Abstract

To systematically investigate the influence of lapping parameters on subsurface damage (SSD) depth and characterize the damage feature comprehensively, maximum depth and distribution of SSD generated in the optical lapping process were measured with the magnetorheological finishing wedge technique. Then, an interaction of adjacent indentations was applied to interpret the generation of maximum depth of SSD. Eventually, the lapping procedure based on the influence of lapping parameters on the material removal rate and SSD depth was proposed to improve the lapping efficiency.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. C. Lambropoulos, S. Xu, and T. Fang, “Loose abrasive lapping hardness of optical glasses and its interpretation,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1501-1516 (1997).
  2. M. Buijs and K. K. Houten, “Three-body abrasion of brittle materials as studied by lapping,” Wear 166, 237-245 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Shen, S. H. Liu, K. Yi, H. B. He, J. D. Shao, Z. X. Fan, “Subsurface damage in optical substrates,” Optik 116, 288-294 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. R. Fine, R. Garbe, T. Gip, and Q. Nguyen, “Non-destructive, real time direct measurement of subsurface damage,” Proc. SPIE 5799, 105-110 (2005).
  5. C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, K. I. Schaffers, C. Bibeau, M. D. Thomas, and A. J. Griffin, “Laser damage initiation and growth of antireflection coated S-FAP crystal surfaces prepared by pitch lap and magnetorheological finishing,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 449-455 (2005).
  6. R. S. Retherford, R. Sabia, and V. P. Sokira, “Effect of surface quality on transmission performance for (111) CaF2,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 183, 264-269 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84-101 (2004).
  8. M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Influence of subsurface cracks on laser induced surface damage,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 264-272 (2004).
  9. A. V. Hamza, W. J. Siekhaus, A. M. Rubenchik, M. Feit, L. L. Chase, M. Savina, M. J. Pellin, I. D. Hutcheon, M. C. Nostrand, M. Runkel, B. W. Choi, M. Staggs, and M. J. Fluss, “Engineered defects for investigation of laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 96-107 (2002).
  10. F. Y. Genin, A. Salleo, T. V. Pistor, and L. L. Chase, “Role of light intensification by cracks in optical breakdown on surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 2607-2616 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Sun, D. J. Stephenson, O. Ohnishi, and A. Baldwin, “An investigation into parallel and cross grinding of BK7 glass,” Precis. Eng. 30, 145-153 (2006).
  12. X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. Walker, “Wheel wear and surface subsurface qualities when precision grinding optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 61-70 (2006).
  13. Y. Zhou, P. D. Funkenbusch, D. J. Quesnel, and D. Golini, “Effect of etching and imaging mode on the measurement of subsurface damage in microground optical glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 3277-3280 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. A. Randi, J. C. Lambropoulos, and S. D. Jacobs, “Subsurface damage in some single crystalline optical materials,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2241-2249 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distribution during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5601-5617 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. O. W. Fähnle, T. Wons, E. Koch, S. Debruyne, M. Meeder, S. M. Booij, and J. J. M. Braat, “iTIRM as a tool for qualifying polishing processes,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4036-4038 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Wang and R. L. Maier, “Quasi-Brewster angle technique for evaluating the quality of optical surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 1286-1294 (2004).
  18. F. W. Preston, “Structure of abraded glass surfaces,” Trans. Opt. Soc., London 23, 141-164 (1922).
  19. F. K. Aleinikov, “The effect of certain physical and mechanical properties on the grinding of brittle materials,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 27, 2529-2538 (1957).
  20. P. P. Hed and D. F. Edwards, “Optical glass fabrication technology. 2: relationship between surface roughness and subsurface damage,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4677-4680 (1987).
  21. J. C. Lambropoulos, S. D. Jacobs, and J. Ruckman, “Material removal mechanisms from grinding to polishing,” Ceram. Trans. 102, 113-128 (1999).
  22. P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 1-25(2005).
  23. N. Belkhir, D. Bouzid, and V. Herold, “Correlation between the surface quality and the abrasive grains wear in optical glass lapping,” Tribol. Int. 40, 498-502 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. P. Chang, M. Hashimura, and D. A. Dornfeld, “An investigation of material removal mechanisms in lapping with grain size transition,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 122, 413-419 (2000).
  25. M. Buijs and K. K. Houten, “A model for lapping of glass,” J. Mater. Sci. 28, 3014-3020 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. Phillips, G. M. Crimes, and T. R. Wilshaw, “On the mechanism of material removal by free abrasive grinding of glass and fused silica,” Wear 41, 327-350 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  27. O. Imanaka, “Lapping mechanics of glass-especially on roughness of lapped surface,” CIRP Ann. 13, 227-233 (1966).
  28. H. T. Young, H. T. Liao, and H. Y. Huang, “Surface integrity of silicon wafers in ultra precision machining,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 29, 372-378 (2006).
  29. O. Desa and S. Bahadur, “Material removal and subsurface damage studies in dry and lubricated single-point scratch tests on alumina and silicon nitride,” Wear 225-229, 1264-1275 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  30. V. H. Bulsara, Y. Ahn, S. Chandrasekar, and T. N. Farris, “Mechanics of Polishing,” J. Appl. Mech. 65, 410-416 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  31. R. Chauhan, Y. Ahn, S. Chandrasekar, and T. Farris, “Role of indentation fracture in free abrasive machining of ceramics,” Wear 162-164, 246-257 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. Buijs and L. A. A. G. Martens, “Effect of indentation interaction on cracking,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 75, 2809-2814 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2007

N. Belkhir, D. Bouzid, and V. Herold, “Correlation between the surface quality and the abrasive grains wear in optical glass lapping,” Tribol. Int. 40, 498-502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

X. Sun, D. J. Stephenson, O. Ohnishi, and A. Baldwin, “An investigation into parallel and cross grinding of BK7 glass,” Precis. Eng. 30, 145-153 (2006).

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. Walker, “Wheel wear and surface subsurface qualities when precision grinding optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 61-70 (2006).

H. T. Young, H. T. Liao, and H. Y. Huang, “Surface integrity of silicon wafers in ultra precision machining,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 29, 372-378 (2006).

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distribution during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5601-5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. A. Randi, J. C. Lambropoulos, and S. D. Jacobs, “Subsurface damage in some single crystalline optical materials,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2241-2249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 1-25(2005).

J. Shen, S. H. Liu, K. Yi, H. B. He, J. D. Shao, Z. X. Fan, “Subsurface damage in optical substrates,” Optik 116, 288-294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Fine, R. Garbe, T. Gip, and Q. Nguyen, “Non-destructive, real time direct measurement of subsurface damage,” Proc. SPIE 5799, 105-110 (2005).

C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, K. I. Schaffers, C. Bibeau, M. D. Thomas, and A. J. Griffin, “Laser damage initiation and growth of antireflection coated S-FAP crystal surfaces prepared by pitch lap and magnetorheological finishing,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 449-455 (2005).

2004

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84-101 (2004).

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Influence of subsurface cracks on laser induced surface damage,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 264-272 (2004).

J. Wang and R. L. Maier, “Quasi-Brewster angle technique for evaluating the quality of optical surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 1286-1294 (2004).

2002

O. W. Fähnle, T. Wons, E. Koch, S. Debruyne, M. Meeder, S. M. Booij, and J. J. M. Braat, “iTIRM as a tool for qualifying polishing processes,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4036-4038 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Hamza, W. J. Siekhaus, A. M. Rubenchik, M. Feit, L. L. Chase, M. Savina, M. J. Pellin, I. D. Hutcheon, M. C. Nostrand, M. Runkel, B. W. Choi, M. Staggs, and M. J. Fluss, “Engineered defects for investigation of laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 96-107 (2002).

2001

F. Y. Genin, A. Salleo, T. V. Pistor, and L. L. Chase, “Role of light intensification by cracks in optical breakdown on surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 2607-2616 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Retherford, R. Sabia, and V. P. Sokira, “Effect of surface quality on transmission performance for (111) CaF2,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 183, 264-269 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

Y. P. Chang, M. Hashimura, and D. A. Dornfeld, “An investigation of material removal mechanisms in lapping with grain size transition,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 122, 413-419 (2000).

1999

J. C. Lambropoulos, S. D. Jacobs, and J. Ruckman, “Material removal mechanisms from grinding to polishing,” Ceram. Trans. 102, 113-128 (1999).

O. Desa and S. Bahadur, “Material removal and subsurface damage studies in dry and lubricated single-point scratch tests on alumina and silicon nitride,” Wear 225-229, 1264-1275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

1994

Y. Zhou, P. D. Funkenbusch, D. J. Quesnel, and D. Golini, “Effect of etching and imaging mode on the measurement of subsurface damage in microground optical glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 3277-3280 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. Buijs and K. K. Houten, “Three-body abrasion of brittle materials as studied by lapping,” Wear 166, 237-245 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Buijs and K. K. Houten, “A model for lapping of glass,” J. Mater. Sci. 28, 3014-3020 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Chauhan, Y. Ahn, S. Chandrasekar, and T. Farris, “Role of indentation fracture in free abrasive machining of ceramics,” Wear 162-164, 246-257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. Buijs and L. A. A. G. Martens, “Effect of indentation interaction on cracking,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 75, 2809-2814 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987

1977

K. Phillips, G. M. Crimes, and T. R. Wilshaw, “On the mechanism of material removal by free abrasive grinding of glass and fused silica,” Wear 41, 327-350 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1966

O. Imanaka, “Lapping mechanics of glass-especially on roughness of lapped surface,” CIRP Ann. 13, 227-233 (1966).

1957

F. K. Aleinikov, “The effect of certain physical and mechanical properties on the grinding of brittle materials,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 27, 2529-2538 (1957).

1922

F. W. Preston, “Structure of abraded glass surfaces,” Trans. Opt. Soc., London 23, 141-164 (1922).

Ahn, Y.

R. Chauhan, Y. Ahn, S. Chandrasekar, and T. Farris, “Role of indentation fracture in free abrasive machining of ceramics,” Wear 162-164, 246-257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. H. Bulsara, Y. Ahn, S. Chandrasekar, and T. N. Farris, “Mechanics of Polishing,” J. Appl. Mech. 65, 410-416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aleinikov, F. K.

F. K. Aleinikov, “The effect of certain physical and mechanical properties on the grinding of brittle materials,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 27, 2529-2538 (1957).

Bahadur, S.

O. Desa and S. Bahadur, “Material removal and subsurface damage studies in dry and lubricated single-point scratch tests on alumina and silicon nitride,” Wear 225-229, 1264-1275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, A.

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. Walker, “Wheel wear and surface subsurface qualities when precision grinding optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 61-70 (2006).

X. Sun, D. J. Stephenson, O. Ohnishi, and A. Baldwin, “An investigation into parallel and cross grinding of BK7 glass,” Precis. Eng. 30, 145-153 (2006).

Belkhir, N.

N. Belkhir, D. Bouzid, and V. Herold, “Correlation between the surface quality and the abrasive grains wear in optical glass lapping,” Tribol. Int. 40, 498-502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bibeau, C.

C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, K. I. Schaffers, C. Bibeau, M. D. Thomas, and A. J. Griffin, “Laser damage initiation and growth of antireflection coated S-FAP crystal surfaces prepared by pitch lap and magnetorheological finishing,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 449-455 (2005).

Booij, S. M.

Borden, M. R.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84-101 (2004).

Bouzid, D.

N. Belkhir, D. Bouzid, and V. Herold, “Correlation between the surface quality and the abrasive grains wear in optical glass lapping,” Tribol. Int. 40, 498-502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Braat, J. J. M.

Buijs, M.

M. Buijs and K. K. Houten, “A model for lapping of glass,” J. Mater. Sci. 28, 3014-3020 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Buijs and K. K. Houten, “Three-body abrasion of brittle materials as studied by lapping,” Wear 166, 237-245 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Buijs and L. A. A. G. Martens, “Effect of indentation interaction on cracking,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 75, 2809-2814 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bulsara, V. H.

V. H. Bulsara, Y. Ahn, S. Chandrasekar, and T. N. Farris, “Mechanics of Polishing,” J. Appl. Mech. 65, 410-416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. H.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84-101 (2004).

Chandrasekar, S.

R. Chauhan, Y. Ahn, S. Chandrasekar, and T. Farris, “Role of indentation fracture in free abrasive machining of ceramics,” Wear 162-164, 246-257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. H. Bulsara, Y. Ahn, S. Chandrasekar, and T. N. Farris, “Mechanics of Polishing,” J. Appl. Mech. 65, 410-416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. P.

Y. P. Chang, M. Hashimura, and D. A. Dornfeld, “An investigation of material removal mechanisms in lapping with grain size transition,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 122, 413-419 (2000).

Chase, L. L.

A. V. Hamza, W. J. Siekhaus, A. M. Rubenchik, M. Feit, L. L. Chase, M. Savina, M. J. Pellin, I. D. Hutcheon, M. C. Nostrand, M. Runkel, B. W. Choi, M. Staggs, and M. J. Fluss, “Engineered defects for investigation of laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 96-107 (2002).

F. Y. Genin, A. Salleo, T. V. Pistor, and L. L. Chase, “Role of light intensification by cracks in optical breakdown on surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 2607-2616 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chauhan, R.

R. Chauhan, Y. Ahn, S. Chandrasekar, and T. Farris, “Role of indentation fracture in free abrasive machining of ceramics,” Wear 162-164, 246-257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Choi, B. W.

A. V. Hamza, W. J. Siekhaus, A. M. Rubenchik, M. Feit, L. L. Chase, M. Savina, M. J. Pellin, I. D. Hutcheon, M. C. Nostrand, M. Runkel, B. W. Choi, M. Staggs, and M. J. Fluss, “Engineered defects for investigation of laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 96-107 (2002).

Crimes, G. M.

K. Phillips, G. M. Crimes, and T. R. Wilshaw, “On the mechanism of material removal by free abrasive grinding of glass and fused silica,” Wear 41, 327-350 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Davis, P.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distribution during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5601-5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davis, P. J.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 1-25(2005).

Debruyne, S.

Desa, O.

O. Desa and S. Bahadur, “Material removal and subsurface damage studies in dry and lubricated single-point scratch tests on alumina and silicon nitride,” Wear 225-229, 1264-1275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dornfeld, D. A.

Y. P. Chang, M. Hashimura, and D. A. Dornfeld, “An investigation of material removal mechanisms in lapping with grain size transition,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 122, 413-419 (2000).

Edwards, D. F.

Evans, R.

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. Walker, “Wheel wear and surface subsurface qualities when precision grinding optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 61-70 (2006).

Fähnle, O. W.

Fan, Z. X.

J. Shen, S. H. Liu, K. Yi, H. B. He, J. D. Shao, Z. X. Fan, “Subsurface damage in optical substrates,” Optik 116, 288-294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fang, T.

Farris, T.

R. Chauhan, Y. Ahn, S. Chandrasekar, and T. Farris, “Role of indentation fracture in free abrasive machining of ceramics,” Wear 162-164, 246-257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Farris, T. N.

V. H. Bulsara, Y. Ahn, S. Chandrasekar, and T. N. Farris, “Mechanics of Polishing,” J. Appl. Mech. 65, 410-416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M.

A. V. Hamza, W. J. Siekhaus, A. M. Rubenchik, M. Feit, L. L. Chase, M. Savina, M. J. Pellin, I. D. Hutcheon, M. C. Nostrand, M. Runkel, B. W. Choi, M. Staggs, and M. J. Fluss, “Engineered defects for investigation of laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 96-107 (2002).

Feit, M. D.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distribution during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5601-5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 1-25(2005).

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Influence of subsurface cracks on laser induced surface damage,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 264-272 (2004).

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84-101 (2004).

Fine, K. R.

K. R. Fine, R. Garbe, T. Gip, and Q. Nguyen, “Non-destructive, real time direct measurement of subsurface damage,” Proc. SPIE 5799, 105-110 (2005).

Fluss, M. J.

A. V. Hamza, W. J. Siekhaus, A. M. Rubenchik, M. Feit, L. L. Chase, M. Savina, M. J. Pellin, I. D. Hutcheon, M. C. Nostrand, M. Runkel, B. W. Choi, M. Staggs, and M. J. Fluss, “Engineered defects for investigation of laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 96-107 (2002).

Funkenbusch, P. D.

Y. Zhou, P. D. Funkenbusch, D. J. Quesnel, and D. Golini, “Effect of etching and imaging mode on the measurement of subsurface damage in microground optical glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 3277-3280 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Garbe, R.

K. R. Fine, R. Garbe, T. Gip, and Q. Nguyen, “Non-destructive, real time direct measurement of subsurface damage,” Proc. SPIE 5799, 105-110 (2005).

Genin, F. Y.

F. Y. Genin, A. Salleo, T. V. Pistor, and L. L. Chase, “Role of light intensification by cracks in optical breakdown on surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 2607-2616 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gip, T.

K. R. Fine, R. Garbe, T. Gip, and Q. Nguyen, “Non-destructive, real time direct measurement of subsurface damage,” Proc. SPIE 5799, 105-110 (2005).

Golini, D.

Y. Zhou, P. D. Funkenbusch, D. J. Quesnel, and D. Golini, “Effect of etching and imaging mode on the measurement of subsurface damage in microground optical glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 3277-3280 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, A. J.

C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, K. I. Schaffers, C. Bibeau, M. D. Thomas, and A. J. Griffin, “Laser damage initiation and growth of antireflection coated S-FAP crystal surfaces prepared by pitch lap and magnetorheological finishing,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 449-455 (2005).

Hackel, R. P.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84-101 (2004).

Hamza, A. V.

A. V. Hamza, W. J. Siekhaus, A. M. Rubenchik, M. Feit, L. L. Chase, M. Savina, M. J. Pellin, I. D. Hutcheon, M. C. Nostrand, M. Runkel, B. W. Choi, M. Staggs, and M. J. Fluss, “Engineered defects for investigation of laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 96-107 (2002).

Hashimura, M.

Y. P. Chang, M. Hashimura, and D. A. Dornfeld, “An investigation of material removal mechanisms in lapping with grain size transition,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 122, 413-419 (2000).

Hawley-Fedder, R. A.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84-101 (2004).

He, H. B.

J. Shen, S. H. Liu, K. Yi, H. B. He, J. D. Shao, Z. X. Fan, “Subsurface damage in optical substrates,” Optik 116, 288-294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hed, P. P.

Herold, V.

N. Belkhir, D. Bouzid, and V. Herold, “Correlation between the surface quality and the abrasive grains wear in optical glass lapping,” Tribol. Int. 40, 498-502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Houten, K. K.

M. Buijs and K. K. Houten, “A model for lapping of glass,” J. Mater. Sci. 28, 3014-3020 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Buijs and K. K. Houten, “Three-body abrasion of brittle materials as studied by lapping,” Wear 166, 237-245 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. Y.

H. T. Young, H. T. Liao, and H. Y. Huang, “Surface integrity of silicon wafers in ultra precision machining,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 29, 372-378 (2006).

Hutcheon, I. D.

A. V. Hamza, W. J. Siekhaus, A. M. Rubenchik, M. Feit, L. L. Chase, M. Savina, M. J. Pellin, I. D. Hutcheon, M. C. Nostrand, M. Runkel, B. W. Choi, M. Staggs, and M. J. Fluss, “Engineered defects for investigation of laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 96-107 (2002).

Imanaka, O.

O. Imanaka, “Lapping mechanics of glass-especially on roughness of lapped surface,” CIRP Ann. 13, 227-233 (1966).

Jacobs, S. D.

J. A. Randi, J. C. Lambropoulos, and S. D. Jacobs, “Subsurface damage in some single crystalline optical materials,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2241-2249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Lambropoulos, S. D. Jacobs, and J. Ruckman, “Material removal mechanisms from grinding to polishing,” Ceram. Trans. 102, 113-128 (1999).

Koch, E.

Lambropoulos, J. C.

Liao, H. T.

H. T. Young, H. T. Liao, and H. Y. Huang, “Surface integrity of silicon wafers in ultra precision machining,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 29, 372-378 (2006).

Liu, S. H.

J. Shen, S. H. Liu, K. Yi, H. B. He, J. D. Shao, Z. X. Fan, “Subsurface damage in optical substrates,” Optik 116, 288-294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. Walker, “Wheel wear and surface subsurface qualities when precision grinding optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 61-70 (2006).

Maier, R. L.

J. Wang and R. L. Maier, “Quasi-Brewster angle technique for evaluating the quality of optical surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 1286-1294 (2004).

Martens, L. A. A. G.

M. Buijs and L. A. A. G. Martens, “Effect of indentation interaction on cracking,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 75, 2809-2814 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meeder, M.

Menapace, J.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distribution during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5601-5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Menapace, J. A.

C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, K. I. Schaffers, C. Bibeau, M. D. Thomas, and A. J. Griffin, “Laser damage initiation and growth of antireflection coated S-FAP crystal surfaces prepared by pitch lap and magnetorheological finishing,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 449-455 (2005).

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 1-25(2005).

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84-101 (2004).

Miller, P.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distribution during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5601-5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, P. E.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 1-25(2005).

Morantz, P.

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. Walker, “Wheel wear and surface subsurface qualities when precision grinding optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 61-70 (2006).

Nguyen, Q.

K. R. Fine, R. Garbe, T. Gip, and Q. Nguyen, “Non-destructive, real time direct measurement of subsurface damage,” Proc. SPIE 5799, 105-110 (2005).

Nostrand, M. C.

A. V. Hamza, W. J. Siekhaus, A. M. Rubenchik, M. Feit, L. L. Chase, M. Savina, M. J. Pellin, I. D. Hutcheon, M. C. Nostrand, M. Runkel, B. W. Choi, M. Staggs, and M. J. Fluss, “Engineered defects for investigation of laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 96-107 (2002).

Ohnishi, O.

X. Sun, D. J. Stephenson, O. Ohnishi, and A. Baldwin, “An investigation into parallel and cross grinding of BK7 glass,” Precis. Eng. 30, 145-153 (2006).

Pellin, M. J.

A. V. Hamza, W. J. Siekhaus, A. M. Rubenchik, M. Feit, L. L. Chase, M. Savina, M. J. Pellin, I. D. Hutcheon, M. C. Nostrand, M. Runkel, B. W. Choi, M. Staggs, and M. J. Fluss, “Engineered defects for investigation of laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 96-107 (2002).

Phillips, K.

K. Phillips, G. M. Crimes, and T. R. Wilshaw, “On the mechanism of material removal by free abrasive grinding of glass and fused silica,” Wear 41, 327-350 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pistor, T. V.

F. Y. Genin, A. Salleo, T. V. Pistor, and L. L. Chase, “Role of light intensification by cracks in optical breakdown on surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 2607-2616 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Preston, F. W.

F. W. Preston, “Structure of abraded glass surfaces,” Trans. Opt. Soc., London 23, 141-164 (1922).

Quesnel, D. J.

Y. Zhou, P. D. Funkenbusch, D. J. Quesnel, and D. Golini, “Effect of etching and imaging mode on the measurement of subsurface damage in microground optical glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 3277-3280 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Randi, J. A.

Retherford, R. S.

R. S. Retherford, R. Sabia, and V. P. Sokira, “Effect of surface quality on transmission performance for (111) CaF2,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 183, 264-269 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Riley, M. O.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84-101 (2004).

Rubenchik, A. M.

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Influence of subsurface cracks on laser induced surface damage,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 264-272 (2004).

A. V. Hamza, W. J. Siekhaus, A. M. Rubenchik, M. Feit, L. L. Chase, M. Savina, M. J. Pellin, I. D. Hutcheon, M. C. Nostrand, M. Runkel, B. W. Choi, M. Staggs, and M. J. Fluss, “Engineered defects for investigation of laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 96-107 (2002).

Ruckman, J.

J. C. Lambropoulos, S. D. Jacobs, and J. Ruckman, “Material removal mechanisms from grinding to polishing,” Ceram. Trans. 102, 113-128 (1999).

Runkel, M.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84-101 (2004).

A. V. Hamza, W. J. Siekhaus, A. M. Rubenchik, M. Feit, L. L. Chase, M. Savina, M. J. Pellin, I. D. Hutcheon, M. C. Nostrand, M. Runkel, B. W. Choi, M. Staggs, and M. J. Fluss, “Engineered defects for investigation of laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 96-107 (2002).

Sabia, R.

R. S. Retherford, R. Sabia, and V. P. Sokira, “Effect of surface quality on transmission performance for (111) CaF2,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 183, 264-269 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Salleo, A.

F. Y. Genin, A. Salleo, T. V. Pistor, and L. L. Chase, “Role of light intensification by cracks in optical breakdown on surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 2607-2616 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Savina, M.

A. V. Hamza, W. J. Siekhaus, A. M. Rubenchik, M. Feit, L. L. Chase, M. Savina, M. J. Pellin, I. D. Hutcheon, M. C. Nostrand, M. Runkel, B. W. Choi, M. Staggs, and M. J. Fluss, “Engineered defects for investigation of laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 96-107 (2002).

Schaffers, K. I.

C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, K. I. Schaffers, C. Bibeau, M. D. Thomas, and A. J. Griffin, “Laser damage initiation and growth of antireflection coated S-FAP crystal surfaces prepared by pitch lap and magnetorheological finishing,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 449-455 (2005).

Shao, J. D.

J. Shen, S. H. Liu, K. Yi, H. B. He, J. D. Shao, Z. X. Fan, “Subsurface damage in optical substrates,” Optik 116, 288-294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J.

J. Shen, S. H. Liu, K. Yi, H. B. He, J. D. Shao, Z. X. Fan, “Subsurface damage in optical substrates,” Optik 116, 288-294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shore, P.

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. Walker, “Wheel wear and surface subsurface qualities when precision grinding optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 61-70 (2006).

Siekhaus, W. J.

A. V. Hamza, W. J. Siekhaus, A. M. Rubenchik, M. Feit, L. L. Chase, M. Savina, M. J. Pellin, I. D. Hutcheon, M. C. Nostrand, M. Runkel, B. W. Choi, M. Staggs, and M. J. Fluss, “Engineered defects for investigation of laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 96-107 (2002).

Sokira, V. P.

R. S. Retherford, R. Sabia, and V. P. Sokira, “Effect of surface quality on transmission performance for (111) CaF2,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 183, 264-269 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Staggs, M.

A. V. Hamza, W. J. Siekhaus, A. M. Rubenchik, M. Feit, L. L. Chase, M. Savina, M. J. Pellin, I. D. Hutcheon, M. C. Nostrand, M. Runkel, B. W. Choi, M. Staggs, and M. J. Fluss, “Engineered defects for investigation of laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 96-107 (2002).

Steele, R.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distribution during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5601-5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Steele, R. A.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 1-25(2005).

Stephenson, D. J.

X. Sun, D. J. Stephenson, O. Ohnishi, and A. Baldwin, “An investigation into parallel and cross grinding of BK7 glass,” Precis. Eng. 30, 145-153 (2006).

Stolz, C. J.

C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, K. I. Schaffers, C. Bibeau, M. D. Thomas, and A. J. Griffin, “Laser damage initiation and growth of antireflection coated S-FAP crystal surfaces prepared by pitch lap and magnetorheological finishing,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 449-455 (2005).

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84-101 (2004).

Sun, X.

X. Sun, D. J. Stephenson, O. Ohnishi, and A. Baldwin, “An investigation into parallel and cross grinding of BK7 glass,” Precis. Eng. 30, 145-153 (2006).

Suratwala, T.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distribution during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5601-5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suratwala, T. I.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 1-25(2005).

Thomas, M. D.

C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, K. I. Schaffers, C. Bibeau, M. D. Thomas, and A. J. Griffin, “Laser damage initiation and growth of antireflection coated S-FAP crystal surfaces prepared by pitch lap and magnetorheological finishing,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 449-455 (2005).

Tonnellier, X.

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. Walker, “Wheel wear and surface subsurface qualities when precision grinding optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 61-70 (2006).

Walker, D.

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. Walker, “Wheel wear and surface subsurface qualities when precision grinding optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 61-70 (2006).

Walmer, D.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distribution during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5601-5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang and R. L. Maier, “Quasi-Brewster angle technique for evaluating the quality of optical surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 1286-1294 (2004).

Whitman, P. K.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84-101 (2004).

Wilshaw, T. R.

K. Phillips, G. M. Crimes, and T. R. Wilshaw, “On the mechanism of material removal by free abrasive grinding of glass and fused silica,” Wear 41, 327-350 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Wong, L.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distribution during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5601-5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, L. L.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 1-25(2005).

Wons, T.

Xu, S.

Yi, K.

J. Shen, S. H. Liu, K. Yi, H. B. He, J. D. Shao, Z. X. Fan, “Subsurface damage in optical substrates,” Optik 116, 288-294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Young, H. T.

H. T. Young, H. T. Liao, and H. Y. Huang, “Surface integrity of silicon wafers in ultra precision machining,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 29, 372-378 (2006).

Yu, J.

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84-101 (2004).

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, P. D. Funkenbusch, D. J. Quesnel, and D. Golini, “Effect of etching and imaging mode on the measurement of subsurface damage in microground optical glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 3277-3280 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Surf. Sci.

R. S. Retherford, R. Sabia, and V. P. Sokira, “Effect of surface quality on transmission performance for (111) CaF2,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 183, 264-269 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ceram. Trans.

J. C. Lambropoulos, S. D. Jacobs, and J. Ruckman, “Material removal mechanisms from grinding to polishing,” Ceram. Trans. 102, 113-128 (1999).

CIRP Ann.

O. Imanaka, “Lapping mechanics of glass-especially on roughness of lapped surface,” CIRP Ann. 13, 227-233 (1966).

Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol.

H. T. Young, H. T. Liao, and H. Y. Huang, “Surface integrity of silicon wafers in ultra precision machining,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 29, 372-378 (2006).

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

M. Buijs and L. A. A. G. Martens, “Effect of indentation interaction on cracking,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 75, 2809-2814 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, P. D. Funkenbusch, D. J. Quesnel, and D. Golini, “Effect of etching and imaging mode on the measurement of subsurface damage in microground optical glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 3277-3280 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Mech.

V. H. Bulsara, Y. Ahn, S. Chandrasekar, and T. N. Farris, “Mechanics of Polishing,” J. Appl. Mech. 65, 410-416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.

Y. P. Chang, M. Hashimura, and D. A. Dornfeld, “An investigation of material removal mechanisms in lapping with grain size transition,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 122, 413-419 (2000).

J. Mater. Sci.

M. Buijs and K. K. Houten, “A model for lapping of glass,” J. Mater. Sci. 28, 3014-3020 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distribution during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5601-5617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

F. Y. Genin, A. Salleo, T. V. Pistor, and L. L. Chase, “Role of light intensification by cracks in optical breakdown on surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 2607-2616 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Optik

J. Shen, S. H. Liu, K. Yi, H. B. He, J. D. Shao, Z. X. Fan, “Subsurface damage in optical substrates,” Optik 116, 288-294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Precis. Eng.

X. Sun, D. J. Stephenson, O. Ohnishi, and A. Baldwin, “An investigation into parallel and cross grinding of BK7 glass,” Precis. Eng. 30, 145-153 (2006).

Proc. SPIE

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, X. Luo, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, R. Evans, and D. Walker, “Wheel wear and surface subsurface qualities when precision grinding optical materials,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 61-70 (2006).

J. Wang and R. L. Maier, “Quasi-Brewster angle technique for evaluating the quality of optical surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 1286-1294 (2004).

K. R. Fine, R. Garbe, T. Gip, and Q. Nguyen, “Non-destructive, real time direct measurement of subsurface damage,” Proc. SPIE 5799, 105-110 (2005).

C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, K. I. Schaffers, C. Bibeau, M. D. Thomas, and A. J. Griffin, “Laser damage initiation and growth of antireflection coated S-FAP crystal surfaces prepared by pitch lap and magnetorheological finishing,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 449-455 (2005).

J. H. Campbell, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, C. J. Stolz, J. A. Menapace, M. R. Borden, P. K. Whitman, J. Yu, M. Runkel, M. O. Riley, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “NIF optical materials and fabrication technologies: an overview,” Proc. SPIE 5341, 84-101 (2004).

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Influence of subsurface cracks on laser induced surface damage,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 264-272 (2004).

A. V. Hamza, W. J. Siekhaus, A. M. Rubenchik, M. Feit, L. L. Chase, M. Savina, M. J. Pellin, I. D. Hutcheon, M. C. Nostrand, M. Runkel, B. W. Choi, M. Staggs, and M. J. Fluss, “Engineered defects for investigation of laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 96-107 (2002).

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 1-25(2005).

Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys.

F. K. Aleinikov, “The effect of certain physical and mechanical properties on the grinding of brittle materials,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 27, 2529-2538 (1957).

Trans. Opt. Soc., London

F. W. Preston, “Structure of abraded glass surfaces,” Trans. Opt. Soc., London 23, 141-164 (1922).

Tribol. Int.

N. Belkhir, D. Bouzid, and V. Herold, “Correlation between the surface quality and the abrasive grains wear in optical glass lapping,” Tribol. Int. 40, 498-502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wear

K. Phillips, G. M. Crimes, and T. R. Wilshaw, “On the mechanism of material removal by free abrasive grinding of glass and fused silica,” Wear 41, 327-350 (1977).
[CrossRef]

O. Desa and S. Bahadur, “Material removal and subsurface damage studies in dry and lubricated single-point scratch tests on alumina and silicon nitride,” Wear 225-229, 1264-1275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Chauhan, Y. Ahn, S. Chandrasekar, and T. Farris, “Role of indentation fracture in free abrasive machining of ceramics,” Wear 162-164, 246-257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Buijs and K. K. Houten, “Three-body abrasion of brittle materials as studied by lapping,” Wear 166, 237-245 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the planetary lapper.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical SEM photograph of SiC particles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Size distribution of abrasive grains and the fitting curve.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

MRF wedge on the lapped BK7 glass surface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Depth profile of the MRF wedge on the lapped surface: (a) along the polishing direction, and (b) vertical to the polishing direction.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Typical SSD micrographs of different materials during a 20 grit lapping process with copper plate ( 1000 X ): (a)–(c) BK7 glass, (d)–(f) fused silica, and (g)–(i) glass–ceramic.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Morphologies of subsurface cracks of fused silica during a 20 grit lapping process with copper plate ( 1400 X ): (a) lateral and medial cracks, and (b) full-grown medium crack.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Typical SSD micrographs of BK7 glass during a 20 grit lapping process with a cast iron plate ( 200 X ).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

SSD depth distribution of BK7 glass produced by different size abrasives with an iron lapping plate.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Influence of size of abrasive grains on the SSD depth and MRR.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Influence of hardness of a lapping plate on the SSD depth and MRR.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Influence of lapping pressure on the SSD depth and MRR.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Influence of revolution velocity of a lapping plate on the SSD depth and MRR.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Influence of concentration of lapping slurry on the SSD depth and MRR.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Schematic of the generation and removal of SSD.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Evolutions of the wear of 40 grit abrasive grains.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Evolutions of the 40 grit abrasive’s size distribution and the fitting curve.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Schematic of the indentation interaction.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Relative Variation of SSD depth and MRR with the Doubling increment of Lapping Parameters

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

c | | = c ( 1 + a 2 F 1 F 2 ) 2 ,
F 1 = 1 1 2 a 3 ( a d 2 ) 2 ( 2 a + d 2 ) 0 d 2 a , F 2 = 1 ( a + d ) 2 1 ( c + d ) 2 ,

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