCormick, “The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds,” Proc. SPIE 4893, 1-11 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, and M. P. McCormick, “Methodology for error analysis and simulation of lidar aerosol measurements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3783-3797 (1979).
[PubMed]

Z. Tao, M. P. McCormick, and D. Wu, Center for Atmospheric Sciences, Department of Atmospheric & Planetary Sciences, Hampton University, Hampton, Va. 23668, USA, are preparing a manuscript to be called “A method for spaceborne and ground-based lidar comparison and its application to CALIPSO.”

McDermid, I. S.

G. Beyerle, M. R. Gross, D. A. Haner, N. T. Kjome, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, J. M. Rosen, H. J. Schafer, and O. Schrems, “A lidar and backscatter sonde measurement campaign at Table Mountain during February-March 1997: observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 1275-1287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McGee, T. J.

G. Beyerle, M. R. Gross, D. A. Haner, N. T. Kjome, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, J. M. Rosen, H. J. Schafer, and O. Schrems, “A lidar and backscatter sonde measurement campaign at Table Mountain during February-March 1997: observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 1275-1287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McGill, M.

Z. Liu, W. Hunt, M. Vaughan, C. Hostetler, M. McGill, K. Powell, D. Winker, and Y. Hu, “Estimating random errors due to shot noise in backscatter lidar observations,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4437-4447 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, M. A. Vaughan, D. M. Winker, C. A. Hostetler, L. R. Poole, D. Hlavka, W. Hart, and M. McGill, “Use of probability distribution functions for discriminating between cloud and aerosol in lidar backscatter data,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D15202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Menenger, L.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linn, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Thro, U. Wandinger, and C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case analysis and statistical study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608-1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, W. P.

D. P. Wylie and W. P. Menzel, “Eight years of high cloud statistics using HIRS,” J. Clim. 12, 170-184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Michaelis, W.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linn, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Thro, U. Wandinger, and C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case analysis and statistical study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608-1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morley, B. M.

Nee, J. B.

Osborn, M. T.

J. A. Reagan, X. Wang, and M. T. Osborn, “Spaceborne lidar calibration from cirrus and molecular backscatter returns,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 2285-2290(2002).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, E. M.

Pelon, J.

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, and M. P. McCormick, “The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds,” Proc. SPIE 4893, 1-11 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Poole, L. R.

Z. Liu, M. A. Vaughan, D. M. Winker, C. A. Hostetler, L. R. Poole, D. Hlavka, W. Hart, and M. McGill, “Use of probability distribution functions for discriminating between cloud and aerosol in lidar backscatter data,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D15202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Powell, K.

Qi, F.

J. Zhou, Y. Wu, F. Qi, A. Fan, G. Yue, and M. Mao, “Two-wavelength Mie lidar for tropospheric aerosol measurements,” in proceedings of 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 71-75.

Reagan, J. A.

J. A. Reagan, X. Wang, and M. T. Osborn, “Spaceborne lidar calibration from cirrus and molecular backscatter returns,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 2285-2290(2002).
[CrossRef]

Riebesell, M.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linn, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Thro, U. Wandinger, and C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case analysis and statistical study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608-1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, J. M.

G. Beyerle, M. R. Gross, D. A. Haner, N. T. Kjome, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, J. M. Rosen, H. J. Schafer, and O. Schrems, “A lidar and backscatter sonde measurement campaign at Table Mountain during February-March 1997: observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 1275-1287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

Schafer, H. J.

G. Beyerle, M. R. Gross, D. A. Haner, N. T. Kjome, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, J. M. Rosen, H. J. Schafer, and O. Schrems, “A lidar and backscatter sonde measurement campaign at Table Mountain during February-March 1997: observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 1275-1287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schrems, O.

G. Beyerle, M. R. Gross, D. A. Haner, N. T. Kjome, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, J. M. Rosen, H. J. Schafer, and O. Schrems, “A lidar and backscatter sonde measurement campaign at Table Mountain during February-March 1997: observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 1275-1287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Senff, C.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linn, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Thro, U. Wandinger, and C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case analysis and statistical study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608-1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Swissler, T. J.

Tao, Z.

Z. Tao, M. P. McCormick, and D. Wu, Center for Atmospheric Sciences, Department of Atmospheric & Planetary Sciences, Hampton University, Hampton, Va. 23668, USA, are preparing a manuscript to be called “A method for spaceborne and ground-based lidar comparison and its application to CALIPSO.”

Thro, P.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linn, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Thro, U. Wandinger, and C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case analysis and statistical study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608-1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, M.

Vaughan, M. A.

Z. Liu, M. A. Vaughan, D. M. Winker, C. A. Hostetler, L. R. Poole, D. Hlavka, W. Hart, and M. McGill, “Use of probability distribution functions for discriminating between cloud and aerosol in lidar backscatter data,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D15202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Vaughan, Science Systems & Applications Inc. (SSAI), NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. 23681, USA is preparing a manuscript to be called “Backscatter color ratios of cirrus clouds measured by the cloud physics lidar.”

Voelger, P.

Wandinger, U.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linn, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Thro, U. Wandinger, and C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case analysis and statistical study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608-1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

J. A. Reagan, X. Wang, and M. T. Osborn, “Spaceborne lidar calibration from cirrus and molecular backscatter returns,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 2285-2290(2002).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, C.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linn, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Thro, U. Wandinger, and C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case analysis and statistical study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608-1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Whiteman, D. N.

Winker, D.

Winker, D. M.

Z. Liu, M. A. Vaughan, D. M. Winker, C. A. Hostetler, L. R. Poole, D. Hlavka, W. Hart, and M. McGill, “Use of probability distribution functions for discriminating between cloud and aerosol in lidar backscatter data,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D15202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, and M. P. McCormick, “The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds,” Proc. SPIE 4893, 1-11 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

Z. Tao, M. P. McCormick, and D. Wu, Center for Atmospheric Sciences, Department of Atmospheric & Planetary Sciences, Hampton University, Hampton, Va. 23668, USA, are preparing a manuscript to be called “A method for spaceborne and ground-based lidar comparison and its application to CALIPSO.”

Wu, Y.

J. Zhou, Y. Wu, F. Qi, A. Fan, G. Yue, and M. Mao, “Two-wavelength Mie lidar for tropospheric aerosol measurements,” in proceedings of 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 71-75.

Wylie, D. P.

D. P. Wylie and W. P. Menzel, “Eight years of high cloud statistics using HIRS,” J. Clim. 12, 170-184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Young, S. A.

Yue, G.

J. Zhou, Y. Wu, F. Qi, A. Fan, G. Yue, and M. Mao, “Two-wavelength Mie lidar for tropospheric aerosol measurements,” in proceedings of 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 71-75.

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, Y. Wu, F. Qi, A. Fan, G. Yue, and M. Mao, “Two-wavelength Mie lidar for tropospheric aerosol measurements,” in proceedings of 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 71-75.

Appl. Opt. (8)

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

J. A. Reagan, X. Wang, and M. T. Osborn, “Spaceborne lidar calibration from cirrus and molecular backscatter returns,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 2285-2290(2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. Klapheck, H. Linn, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P. Thro, U. Wandinger, and C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observations of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case analysis and statistical study,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608-1622 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

G. Beyerle, M. R. Gross, D. A. Haner, N. T. Kjome, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, J. M. Rosen, H. J. Schafer, and O. Schrems, “A lidar and backscatter sonde measurement campaign at Table Mountain during February-March 1997: observations of cirrus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 1275-1287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Clim. (1)

D. P. Wylie and W. P. Menzel, “Eight years of high cloud statistics using HIRS,” J. Clim. 12, 170-184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

Z. Liu, M. A. Vaughan, D. M. Winker, C. A. Hostetler, L. R. Poole, D. Hlavka, W. Hart, and M. McGill, “Use of probability distribution functions for discriminating between cloud and aerosol in lidar backscatter data,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D15202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Weather Rev. (1)

K. N. Liou, “Influence of cirrus clouds on the weather and climate process: a global perspective,” Mon. Weather Rev. 114, 1167-1199 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, and M. P. McCormick, “The CALIPSO mission: spaceborne lidar for observation of aerosols and clouds,” Proc. SPIE 4893, 1-11 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. B. Baker, “Cloud microphysics and climate,” Science 276, 1072-1078 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. A. Vaughan, Science Systems & Applications Inc. (SSAI), NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. 23681, USA is preparing a manuscript to be called “Backscatter color ratios of cirrus clouds measured by the cloud physics lidar.”

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

J. Zhou, Y. Wu, F. Qi, A. Fan, G. Yue, and M. Mao, “Two-wavelength Mie lidar for tropospheric aerosol measurements,” in proceedings of 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (European Space Agency, 2004), pp. 71-75.

Z. Tao, M. P. McCormick, and D. Wu, Center for Atmospheric Sciences, Department of Atmospheric & Planetary Sciences, Hampton University, Hampton, Va. 23668, USA, are preparing a manuscript to be called “A method for spaceborne and ground-based lidar comparison and its application to CALIPSO.”

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example of cirrus cloud observed on 1 March 2007: (a) 532 and 1064 nm attenuated backscatter, (b) backscatter color ratios computed by using Eqs. (6) (black), (7) (red), and (8) (green), and (c) differences of color ratios computed by using Eqs. (7, 6) (red), and Eqs. (8, 6) (green). Color ratios using Eqs. (7, 8) were computed only for data points where R 532 > 10 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time–altitude displays of 532 nm logarithmic attenuated backscatter (left) and backscatter color ratio (right). The profiles in (a) and (b) were acquired on 9 March 2007 starting at 9:28 a.m., (c) and (d) on 1 May 2007 starting at 11:01 a.m., and (e) and (f) on 28 July 2007 starting at 2:04 p.m., respectively. Altitude and time resolutions are 0.015 km and 1 min , respectively. The units of 532 nm attenuated backscatter is km 1 sr 1 . Profiles for the dotted vertical lines are discussed in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cirrus cloud backscatter color ratio profiles and their corresponding 532 nm attenuated backscatter profiles from the measurements shown in Fig. 2 as indicated by the dotted vertical lines. In the left-hand panels, the blue curves are calculated by using Eq. (6), and the red curves are calculated by using Eq. (7) in regions where R 532 > 10 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Distributions of color ratios for strong cloud signals ( R 532 > 10 ) within 6 14 km altitudes measured by using the HU lidar over Hampton during June 2006 through July 2007. The red curve is calculated by using Eq. (7), and the blue line by using Eq. (8).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Example of relative errors estimated by using the noise scale factor for the 532 and 1064 nm attenuated backscatters shown in Fig. 1. The solid curves indicate the location of the cloud where R 532 > 10 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Occurrence number and (b) color ratio distribution of cirrus cloud as a function of altitude used in this study. Altitude and color ratio resolutions are 0.15 km and 0.02, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Cirrus cloud occurrence number as a function of logarithmic 532 nm attenuated backscatter, and (b) as a function of color ratio and logarithmic 532 nm attenuated backscatter. 532 nm attenuated backscatter is in km 1 sr 1 . The increment is 0.05 for logarithmic attenuated backscatter and 0.02 for color ratio.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Specifications of the HU Bistatic Lidar

Equations (8)

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X ( z ) = P ( z ) z 2 = C [ β 1 ( z ) + β 2 ( z ) ] exp { 2 0 z [ α 1 ( z ) + α 2 ( z ) ] d z } ,
X ( z c ) = C R ( z c ) β 2 ( z c ) exp { 2 0 z c [ α 1 ( z ) + α 2 ( z ) ] d z } .
C = C exp { 2 0 z c [ α 1 ( z ) + α 2 ( z ) ] d z } .
C = X ( z c ) / [ R ( z c ) β 2 ( z c ) ] .
β ( z ) = [ β 1 ( z ) + β 2 ( z ) ] exp { 2 z c z [ α 1 ( z ) + α 2 ( z ) ] d z } = X ( z ) / C .
χ = β 1 , 1064 / β 1 , 532 .
χ ( z ) [ β 1064 ( z ) β 2 , 1064 ( z ) ] / [ β 532 ( z ) / T 2 , 532 ( z ) β 2 , 532 ( z ) ] ,
χ = β 1064 / β 532

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