Abstract

We report the experimental results of using the soft lithography method for replication of Dammann gratings. By using an elastomeric stamp, uniform grating structures were transferred to the UV-curable polymer. To evaluate the quality of the replication, diffraction images and light intensity were measured. Compared with the master devices, the replicas of Dammann gratings show a slight deviation in both surface relief profile and optical performance. Experimental results demonstrated that high-fidelity replication of Dammann gratings is realized by using soft lithography with low cost and high throughput.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Jahns, M. M. Downs, M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, and S. J. Walker, “Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1267-1275 (1989).
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    [CrossRef]
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  9. M. T. Gale, C. Gimkiewicz, S. Obi, M. Schnieper, J. Söchtig, H. Thiele, and S. Westenhöfer, “Replication technology of optical microsystems,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 373-386 (2005).
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  11. Y. Xia, E. Kim, X.-M. Zhao, J. A. Rogers, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Complex optical surfaces formed by replica molding against elastomeric masters,” Science. 273, 347-349 (1996).
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    [CrossRef]
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  16. M. V. Kunnavakkam, F. M. Houlihan, M. Schlax, J. A. Liddle, P. Kolodner, O. Nalamasu, and J. A. Rogers, “Low-cost, low-loss microlens arrays fabricated by soft-lithography replication process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1152-1154 (2003).
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  18. Y. S. Kim, K. Y. Suh, and H. H. Lee, “Fabrication of three-dimensional microstructure by soft molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2285-2287 (2001).
  19. http://www.norlandprod.com/adhesives/NOA%2061.html
  20. J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, “Quantifying distortions in soft lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16,88-97 (1998).
  21. W.-C. Chuang, C.-T. Ho, and W.-C. Wang, “Fabrication of a high-resolution periodical structure using a replication process,” Opt. Express 13, 6685-6692 (2005).

2006 (4)

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

M. Geissler and Y. Xia, “Patterning: principles and some new developments,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1249-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

Y. Huang, G. T. Paloczi, J. Scheuer, and A. Yariv, “Soft lithography replication of polymeric microring optical resonators,” Opt. Express 11, 2452-2458 (2003).

M. V. Kunnavakkam, F. M. Houlihan, M. Schlax, J. A. Liddle, P. Kolodner, O. Nalamasu, and J. A. Rogers, “Low-cost, low-loss microlens arrays fabricated by soft-lithography replication process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1152-1154 (2003).

M. T. Gale, “Replicated technology for micro-optics and optical microsystems,” Proc. SPIE 5177, 113-120 (2003).

C. Zhou, J. Jia, and L. Liu, “Circular Dammann grating,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2174-2176 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. S. Kim, K. Y. Suh, and H. H. Lee, “Fabrication of three-dimensional microstructure by soft molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2285-2287 (2001).

2000 (1)

S. R. Quake and A. Scherer, “From micro- to nanofabrication with soft materials,” Science. 290, 1536-1540 (2000).

1998 (2)

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37, 550-575 (1998).

J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, “Quantifying distortions in soft lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16,88-97 (1998).

1997 (1)

M. T. Gale, “Replication techniques for diffractive optical elements,” Microelectron. Eng. 34, 321-339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Y. Xia, E. Kim, X.-M. Zhao, J. A. Rogers, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Complex optical surfaces formed by replica molding against elastomeric masters,” Science. 273, 347-349 (1996).

1995 (1)

1989 (1)

J. Jahns, M. M. Downs, M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, and S. J. Walker, “Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1267-1275 (1989).

Aydinli, A.

Chang, W.-C.

W.-C. Chuang, C.-T. Ho, and W.-C. Chang, “Fabrication of polymer waveguides by a replication method,” App. Opt. 45, 8304-8307 (2006).

Chuang, W.-C.

W.-C. Chuang, C.-T. Ho, and W.-C. Chang, “Fabrication of polymer waveguides by a replication method,” App. Opt. 45, 8304-8307 (2006).

W.-C. Chuang, C.-T. Ho, and W.-C. Wang, “Fabrication of a high-resolution periodical structure using a replication process,” Opt. Express 13, 6685-6692 (2005).

Chung, P. S.

Dai, E.

Di, C.

Downs, M. M.

J. Jahns, M. M. Downs, M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, and S. J. Walker, “Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1267-1275 (1989).

Gale, M. T.

M. T. Gale, C. Gimkiewicz, S. Obi, M. Schnieper, J. Söchtig, H. Thiele, and S. Westenhöfer, “Replication technology of optical microsystems,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 373-386 (2005).

M. T. Gale, “Replicated technology for micro-optics and optical microsystems,” Proc. SPIE 5177, 113-120 (2003).

M. T. Gale, “Replication techniques for diffractive optical elements,” Microelectron. Eng. 34, 321-339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Geissler, M.

M. Geissler and Y. Xia, “Patterning: principles and some new developments,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1249-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gimkiewicz, C.

M. T. Gale, C. Gimkiewicz, S. Obi, M. Schnieper, J. Söchtig, H. Thiele, and S. Westenhöfer, “Replication technology of optical microsystems,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 373-386 (2005).

Ho, C.-T.

W.-C. Chuang, C.-T. Ho, and W.-C. Chang, “Fabrication of polymer waveguides by a replication method,” App. Opt. 45, 8304-8307 (2006).

W.-C. Chuang, C.-T. Ho, and W.-C. Wang, “Fabrication of a high-resolution periodical structure using a replication process,” Opt. Express 13, 6685-6692 (2005).

Houlihan, F. M.

M. V. Kunnavakkam, F. M. Houlihan, M. Schlax, J. A. Liddle, P. Kolodner, O. Nalamasu, and J. A. Rogers, “Low-cost, low-loss microlens arrays fabricated by soft-lithography replication process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1152-1154 (2003).

Huang, Y.

Jahns, J.

J. Jahns, M. M. Downs, M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, and S. J. Walker, “Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1267-1275 (1989).

Jia, J.

Kim, E.

Y. Xia, E. Kim, X.-M. Zhao, J. A. Rogers, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Complex optical surfaces formed by replica molding against elastomeric masters,” Science. 273, 347-349 (1996).

Kim, Y. S.

Y. S. Kim, K. Y. Suh, and H. H. Lee, “Fabrication of three-dimensional microstructure by soft molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2285-2287 (2001).

Kocabas, A.

Kolodner, P.

M. V. Kunnavakkam, F. M. Houlihan, M. Schlax, J. A. Liddle, P. Kolodner, O. Nalamasu, and J. A. Rogers, “Low-cost, low-loss microlens arrays fabricated by soft-lithography replication process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1152-1154 (2003).

Kunnavakkam, M. V.

M. V. Kunnavakkam, F. M. Houlihan, M. Schlax, J. A. Liddle, P. Kolodner, O. Nalamasu, and J. A. Rogers, “Low-cost, low-loss microlens arrays fabricated by soft-lithography replication process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1152-1154 (2003).

Lee, H. H.

Y. S. Kim, K. Y. Suh, and H. H. Lee, “Fabrication of three-dimensional microstructure by soft molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2285-2287 (2001).

Li, G.

Liddle, J. A.

M. V. Kunnavakkam, F. M. Houlihan, M. Schlax, J. A. Liddle, P. Kolodner, O. Nalamasu, and J. A. Rogers, “Low-cost, low-loss microlens arrays fabricated by soft-lithography replication process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1152-1154 (2003).

Liu, L.

Nalamasu, O.

M. V. Kunnavakkam, F. M. Houlihan, M. Schlax, J. A. Liddle, P. Kolodner, O. Nalamasu, and J. A. Rogers, “Low-cost, low-loss microlens arrays fabricated by soft-lithography replication process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1152-1154 (2003).

Obi, S.

M. T. Gale, C. Gimkiewicz, S. Obi, M. Schnieper, J. Söchtig, H. Thiele, and S. Westenhöfer, “Replication technology of optical microsystems,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 373-386 (2005).

Paloczi, G. T.

Paul, K. E.

J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, “Quantifying distortions in soft lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16,88-97 (1998).

Prentiss, M.

Y. Xia, E. Kim, X.-M. Zhao, J. A. Rogers, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Complex optical surfaces formed by replica molding against elastomeric masters,” Science. 273, 347-349 (1996).

Prise, M. E.

J. Jahns, M. M. Downs, M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, and S. J. Walker, “Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1267-1275 (1989).

Quake, S. R.

S. R. Quake and A. Scherer, “From micro- to nanofabrication with soft materials,” Science. 290, 1536-1540 (2000).

Rogers, J. A.

M. V. Kunnavakkam, F. M. Houlihan, M. Schlax, J. A. Liddle, P. Kolodner, O. Nalamasu, and J. A. Rogers, “Low-cost, low-loss microlens arrays fabricated by soft-lithography replication process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1152-1154 (2003).

J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, “Quantifying distortions in soft lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16,88-97 (1998).

Y. Xia, E. Kim, X.-M. Zhao, J. A. Rogers, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Complex optical surfaces formed by replica molding against elastomeric masters,” Science. 273, 347-349 (1996).

Scherer, A.

S. R. Quake and A. Scherer, “From micro- to nanofabrication with soft materials,” Science. 290, 1536-1540 (2000).

Scheuer, J.

Schlax, M.

M. V. Kunnavakkam, F. M. Houlihan, M. Schlax, J. A. Liddle, P. Kolodner, O. Nalamasu, and J. A. Rogers, “Low-cost, low-loss microlens arrays fabricated by soft-lithography replication process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1152-1154 (2003).

Schnieper, M.

M. T. Gale, C. Gimkiewicz, S. Obi, M. Schnieper, J. Söchtig, H. Thiele, and S. Westenhöfer, “Replication technology of optical microsystems,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 373-386 (2005).

Söchtig, J.

M. T. Gale, C. Gimkiewicz, S. Obi, M. Schnieper, J. Söchtig, H. Thiele, and S. Westenhöfer, “Replication technology of optical microsystems,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 373-386 (2005).

Streibl, N.

J. Jahns, M. M. Downs, M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, and S. J. Walker, “Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1267-1275 (1989).

Suh, K. Y.

Y. S. Kim, K. Y. Suh, and H. H. Lee, “Fabrication of three-dimensional microstructure by soft molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2285-2287 (2001).

Thiele, H.

M. T. Gale, C. Gimkiewicz, S. Obi, M. Schnieper, J. Söchtig, H. Thiele, and S. Westenhöfer, “Replication technology of optical microsystems,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 373-386 (2005).

Walker, S. J.

J. Jahns, M. M. Downs, M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, and S. J. Walker, “Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1267-1275 (1989).

Wang, W.-C.

Westenhöfer, S.

M. T. Gale, C. Gimkiewicz, S. Obi, M. Schnieper, J. Söchtig, H. Thiele, and S. Westenhöfer, “Replication technology of optical microsystems,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 373-386 (2005).

Whitesides, G. M.

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37, 550-575 (1998).

J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, “Quantifying distortions in soft lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16,88-97 (1998).

Y. Xia, E. Kim, X.-M. Zhao, J. A. Rogers, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Complex optical surfaces formed by replica molding against elastomeric masters,” Science. 273, 347-349 (1996).

Xia, Y.

M. Geissler and Y. Xia, “Patterning: principles and some new developments,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1249-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37, 550-575 (1998).

Y. Xia, E. Kim, X.-M. Zhao, J. A. Rogers, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Complex optical surfaces formed by replica molding against elastomeric masters,” Science. 273, 347-349 (1996).

Yariv, A.

Zhao, S.

Zhao, X.-M.

Y. Xia, E. Kim, X.-M. Zhao, J. A. Rogers, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Complex optical surfaces formed by replica molding against elastomeric masters,” Science. 273, 347-349 (1996).

Zhou, C.

Adv. Mater. (1)

M. Geissler and Y. Xia, “Patterning: principles and some new developments,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1249-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37, 550-575 (1998).

App. Opt. (1)

W.-C. Chuang, C.-T. Ho, and W.-C. Chang, “Fabrication of polymer waveguides by a replication method,” App. Opt. 45, 8304-8307 (2006).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. S. Kim, K. Y. Suh, and H. H. Lee, “Fabrication of three-dimensional microstructure by soft molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2285-2287 (2001).

M. V. Kunnavakkam, F. M. Houlihan, M. Schlax, J. A. Liddle, P. Kolodner, O. Nalamasu, and J. A. Rogers, “Low-cost, low-loss microlens arrays fabricated by soft-lithography replication process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1152-1154 (2003).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, “Quantifying distortions in soft lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16,88-97 (1998).

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

M. T. Gale, “Replication techniques for diffractive optical elements,” Microelectron. Eng. 34, 321-339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Jahns, M. M. Downs, M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, and S. J. Walker, “Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1267-1275 (1989).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

M. T. Gale, C. Gimkiewicz, S. Obi, M. Schnieper, J. Söchtig, H. Thiele, and S. Westenhöfer, “Replication technology of optical microsystems,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 373-386 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science. (2)

Y. Xia, E. Kim, X.-M. Zhao, J. A. Rogers, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Complex optical surfaces formed by replica molding against elastomeric masters,” Science. 273, 347-349 (1996).

S. R. Quake and A. Scherer, “From micro- to nanofabrication with soft materials,” Science. 290, 1536-1540 (2000).

Other (2)

http://www.norlandprod.com/adhesives/NOA%2061.html

M. T. Gale, “Replicated technology for micro-optics and optical microsystems,” Proc. SPIE 5177, 113-120 (2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of replication of Dammann gratings.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for measurement of the replica gratings.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffraction images of one-dimensional master and replicated Dammann gratings: (a)  1 × 6 Dammann grating; (b)  1 × 8 Dammann grating

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffraction images of the master and replicated Dammann gratings with 8 × 16 output spots.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Optical Intensities of 1 × 6 Dammann Grating

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured Optical Intensities of 1 × 8 Dammann Grating

Equations (1)

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uniformity = I max - I min I max + I min .

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