Abstract

Microfluidic devices composed of microslits in step-index optical fibers are thoroughly investigated. Numerical simulations are performed to explain scattering and power loss in such devices. Experimental results based on microslits fabricated by femtosecond laser processing corroborate theoretical data. Dependency of the device performance on the refractive index of fluid in the slit is further utilized to construct a refractive index sensor and an in-fiber attenuator.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (4)

L. Malic and A. G. Kirk, “Integrated miniaturized optical detection platform for fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators A 135, 515-524 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Hensley, D. H. Broaddus, C. B. Schaffer, and A. L. Gaeta, “Photonics band-gap fiber gas cell fabricated using femtosecond micromachining,” Opt. Express 15, 6690-6695(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Van Brakel, C. Grivas, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Micro-channels machined in microstructured optical fibers by femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 15, 8731-8736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Yang, S. Luo, Z. Chen, and J. H. Ng, “Refractive index sensor based on fiber laser,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 49, 916-918 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (6)

J. M. Trudeau, P. Paradis, C. Pare, C. Meneghini, A. Cournoyer, E. Savard, G. Doyon, A-C. Jacob-Poulin, and A. Fougères, “Combined fibre-optic sensor for colour and refractive index (CI) monitoring,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1134-1139 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lai, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Microchannels in conventional single-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2559-2561(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Control of femtosecond laser written waveguides in silica glass,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 145-148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Irawan, C. M. Tay, S. C. Tjin, and C. Y. Fu, “Compact fluorescence detection using in-fiber microchannels--its potential for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Lab Chip 6, 1095-1098 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (8)

P. Dumais, C. L. Callender, J. Noad, and C. Ledderhof, “Silica-on-silicon optical sensor based on integrated waveguides and microchannels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 441-443(2005).
[CrossRef]

S. O. Konorov, A. M. Zheltikov, and M. Scalora, “Photonic-crystal fiber as a multifunctional optical sensor and sample collector,” Opt. Express 13, 3454-3459 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sorensen, A. Bjarklev, and T. P. Hansen, “Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt., Pure Appl. Opt. A 7, 13-20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Karnakis, M. R. H. Knowles, K. T. Alt, M. Schlaf, and H. V. Snelling, “Comparison of glass processing using high-repetition femtosecond (800 nm) and UV (255 nm) nanosecond pulsed lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5718, 216-227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Minkovich, J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, S. Calixto, A. B. Sotsky, and L. I. Sotskaya, ”Holey fiber tapers with resonance transmission for high-resolution refractive index sensing,” Opt. Express 13, 7609-7614 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Allsop, F. Floreani, K. Jedrzejewski, P. Marques P, R. Romero, D. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Refractive index sensing with long-period grating fabricated in biconical tapered fibre,” Electron. Lett. 41, 471-472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M-H. Chiu, S-F. Wang, and R-S. Chang, “D-type fiber biosensor based on surface-plasmon resonance technology and heterodyne interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 30, 233-235 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three-dimensional microchannels in glass,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 605-612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Hoiby, L. B. Nielsen, T. P. Hansen, J. R. Folkenberg, J. Riishede, D. Noordegraaf, K. Nielsen, A. Carlsen, and A. Bjarklev, “Photonic crystal fiber based evanescent-wave sensor for detection of biomolecules in aqueous solutions,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1974-1976 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Scott, J. R. Mabesa Jr., D. Gorsich, B. Rathgeb, A. A. Said, M. Dugan, T. F. Haddock, and P. W. Bado, “Optical microsystem for analyzing engine lubricants,” Proc. SPIE 5590, 122-127 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

K. Hirao and K. Miura, “Writing waveguides and gratings in silica and related materials by a femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91-95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, F. Floreani, K. Jedrzejewski, P. Marques P, R. Romero, D. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Refractive index sensing with long-period grating fabricated in biconical tapered fibre,” Electron. Lett. 41, 471-472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alt, K. T.

D. M. Karnakis, M. R. H. Knowles, K. T. Alt, M. Schlaf, and H. V. Snelling, “Comparison of glass processing using high-repetition femtosecond (800 nm) and UV (255 nm) nanosecond pulsed lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5718, 216-227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bado, P. W.

A. J. Scott, J. R. Mabesa Jr., D. Gorsich, B. Rathgeb, A. A. Said, M. Dugan, T. F. Haddock, and P. W. Bado, “Optical microsystem for analyzing engine lubricants,” Proc. SPIE 5590, 122-127 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Y. Lai, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Microchannels in conventional single-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2559-2561(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Allsop, F. Floreani, K. Jedrzejewski, P. Marques P, R. Romero, D. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Refractive index sensing with long-period grating fabricated in biconical tapered fibre,” Electron. Lett. 41, 471-472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures,” Opt. Express 11, 775-781 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjarklev, A.

Borrelli, N. F.

Brakel, A. Van

Broaddus, D. H.

Brodeur, A.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Broeng, J.

Calixto, S.

Callender, C. L.

P. Dumais, C. L. Callender, J. Noad, and C. Ledderhof, “Silica-on-silicon optical sensor based on integrated waveguides and microchannels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 441-443(2005).
[CrossRef]

Carlsen, A.

Cavallotti, P. L.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R-S.

Chen, Z.

X. Yang, S. Luo, Z. Chen, and J. H. Ng, “Refractive index sensor based on fiber laser,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 49, 916-918 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Control of femtosecond laser written waveguides in silica glass,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 145-148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, M-H.

Choi, T. Y.

D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three-dimensional microchannels in glass,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 605-612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures,” Opt. Express 11, 775-781 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cournoyer, A.

J. M. Trudeau, P. Paradis, C. Pare, C. Meneghini, A. Cournoyer, E. Savard, G. Doyon, A-C. Jacob-Poulin, and A. Fougères, “Combined fibre-optic sensor for colour and refractive index (CI) monitoring,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1134-1139 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Rooij, N. F.

E. Verpoorte and N. F. De Rooij, “Microfluidics meets MEMS,” Proc. IEEE 91, 930-953 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Doyon, G.

J. M. Trudeau, P. Paradis, C. Pare, C. Meneghini, A. Cournoyer, E. Savard, G. Doyon, A-C. Jacob-Poulin, and A. Fougères, “Combined fibre-optic sensor for colour and refractive index (CI) monitoring,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1134-1139 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dugan, M.

A. J. Scott, J. R. Mabesa Jr., D. Gorsich, B. Rathgeb, A. A. Said, M. Dugan, T. F. Haddock, and P. W. Bado, “Optical microsystem for analyzing engine lubricants,” Proc. SPIE 5590, 122-127 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dumais, P.

P. Dumais, C. L. Callender, J. Noad, and C. Ledderhof, “Silica-on-silicon optical sensor based on integrated waveguides and microchannels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 441-443(2005).
[CrossRef]

Floreani, F.

T. Allsop, F. Floreani, K. Jedrzejewski, P. Marques P, R. Romero, D. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Refractive index sensing with long-period grating fabricated in biconical tapered fibre,” Electron. Lett. 41, 471-472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Folkenberg, J. R.

Fougères, A.

J. M. Trudeau, P. Paradis, C. Pare, C. Meneghini, A. Cournoyer, E. Savard, G. Doyon, A-C. Jacob-Poulin, and A. Fougères, “Combined fibre-optic sensor for colour and refractive index (CI) monitoring,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1134-1139 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fu, C. Y.

R. Irawan, C. M. Tay, S. C. Tjin, and C. Y. Fu, “Compact fluorescence detection using in-fiber microchannels--its potential for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Lab Chip 6, 1095-1098 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaeta, A. L.

Gorsich, D.

A. J. Scott, J. R. Mabesa Jr., D. Gorsich, B. Rathgeb, A. A. Said, M. Dugan, T. F. Haddock, and P. W. Bado, “Optical microsystem for analyzing engine lubricants,” Proc. SPIE 5590, 122-127 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grigoropoulos, C. P.

D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three-dimensional microchannels in glass,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 605-612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grivas, C.

Haddock, T. F.

A. J. Scott, J. R. Mabesa Jr., D. Gorsich, B. Rathgeb, A. A. Said, M. Dugan, T. F. Haddock, and P. W. Bado, “Optical microsystem for analyzing engine lubricants,” Proc. SPIE 5590, 122-127 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, T. P.

Hensley, C. J.

Hermann, D. S.

Hirao, K.

K. Hirao and K. Miura, “Writing waveguides and gratings in silica and related materials by a femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91-95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hnatovsky, C.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures,” Opt. Express 11, 775-781 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoiby, P. E.

Huang, Y.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, D. J.

D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three-dimensional microchannels in glass,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 605-612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Irawan, R.

R. Irawan, C. M. Tay, S. C. Tjin, and C. Y. Fu, “Compact fluorescence detection using in-fiber microchannels--its potential for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Lab Chip 6, 1095-1098 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacob-Poulin, A-C.

J. M. Trudeau, P. Paradis, C. Pare, C. Meneghini, A. Cournoyer, E. Savard, G. Doyon, A-C. Jacob-Poulin, and A. Fougères, “Combined fibre-optic sensor for colour and refractive index (CI) monitoring,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1134-1139 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jedrzejewski, K.

T. Allsop, F. Floreani, K. Jedrzejewski, P. Marques P, R. Romero, D. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Refractive index sensing with long-period grating fabricated in biconical tapered fibre,” Electron. Lett. 41, 471-472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J. B.

Karnakis, D. M.

D. M. Karnakis, M. R. H. Knowles, K. T. Alt, M. Schlaf, and H. V. Snelling, “Comparison of glass processing using high-repetition femtosecond (800 nm) and UV (255 nm) nanosecond pulsed lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5718, 216-227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, A. G.

L. Malic and A. G. Kirk, “Integrated miniaturized optical detection platform for fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators A 135, 515-524 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Knowles, M. R. H.

D. M. Karnakis, M. R. H. Knowles, K. T. Alt, M. Schlaf, and H. V. Snelling, “Comparison of glass processing using high-repetition femtosecond (800 nm) and UV (255 nm) nanosecond pulsed lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5718, 216-227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Konorov, S. O.

Lai, Y.

Laporta, P.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, T. T.

Ledderhof, C.

P. Dumais, C. L. Callender, J. Noad, and C. Ledderhof, “Silica-on-silicon optical sensor based on integrated waveguides and microchannels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 441-443(2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, S.

X. Yang, S. Luo, Z. Chen, and J. H. Ng, “Refractive index sensor based on fiber laser,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 49, 916-918 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mabesa, J. R.

A. J. Scott, J. R. Mabesa Jr., D. Gorsich, B. Rathgeb, A. A. Said, M. Dugan, T. F. Haddock, and P. W. Bado, “Optical microsystem for analyzing engine lubricants,” Proc. SPIE 5590, 122-127 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Magagnin, L.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Malic, L.

L. Malic and A. G. Kirk, “Integrated miniaturized optical detection platform for fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators A 135, 515-524 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maselli, V.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mehandale, M.

Meneghini, C.

J. M. Trudeau, P. Paradis, C. Pare, C. Meneghini, A. Cournoyer, E. Savard, G. Doyon, A-C. Jacob-Poulin, and A. Fougères, “Combined fibre-optic sensor for colour and refractive index (CI) monitoring,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1134-1139 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Minkovich, V. P.

Miura, K.

K. Hirao and K. Miura, “Writing waveguides and gratings in silica and related materials by a femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91-95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Monzón-Hernández, D.

Ng, J. H.

X. Yang, S. Luo, Z. Chen, and J. H. Ng, “Refractive index sensor based on fiber laser,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 49, 916-918 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, N. T.

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Control of femtosecond laser written waveguides in silica glass,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 145-148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, K.

Nielsen, L. B.

Noad, J.

P. Dumais, C. L. Callender, J. Noad, and C. Ledderhof, “Silica-on-silicon optical sensor based on integrated waveguides and microchannels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 441-443(2005).
[CrossRef]

Noordegraaf, D.

Osellame, R.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P, P. Marques

T. Allsop, F. Floreani, K. Jedrzejewski, P. Marques P, R. Romero, D. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Refractive index sensing with long-period grating fabricated in biconical tapered fibre,” Electron. Lett. 41, 471-472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paradis, P.

J. M. Trudeau, P. Paradis, C. Pare, C. Meneghini, A. Cournoyer, E. Savard, G. Doyon, A-C. Jacob-Poulin, and A. Fougères, “Combined fibre-optic sensor for colour and refractive index (CI) monitoring,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1134-1139 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pare, C.

J. M. Trudeau, P. Paradis, C. Pare, C. Meneghini, A. Cournoyer, E. Savard, G. Doyon, A-C. Jacob-Poulin, and A. Fougères, “Combined fibre-optic sensor for colour and refractive index (CI) monitoring,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1134-1139 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, L. H.

Petrovich, M. N.

Rajeev, P. P.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rathgeb, B.

A. J. Scott, J. R. Mabesa Jr., D. Gorsich, B. Rathgeb, A. A. Said, M. Dugan, T. F. Haddock, and P. W. Bado, “Optical microsystem for analyzing engine lubricants,” Proc. SPIE 5590, 122-127 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures,” Opt. Express 11, 775-781 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, D. J.

Riishede, J.

Romero, R.

T. Allsop, F. Floreani, K. Jedrzejewski, P. Marques P, R. Romero, D. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Refractive index sensing with long-period grating fabricated in biconical tapered fibre,” Electron. Lett. 41, 471-472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P.

P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358-362(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Said, A. A.

A. J. Scott, J. R. Mabesa Jr., D. Gorsich, B. Rathgeb, A. A. Said, M. Dugan, T. F. Haddock, and P. W. Bado, “Optical microsystem for analyzing engine lubricants,” Proc. SPIE 5590, 122-127 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saliminia, A.

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Control of femtosecond laser written waveguides in silica glass,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 145-148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Savard, E.

J. M. Trudeau, P. Paradis, C. Pare, C. Meneghini, A. Cournoyer, E. Savard, G. Doyon, A-C. Jacob-Poulin, and A. Fougères, “Combined fibre-optic sensor for colour and refractive index (CI) monitoring,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1134-1139 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scalora, M.

Schaffer, C. B.

C. J. Hensley, D. H. Broaddus, C. B. Schaffer, and A. L. Gaeta, “Photonics band-gap fiber gas cell fabricated using femtosecond micromachining,” Opt. Express 15, 6690-6695(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schlaf, M.

D. M. Karnakis, M. R. H. Knowles, K. T. Alt, M. Schlaf, and H. V. Snelling, “Comparison of glass processing using high-repetition femtosecond (800 nm) and UV (255 nm) nanosecond pulsed lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5718, 216-227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scott, A. J.

A. J. Scott, J. R. Mabesa Jr., D. Gorsich, B. Rathgeb, A. A. Said, M. Dugan, T. F. Haddock, and P. W. Bado, “Optical microsystem for analyzing engine lubricants,” Proc. SPIE 5590, 122-127 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simova, E.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures,” Opt. Express 11, 775-781 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snelling, H. V.

D. M. Karnakis, M. R. H. Knowles, K. T. Alt, M. Schlaf, and H. V. Snelling, “Comparison of glass processing using high-repetition femtosecond (800 nm) and UV (255 nm) nanosecond pulsed lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5718, 216-227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sorensen, T.

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sorensen, A. Bjarklev, and T. P. Hansen, “Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt., Pure Appl. Opt. A 7, 13-20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sotskaya, L. I.

Sotsky, A. B.

Streltsov, A. M.

Tay, C. M.

R. Irawan, C. M. Tay, S. C. Tjin, and C. Y. Fu, “Compact fluorescence detection using in-fiber microchannels--its potential for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Lab Chip 6, 1095-1098 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, R. S.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures,” Opt. Express 11, 775-781 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tjin, S. C.

R. Irawan, C. M. Tay, S. C. Tjin, and C. Y. Fu, “Compact fluorescence detection using in-fiber microchannels--its potential for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Lab Chip 6, 1095-1098 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trudeau, J. M.

J. M. Trudeau, P. Paradis, C. Pare, C. Meneghini, A. Cournoyer, E. Savard, G. Doyon, A-C. Jacob-Poulin, and A. Fougères, “Combined fibre-optic sensor for colour and refractive index (CI) monitoring,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1134-1139 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vallee, R.

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Control of femtosecond laser written waveguides in silica glass,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 145-148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Verpoorte, E.

E. Verpoorte and N. F. De Rooij, “Microfluidics meets MEMS,” Proc. IEEE 91, 930-953 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Villatoro, J.

Wang, S-F.

Webb, D.

T. Allsop, F. Floreani, K. Jedrzejewski, P. Marques P, R. Romero, D. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Refractive index sensing with long-period grating fabricated in biconical tapered fibre,” Electron. Lett. 41, 471-472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

X. Yang, S. Luo, Z. Chen, and J. H. Ng, “Refractive index sensor based on fiber laser,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 49, 916-918 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zheltikov, A. M.

Zhou, K.

Appl. Phys. A (2)

D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three-dimensional microchannels in glass,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 605-612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Control of femtosecond laser written waveguides in silica glass,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 145-148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

V. Maselli, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, L. Magagnin, and P. L. Cavallotti, “Fabrication of long microchannels with circular cross section using astigmatically shaped femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Allsop, F. Floreani, K. Jedrzejewski, P. Marques P, R. Romero, D. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Refractive index sensing with long-period grating fabricated in biconical tapered fibre,” Electron. Lett. 41, 471-472 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Dumais, C. L. Callender, J. Noad, and C. Ledderhof, “Silica-on-silicon optical sensor based on integrated waveguides and microchannels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 441-443(2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

K. Hirao and K. Miura, “Writing waveguides and gratings in silica and related materials by a femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91-95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Opt., Pure Appl. Opt. A (1)

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sorensen, A. Bjarklev, and T. P. Hansen, “Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt., Pure Appl. Opt. A 7, 13-20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (1)

R. Irawan, C. M. Tay, S. C. Tjin, and C. Y. Fu, “Compact fluorescence detection using in-fiber microchannels--its potential for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Lab Chip 6, 1095-1098 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Trudeau, P. Paradis, C. Pare, C. Meneghini, A. Cournoyer, E. Savard, G. Doyon, A-C. Jacob-Poulin, and A. Fougères, “Combined fibre-optic sensor for colour and refractive index (CI) monitoring,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1134-1139 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

X. Yang, S. Luo, Z. Chen, and J. H. Ng, “Refractive index sensor based on fiber laser,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 49, 916-918 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. IEEE (1)

E. Verpoorte and N. F. De Rooij, “Microfluidics meets MEMS,” Proc. IEEE 91, 930-953 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

D. M. Karnakis, M. R. H. Knowles, K. T. Alt, M. Schlaf, and H. V. Snelling, “Comparison of glass processing using high-repetition femtosecond (800 nm) and UV (255 nm) nanosecond pulsed lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5718, 216-227 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Scott, J. R. Mabesa Jr., D. Gorsich, B. Rathgeb, A. A. Said, M. Dugan, T. F. Haddock, and P. W. Bado, “Optical microsystem for analyzing engine lubricants,” Proc. SPIE 5590, 122-127 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358-362(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

L. Malic and A. G. Kirk, “Integrated miniaturized optical detection platform for fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators A 135, 515-524 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

RSoft Design Group, http://www.rsoftdesign.com.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Microslit in SMF fiber imaged by the phase microscope Axioskop2 (Zeiss).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scattering from the microslit filled with water n = 1.333 (left column) and oil n = 1.514 (right column). (a), (d) power monitors: total power (solid), power in the core (dotted), power in the slit (dashed), (b), (e)  x - z cross-section, (c), (f) yz cross section.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Field intensity distribution in different cross sections of the fiber with the microslit immersed in water. All field patterns are normalized to the maximal field amplitude of the input mode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Angular distribution of the scattered light: dashed curve, experimental data, solid curve, the best fit of numerical to experimental data, which was obtained for the distance of 0.7 mm from the fiber center to the photodiode. Orientation of the fiber with the microslit is shown in the center.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Insertion loss as a function of the refractive index: solid curve, microslit, dashed curve, microchannel. (b) Insertion loss as a function of the width of a 20 μm long slit filled with water n = 1.333 .

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