Abstract

Active optics techniques providing high quality large astigmatism compensations to be used in a fixed or variable optical path, are presented in three ways: analytical calculations, finite element analysis, and experimental validation. The use of an angular thickness distribution allows improving the optical quality of toroidal deformations. We emphasize the case of a single actuator design, in which the principle is proven with a prototype.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  22. F. Madec, E. Hugot, P. Vola, M. Ferrari, E. Prieto, and J. G. Cuby, “New beam steering mirror concept and metrology system for multi-IFU,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 6273-71 (2006).
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  28. F. Madec, E. Hugot, K. El Hadi, M. Ferrari, E. Prieto, and J. G. Cuby, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, Traverse du Syphon, 13376 Marseille Cedex 20, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Active beam steering mirrors for multi-IFU: metrology and characterisation.”
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  31. E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, A. Liotard, F. Falzon, and C. Singer, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, 2 Place Le Verrier 13248 Marseille cedex 4, “Etude de R&D Thales alenia space: optique active spatiale” (Confidential study, 2007).

2007

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The European extremely large telescope (E-ELT),” The Messenger 127, 11-19 (2007).

2006

J. G. Cuby, E. Prieto, M. Ferrari, E. Hugot, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. Blais-Ouelette, “On the performance of ELT instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269-68 (2006).

E. Hugot, G. R. Lemaître, and M. Ferrari, “Toric mirrors and active optics: degenerated configuration for spherical monomode deformable mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732N (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Moretto, R. Bacon, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, P. Amram, S. Blais-Ouellette, P. E. Blanc, J. Devriendt, B. Epinat, T. Fusco, P. Jagourel, O. Hernandez, J. P. Kneib, I. Montilla, B. Neichel, E. Pécontal, E. Prieto, and M. Puech, “Wide field spectrograph concepts for the European extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269G (2006).

F. Madec, E. Hugot, P. Vola, M. Ferrari, E. Prieto, and J. G. Cuby, “New beam steering mirror concept and metrology system for multi-IFU,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 6273-71 (2006).

S. F. Sporer, “TMT--stresses mirror polishing fixture study,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 6267R (2006).

T. Fusco, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, C. Petit, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, M. Nicolle, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, and P. Puge, “High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: application to the SPHERE instrument,” Opt. Express 14, 7515-7534(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

1998

M. Ferrari, “Development of a variable curvature mirror for the delay lines of the VLT interferometer,” Astron. Astrophys. 128, 221-227 (1998).

1991

R. N. Wilson, “Active optics and the new technology telescope (NTT): the key to improved optical quality at lower cost in large astronomical telescopes,” Contemp. Phys. 32, 157-172 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988

L. Noethe, F. Franza, P. Giordano, R. N. Wilson, O. Citterio, G. Conti, and E. Mattaini, “Active optics II. Results of an experiment with a thin 1-nm test mirror,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1427-1457 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, and L. Noethe, “The ESO 3.5 meter Ntt-Active Optics I: a system for optimizing the optical quality and reducing the cost of large telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 485-511 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1981

1980

1972

1932

B. Schmidt, “A coma-free telescope,” Mitt. Hamburg Sternv. 7, 15 (1932).

Amram, P.

G. Moretto, R. Bacon, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, P. Amram, S. Blais-Ouellette, P. E. Blanc, J. Devriendt, B. Epinat, T. Fusco, P. Jagourel, O. Hernandez, J. P. Kneib, I. Montilla, B. Neichel, E. Pécontal, E. Prieto, and M. Puech, “Wide field spectrograph concepts for the European extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269G (2006).

Arnold, L.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

Augereau, J. C.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

Bacon, R.

G. Moretto, R. Bacon, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, P. Amram, S. Blais-Ouellette, P. E. Blanc, J. Devriendt, B. Epinat, T. Fusco, P. Jagourel, O. Hernandez, J. P. Kneib, I. Montilla, B. Neichel, E. Pécontal, E. Prieto, and M. Puech, “Wide field spectrograph concepts for the European extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269G (2006).

Baudoz, P.

T. Fusco, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, C. Petit, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, M. Nicolle, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, and P. Puge, “High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: application to the SPHERE instrument,” Opt. Express 14, 7515-7534(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

Beuzit, J. L.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

Beuzit, J.-L.

Blais-Ouelette, S.

J. G. Cuby, E. Prieto, M. Ferrari, E. Hugot, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. Blais-Ouelette, “On the performance of ELT instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269-68 (2006).

Blais-Ouellette, S.

G. Moretto, R. Bacon, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, P. Amram, S. Blais-Ouellette, P. E. Blanc, J. Devriendt, B. Epinat, T. Fusco, P. Jagourel, O. Hernandez, J. P. Kneib, I. Montilla, B. Neichel, E. Pécontal, E. Prieto, and M. Puech, “Wide field spectrograph concepts for the European extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269G (2006).

Blanc, P. E.

G. Moretto, R. Bacon, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, P. Amram, S. Blais-Ouellette, P. E. Blanc, J. Devriendt, B. Epinat, T. Fusco, P. Jagourel, O. Hernandez, J. P. Kneib, I. Montilla, B. Neichel, E. Pécontal, E. Prieto, and M. Puech, “Wide field spectrograph concepts for the European extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269G (2006).

J. G. Cuby, J. P. Kneib, E. Prieto, P. E. Blanc, M. Marteaud, P. Vola, P. Jagourel, F. Hammer, and T. Fusco, “MOMFIS, the multi object IR spectrograph for OWL,” presented at the Instrumentation for ELT Workshop, Ringberg, 25-29 July, 2005.

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

J. G. Cuby, E. Prieto, M. Ferrari, E. Hugot, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. Blais-Ouelette, “On the performance of ELT instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269-68 (2006).

Bocaletti, A.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

Charton, J.

Citterio, O.

L. Noethe, F. Franza, P. Giordano, R. N. Wilson, O. Citterio, G. Conti, and E. Mattaini, “Active optics II. Results of an experiment with a thin 1-nm test mirror,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1427-1457 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Conti, G.

L. Noethe, F. Franza, P. Giordano, R. N. Wilson, O. Citterio, G. Conti, and E. Mattaini, “Active optics II. Results of an experiment with a thin 1-nm test mirror,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1427-1457 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cuby, J. G.

F. Madec, E. Hugot, P. Vola, M. Ferrari, E. Prieto, and J. G. Cuby, “New beam steering mirror concept and metrology system for multi-IFU,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 6273-71 (2006).

J. G. Cuby, E. Prieto, M. Ferrari, E. Hugot, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. Blais-Ouelette, “On the performance of ELT instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269-68 (2006).

G. Moretto, R. Bacon, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, P. Amram, S. Blais-Ouellette, P. E. Blanc, J. Devriendt, B. Epinat, T. Fusco, P. Jagourel, O. Hernandez, J. P. Kneib, I. Montilla, B. Neichel, E. Pécontal, E. Prieto, and M. Puech, “Wide field spectrograph concepts for the European extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269G (2006).

G. Moretto, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, G. Rousset, T. Fusco, and J. Devriendt, “WFSPEC-multi-object AO instrument for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AWD7.

J. G. Cuby, J. P. Kneib, E. Prieto, P. E. Blanc, M. Marteaud, P. Vola, P. Jagourel, F. Hammer, and T. Fusco, “MOMFIS, the multi object IR spectrograph for OWL,” presented at the Instrumentation for ELT Workshop, Ringberg, 25-29 July, 2005.

F. Madec, E. Hugot, K. El Hadi, M. Ferrari, E. Prieto, and J. G. Cuby, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, Traverse du Syphon, 13376 Marseille Cedex 20, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Active beam steering mirrors for multi-IFU: metrology and characterisation.”

Devriendt, J.

G. Moretto, R. Bacon, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, P. Amram, S. Blais-Ouellette, P. E. Blanc, J. Devriendt, B. Epinat, T. Fusco, P. Jagourel, O. Hernandez, J. P. Kneib, I. Montilla, B. Neichel, E. Pécontal, E. Prieto, and M. Puech, “Wide field spectrograph concepts for the European extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269G (2006).

G. Moretto, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, G. Rousset, T. Fusco, and J. Devriendt, “WFSPEC-multi-object AO instrument for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AWD7.

Dohlen, K.

T. Fusco, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, C. Petit, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, M. Nicolle, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, and P. Puge, “High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: application to the SPHERE instrument,” Opt. Express 14, 7515-7534(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. R. Lemaître, P. Montiel, P. Joulié, K. Dohlen, and P. Lanzoni, “Active optics and modified-Rumsey wide-field telescopes: MINITRUST demonstrators with vase- and tulip-form mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7322-7332 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, G. R. Lemaître, K. El Hadi, and K. Dohlen, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, 2 Place Le Verrier 13248 Marseille cedex 4, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Toric mirrors spherically polished under stress for the VLT-SPHERE instrument.”

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

El Hadi, K.

E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, G. R. Lemaître, K. El Hadi, and K. Dohlen, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, 2 Place Le Verrier 13248 Marseille cedex 4, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Toric mirrors spherically polished under stress for the VLT-SPHERE instrument.”

F. Madec, E. Hugot, K. El Hadi, M. Ferrari, E. Prieto, and J. G. Cuby, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, Traverse du Syphon, 13376 Marseille Cedex 20, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Active beam steering mirrors for multi-IFU: metrology and characterisation.”

Epinat, B.

G. Moretto, R. Bacon, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, P. Amram, S. Blais-Ouellette, P. E. Blanc, J. Devriendt, B. Epinat, T. Fusco, P. Jagourel, O. Hernandez, J. P. Kneib, I. Montilla, B. Neichel, E. Pécontal, E. Prieto, and M. Puech, “Wide field spectrograph concepts for the European extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269G (2006).

Falzon, F.

E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, A. Liotard, F. Falzon, and C. Singer, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, 2 Place Le Verrier 13248 Marseille cedex 4, “Etude de R&D Thales alenia space: optique active spatiale” (Confidential study, 2007).

Fappani, D.

E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, G. R. Lemaître, and D. Fappani, “Thin shell active polishing for large deformable secondary mirrors,” presented at the Adaptive Optics Conference, Vancouver, Canada, 18-20 June 2007.

Feldt, M.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, M.

J. G. Cuby, E. Prieto, M. Ferrari, E. Hugot, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. Blais-Ouelette, “On the performance of ELT instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269-68 (2006).

E. Hugot, G. R. Lemaître, and M. Ferrari, “Toric mirrors and active optics: degenerated configuration for spherical monomode deformable mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732N (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Madec, E. Hugot, P. Vola, M. Ferrari, E. Prieto, and J. G. Cuby, “New beam steering mirror concept and metrology system for multi-IFU,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 6273-71 (2006).

M. Ferrari, “Development of a variable curvature mirror for the delay lines of the VLT interferometer,” Astron. Astrophys. 128, 221-227 (1998).

E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, G. R. Lemaître, and D. Fappani, “Thin shell active polishing for large deformable secondary mirrors,” presented at the Adaptive Optics Conference, Vancouver, Canada, 18-20 June 2007.

F. Madec, E. Hugot, K. El Hadi, M. Ferrari, E. Prieto, and J. G. Cuby, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, Traverse du Syphon, 13376 Marseille Cedex 20, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Active beam steering mirrors for multi-IFU: metrology and characterisation.”

E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, and M. Langlois, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, 2 Place Le Verrier 13248 Marseille cedex 4, “Etude de R&T CNES-SESO: evaluation des miroirs actifs pour les grands telescopes spatiaux” (Confidential study, 2006).

E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, G. R. Lemaître, K. El Hadi, and K. Dohlen, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, 2 Place Le Verrier 13248 Marseille cedex 4, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Toric mirrors spherically polished under stress for the VLT-SPHERE instrument.”

E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, A. Liotard, F. Falzon, and C. Singer, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, 2 Place Le Verrier 13248 Marseille cedex 4, “Etude de R&D Thales alenia space: optique active spatiale” (Confidential study, 2007).

Franza, F.

L. Noethe, F. Franza, P. Giordano, R. N. Wilson, O. Citterio, G. Conti, and E. Mattaini, “Active optics II. Results of an experiment with a thin 1-nm test mirror,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1427-1457 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, and L. Noethe, “The ESO 3.5 meter Ntt-Active Optics I: a system for optimizing the optical quality and reducing the cost of large telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 485-511 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fusco, T.

G. Moretto, R. Bacon, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, P. Amram, S. Blais-Ouellette, P. E. Blanc, J. Devriendt, B. Epinat, T. Fusco, P. Jagourel, O. Hernandez, J. P. Kneib, I. Montilla, B. Neichel, E. Pécontal, E. Prieto, and M. Puech, “Wide field spectrograph concepts for the European extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269G (2006).

T. Fusco, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, C. Petit, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, M. Nicolle, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, and P. Puge, “High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: application to the SPHERE instrument,” Opt. Express 14, 7515-7534(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Cuby, J. P. Kneib, E. Prieto, P. E. Blanc, M. Marteaud, P. Vola, P. Jagourel, F. Hammer, and T. Fusco, “MOMFIS, the multi object IR spectrograph for OWL,” presented at the Instrumentation for ELT Workshop, Ringberg, 25-29 July, 2005.

G. Moretto, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, G. Rousset, T. Fusco, and J. Devriendt, “WFSPEC-multi-object AO instrument for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AWD7.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

Gabor, G.

Gilmozzi, R.

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The European extremely large telescope (E-ELT),” The Messenger 127, 11-19 (2007).

Giordano, P.

L. Noethe, F. Franza, P. Giordano, R. N. Wilson, O. Citterio, G. Conti, and E. Mattaini, “Active optics II. Results of an experiment with a thin 1-nm test mirror,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1427-1457 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gratton, R.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

Hammer, F.

G. Moretto, R. Bacon, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, P. Amram, S. Blais-Ouellette, P. E. Blanc, J. Devriendt, B. Epinat, T. Fusco, P. Jagourel, O. Hernandez, J. P. Kneib, I. Montilla, B. Neichel, E. Pécontal, E. Prieto, and M. Puech, “Wide field spectrograph concepts for the European extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269G (2006).

G. Moretto, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, G. Rousset, T. Fusco, and J. Devriendt, “WFSPEC-multi-object AO instrument for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AWD7.

J. G. Cuby, J. P. Kneib, E. Prieto, P. E. Blanc, M. Marteaud, P. Vola, P. Jagourel, F. Hammer, and T. Fusco, “MOMFIS, the multi object IR spectrograph for OWL,” presented at the Instrumentation for ELT Workshop, Ringberg, 25-29 July, 2005.

Henning, T.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, O.

G. Moretto, R. Bacon, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, P. Amram, S. Blais-Ouellette, P. E. Blanc, J. Devriendt, B. Epinat, T. Fusco, P. Jagourel, O. Hernandez, J. P. Kneib, I. Montilla, B. Neichel, E. Pécontal, E. Prieto, and M. Puech, “Wide field spectrograph concepts for the European extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269G (2006).

Huber, M. C.

Hubin, N.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

Hugot, E.

E. Hugot, G. R. Lemaître, and M. Ferrari, “Toric mirrors and active optics: degenerated configuration for spherical monomode deformable mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732N (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Cuby, E. Prieto, M. Ferrari, E. Hugot, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. Blais-Ouelette, “On the performance of ELT instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269-68 (2006).

F. Madec, E. Hugot, P. Vola, M. Ferrari, E. Prieto, and J. G. Cuby, “New beam steering mirror concept and metrology system for multi-IFU,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 6273-71 (2006).

E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, G. R. Lemaître, and D. Fappani, “Thin shell active polishing for large deformable secondary mirrors,” presented at the Adaptive Optics Conference, Vancouver, Canada, 18-20 June 2007.

E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, G. R. Lemaître, K. El Hadi, and K. Dohlen, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, 2 Place Le Verrier 13248 Marseille cedex 4, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Toric mirrors spherically polished under stress for the VLT-SPHERE instrument.”

F. Madec, E. Hugot, K. El Hadi, M. Ferrari, E. Prieto, and J. G. Cuby, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, Traverse du Syphon, 13376 Marseille Cedex 20, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Active beam steering mirrors for multi-IFU: metrology and characterisation.”

E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, and M. Langlois, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, 2 Place Le Verrier 13248 Marseille cedex 4, “Etude de R&T CNES-SESO: evaluation des miroirs actifs pour les grands telescopes spatiaux” (Confidential study, 2006).

E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, A. Liotard, F. Falzon, and C. Singer, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, 2 Place Le Verrier 13248 Marseille cedex 4, “Etude de R&D Thales alenia space: optique active spatiale” (Confidential study, 2007).

Hunt, L. K.

Jagourel, P.

G. Moretto, R. Bacon, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, P. Amram, S. Blais-Ouellette, P. E. Blanc, J. Devriendt, B. Epinat, T. Fusco, P. Jagourel, O. Hernandez, J. P. Kneib, I. Montilla, B. Neichel, E. Pécontal, E. Prieto, and M. Puech, “Wide field spectrograph concepts for the European extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269G (2006).

J. G. Cuby, J. P. Kneib, E. Prieto, P. E. Blanc, M. Marteaud, P. Vola, P. Jagourel, F. Hammer, and T. Fusco, “MOMFIS, the multi object IR spectrograph for OWL,” presented at the Instrumentation for ELT Workshop, Ringberg, 25-29 July, 2005.

Jannitti, E.

Joulié, P.

Kasper, M.

T. Fusco, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, C. Petit, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, M. Nicolle, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, and P. Puge, “High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: application to the SPHERE instrument,” Opt. Express 14, 7515-7534(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

Kendrew, S.

S. Kendrew, “Lightweight deformable mirrors for ground- and space-based imaging systems,” Ph.D. dissertation (University College London, 2005).

Kneib, J. P.

G. Moretto, R. Bacon, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, P. Amram, S. Blais-Ouellette, P. E. Blanc, J. Devriendt, B. Epinat, T. Fusco, P. Jagourel, O. Hernandez, J. P. Kneib, I. Montilla, B. Neichel, E. Pécontal, E. Prieto, and M. Puech, “Wide field spectrograph concepts for the European extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269G (2006).

J. G. Cuby, J. P. Kneib, E. Prieto, P. E. Blanc, M. Marteaud, P. Vola, P. Jagourel, F. Hammer, and T. Fusco, “MOMFIS, the multi object IR spectrograph for OWL,” presented at the Instrumentation for ELT Workshop, Ringberg, 25-29 July, 2005.

Lagrange, A. M.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

Langlois, M.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, and M. Langlois, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, 2 Place Le Verrier 13248 Marseille cedex 4, “Etude de R&T CNES-SESO: evaluation des miroirs actifs pour les grands telescopes spatiaux” (Confidential study, 2006).

Lanzoni, P.

Lemaître, G. R.

E. Hugot, G. R. Lemaître, and M. Ferrari, “Toric mirrors and active optics: degenerated configuration for spherical monomode deformable mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732N (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Lemaître, P. Montiel, P. Joulié, K. Dohlen, and P. Lanzoni, “Active optics and modified-Rumsey wide-field telescopes: MINITRUST demonstrators with vase- and tulip-form mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7322-7332 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. R. Lemaître, “Active optics: vase or meniscus multimode mirrors and degenerated configurations,” Meccanica 40, 233-249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Huber, E. Jannitti, G. R. Lemaître, and G. Tondello, “Toroidal grating obtained on an elastic substrate,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2139-2142 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. R. Lemaître, “New procedure for making Schmidt corrector plates,” Appl. Opt. 11, 1630-1636 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, G. R. Lemaître, and D. Fappani, “Thin shell active polishing for large deformable secondary mirrors,” presented at the Adaptive Optics Conference, Vancouver, Canada, 18-20 June 2007.

E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, G. R. Lemaître, K. El Hadi, and K. Dohlen, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, 2 Place Le Verrier 13248 Marseille cedex 4, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Toric mirrors spherically polished under stress for the VLT-SPHERE instrument.”

Liotard, A.

E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, A. Liotard, F. Falzon, and C. Singer, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, 2 Place Le Verrier 13248 Marseille cedex 4, “Etude de R&D Thales alenia space: optique active spatiale” (Confidential study, 2007).

Lubliner, J.

Madec, F.

F. Madec, E. Hugot, P. Vola, M. Ferrari, E. Prieto, and J. G. Cuby, “New beam steering mirror concept and metrology system for multi-IFU,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 6273-71 (2006).

F. Madec, E. Hugot, K. El Hadi, M. Ferrari, E. Prieto, and J. G. Cuby, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, Traverse du Syphon, 13376 Marseille Cedex 20, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Active beam steering mirrors for multi-IFU: metrology and characterisation.”

Marteaud, M.

J. G. Cuby, J. P. Kneib, E. Prieto, P. E. Blanc, M. Marteaud, P. Vola, P. Jagourel, F. Hammer, and T. Fusco, “MOMFIS, the multi object IR spectrograph for OWL,” presented at the Instrumentation for ELT Workshop, Ringberg, 25-29 July, 2005.

Mast, T. S.

Mattaini, E.

L. Noethe, F. Franza, P. Giordano, R. N. Wilson, O. Citterio, G. Conti, and E. Mattaini, “Active optics II. Results of an experiment with a thin 1-nm test mirror,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1427-1457 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Menard, F.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

Montiel, P.

Montilla, I.

G. Moretto, R. Bacon, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, P. Amram, S. Blais-Ouellette, P. E. Blanc, J. Devriendt, B. Epinat, T. Fusco, P. Jagourel, O. Hernandez, J. P. Kneib, I. Montilla, B. Neichel, E. Pécontal, E. Prieto, and M. Puech, “Wide field spectrograph concepts for the European extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269G (2006).

Moretto, G.

G. Moretto, R. Bacon, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, P. Amram, S. Blais-Ouellette, P. E. Blanc, J. Devriendt, B. Epinat, T. Fusco, P. Jagourel, O. Hernandez, J. P. Kneib, I. Montilla, B. Neichel, E. Pécontal, E. Prieto, and M. Puech, “Wide field spectrograph concepts for the European extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269G (2006).

G. Moretto, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, G. Rousset, T. Fusco, and J. Devriendt, “WFSPEC-multi-object AO instrument for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AWD7.

Mouillet, D.

T. Fusco, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, C. Petit, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, M. Nicolle, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, and P. Puge, “High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: application to the SPHERE instrument,” Opt. Express 14, 7515-7534(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

Moutou, C.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

Neichel, B.

G. Moretto, R. Bacon, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, P. Amram, S. Blais-Ouellette, P. E. Blanc, J. Devriendt, B. Epinat, T. Fusco, P. Jagourel, O. Hernandez, J. P. Kneib, I. Montilla, B. Neichel, E. Pécontal, E. Prieto, and M. Puech, “Wide field spectrograph concepts for the European extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269G (2006).

Nelson, J.

Nelson, J. E.

Nicolle, M.

Noethe, L.

L. Noethe, F. Franza, P. Giordano, R. N. Wilson, O. Citterio, G. Conti, and E. Mattaini, “Active optics II. Results of an experiment with a thin 1-nm test mirror,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1427-1457 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, and L. Noethe, “The ESO 3.5 meter Ntt-Active Optics I: a system for optimizing the optical quality and reducing the cost of large telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 485-511 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pécontal, E.

G. Moretto, R. Bacon, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, P. Amram, S. Blais-Ouellette, P. E. Blanc, J. Devriendt, B. Epinat, T. Fusco, P. Jagourel, O. Hernandez, J. P. Kneib, I. Montilla, B. Neichel, E. Pécontal, E. Prieto, and M. Puech, “Wide field spectrograph concepts for the European extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269G (2006).

Petit, C.

Prieto, E.

F. Madec, E. Hugot, P. Vola, M. Ferrari, E. Prieto, and J. G. Cuby, “New beam steering mirror concept and metrology system for multi-IFU,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 6273-71 (2006).

G. Moretto, R. Bacon, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, P. Amram, S. Blais-Ouellette, P. E. Blanc, J. Devriendt, B. Epinat, T. Fusco, P. Jagourel, O. Hernandez, J. P. Kneib, I. Montilla, B. Neichel, E. Pécontal, E. Prieto, and M. Puech, “Wide field spectrograph concepts for the European extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269G (2006).

J. G. Cuby, E. Prieto, M. Ferrari, E. Hugot, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. Blais-Ouelette, “On the performance of ELT instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269-68 (2006).

J. G. Cuby, J. P. Kneib, E. Prieto, P. E. Blanc, M. Marteaud, P. Vola, P. Jagourel, F. Hammer, and T. Fusco, “MOMFIS, the multi object IR spectrograph for OWL,” presented at the Instrumentation for ELT Workshop, Ringberg, 25-29 July, 2005.

F. Madec, E. Hugot, K. El Hadi, M. Ferrari, E. Prieto, and J. G. Cuby, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, Traverse du Syphon, 13376 Marseille Cedex 20, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Active beam steering mirrors for multi-IFU: metrology and characterisation.”

Puech, M.

G. Moretto, R. Bacon, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, P. Amram, S. Blais-Ouellette, P. E. Blanc, J. Devriendt, B. Epinat, T. Fusco, P. Jagourel, O. Hernandez, J. P. Kneib, I. Montilla, B. Neichel, E. Pécontal, E. Prieto, and M. Puech, “Wide field spectrograph concepts for the European extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269G (2006).

Puge, P.

Puget, P.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

Rabou, P.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

P. Rabou, “SPHERE common path optical design description,” VLT-TRE-SPH-14690-0151, (2007).

Rouan, D.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

Rousset, G.

T. Fusco, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, C. Petit, J.-L. Beuzit, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, M. Nicolle, M. Kasper, P. Baudoz, and P. Puge, “High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: application to the SPHERE instrument,” Opt. Express 14, 7515-7534(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Moretto, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, G. Rousset, T. Fusco, and J. Devriendt, “WFSPEC-multi-object AO instrument for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AWD7.

Sauvage, J.-F.

Schmidt, B.

B. Schmidt, “A coma-free telescope,” Mitt. Hamburg Sternv. 7, 15 (1932).

Schmidt, H. M.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

Segresan, D.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

Singer, C.

E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, A. Liotard, F. Falzon, and C. Singer, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, 2 Place Le Verrier 13248 Marseille cedex 4, “Etude de R&D Thales alenia space: optique active spatiale” (Confidential study, 2007).

Sporer, S. F.

S. F. Sporer, “TMT--stresses mirror polishing fixture study,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 6267R (2006).

Spyromilio, J.

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The European extremely large telescope (E-ELT),” The Messenger 127, 11-19 (2007).

St Venant, B.

B. St Venant, Mmoires, Tome 14, p. 65.

Stam, D.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

Timoshenko, S. P.

S. P. Timoshenko and S. Woinovsky-Krieger, Theory of Plates and Shells, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1959), p. 294.

Tondello, G.

Turatto, M.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

Udry, S.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

Vakili, F.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

Vola, P.

F. Madec, E. Hugot, P. Vola, M. Ferrari, E. Prieto, and J. G. Cuby, “New beam steering mirror concept and metrology system for multi-IFU,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 6273-71 (2006).

J. G. Cuby, J. P. Kneib, E. Prieto, P. E. Blanc, M. Marteaud, P. Vola, P. Jagourel, F. Hammer, and T. Fusco, “MOMFIS, the multi object IR spectrograph for OWL,” presented at the Instrumentation for ELT Workshop, Ringberg, 25-29 July, 2005.

Waters, R.

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R. N.

R. N. Wilson, “Active optics and the new technology telescope (NTT): the key to improved optical quality at lower cost in large astronomical telescopes,” Contemp. Phys. 32, 157-172 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Noethe, F. Franza, P. Giordano, R. N. Wilson, O. Citterio, G. Conti, and E. Mattaini, “Active optics II. Results of an experiment with a thin 1-nm test mirror,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1427-1457 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, and L. Noethe, “The ESO 3.5 meter Ntt-Active Optics I: a system for optimizing the optical quality and reducing the cost of large telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 485-511 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Wilson, “Active optics control systems,” in Reflecting Telescope Optics II (Springer, 1999), pp. 274-314.

Woinovsky-Krieger, S.

S. P. Timoshenko and S. Woinovsky-Krieger, Theory of Plates and Shells, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1959), p. 294.

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys.

M. Ferrari, “Development of a variable curvature mirror for the delay lines of the VLT interferometer,” Astron. Astrophys. 128, 221-227 (1998).

Contemp. Phys.

R. N. Wilson, “Active optics and the new technology telescope (NTT): the key to improved optical quality at lower cost in large astronomical telescopes,” Contemp. Phys. 32, 157-172 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, and L. Noethe, “The ESO 3.5 meter Ntt-Active Optics I: a system for optimizing the optical quality and reducing the cost of large telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 485-511 (1987).
[CrossRef]

L. Noethe, F. Franza, P. Giordano, R. N. Wilson, O. Citterio, G. Conti, and E. Mattaini, “Active optics II. Results of an experiment with a thin 1-nm test mirror,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1427-1457 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Meccanica

G. R. Lemaître, “Active optics: vase or meniscus multimode mirrors and degenerated configurations,” Meccanica 40, 233-249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mitt. Hamburg Sternv.

B. Schmidt, “A coma-free telescope,” Mitt. Hamburg Sternv. 7, 15 (1932).

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

F. Madec, E. Hugot, P. Vola, M. Ferrari, E. Prieto, and J. G. Cuby, “New beam steering mirror concept and metrology system for multi-IFU,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 6273-71 (2006).

S. F. Sporer, “TMT--stresses mirror polishing fixture study,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 6267R (2006).

E. Hugot, G. R. Lemaître, and M. Ferrari, “Toric mirrors and active optics: degenerated configuration for spherical monomode deformable mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732N (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Moretto, R. Bacon, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, P. Amram, S. Blais-Ouellette, P. E. Blanc, J. Devriendt, B. Epinat, T. Fusco, P. Jagourel, O. Hernandez, J. P. Kneib, I. Montilla, B. Neichel, E. Pécontal, E. Prieto, and M. Puech, “Wide field spectrograph concepts for the European extremely large telescope,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269G (2006).

J. G. Cuby, E. Prieto, M. Ferrari, E. Hugot, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. Blais-Ouelette, “On the performance of ELT instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 6269-68 (2006).

The Messenger

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The European extremely large telescope (E-ELT),” The Messenger 127, 11-19 (2007).

Other

J. L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, D. Mouillet, C. Moutou, K. Dohlen, P. Puget, T. Fusco, P. Baudoz, A. Bocaletti, S. Udry, D. Segresan, R. Gratton, M. Turatto, H. M. Schmidt, R. Waters, D. Stam, P. Rabou, A. M. Lagrange, F. Menard, J. C. Augereau, M. Langlois, F. Vakili, L. Arnold, T. Henning, D. Rouan, M. Kasper, and N. Hubin, “A planet finder instrument for the VLT,” in Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 200 (Cambridge U. Press, 2005), pp. 317-323.
[CrossRef]

B. St Venant, Mmoires, Tome 14, p. 65.

S. P. Timoshenko and S. Woinovsky-Krieger, Theory of Plates and Shells, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1959), p. 294.

E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, G. R. Lemaître, K. El Hadi, and K. Dohlen, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, 2 Place Le Verrier 13248 Marseille cedex 4, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Toric mirrors spherically polished under stress for the VLT-SPHERE instrument.”

F. Madec, E. Hugot, K. El Hadi, M. Ferrari, E. Prieto, and J. G. Cuby, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, Traverse du Syphon, 13376 Marseille Cedex 20, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Active beam steering mirrors for multi-IFU: metrology and characterisation.”

S. Kendrew, “Lightweight deformable mirrors for ground- and space-based imaging systems,” Ph.D. dissertation (University College London, 2005).

E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, and M. Langlois, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, 2 Place Le Verrier 13248 Marseille cedex 4, “Etude de R&T CNES-SESO: evaluation des miroirs actifs pour les grands telescopes spatiaux” (Confidential study, 2006).

E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, A. Liotard, F. Falzon, and C. Singer, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, 2 Place Le Verrier 13248 Marseille cedex 4, “Etude de R&D Thales alenia space: optique active spatiale” (Confidential study, 2007).

J. G. Cuby, J. P. Kneib, E. Prieto, P. E. Blanc, M. Marteaud, P. Vola, P. Jagourel, F. Hammer, and T. Fusco, “MOMFIS, the multi object IR spectrograph for OWL,” presented at the Instrumentation for ELT Workshop, Ringberg, 25-29 July, 2005.

G. Moretto, J. G. Cuby, F. Hammer, G. Rousset, T. Fusco, and J. Devriendt, “WFSPEC-multi-object AO instrument for the European Extremely Large Telescope,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AWD7.

E. Hugot, M. Ferrari, G. R. Lemaître, and D. Fappani, “Thin shell active polishing for large deformable secondary mirrors,” presented at the Adaptive Optics Conference, Vancouver, Canada, 18-20 June 2007.

R. N. Wilson, “Active optics control systems,” in Reflecting Telescope Optics II (Springer, 1999), pp. 274-314.

P. Rabou, “SPHERE common path optical design description,” VLT-TRE-SPH-14690-0151, (2007).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Four forces F and/or four bending moments M are needed to warp the mirror into the desired astigmatism shape.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Elastic beam of length L clamped at the edge, under a central load P.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Up: normalized radial thickness distribution versus normalized radius (cycloid-like case). Down: normalized angular thickness distribution versus angle in radians.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Three prototypes of active mirrors: (a), (d), (g) Active mirror designs from analytical models. Design 1 uses a vase form geometry with clamped optical bridges on the edge. Design 2 uses a vase form geometry optimized with an angular thickness modulation. Design 3 uses a cycloid-like geometry optimized with an angular thickness modulation; (b), (e), (h) FEA with respect to these designs. The FEA are essential for controlling the effective performance of the analytical designs and for their optimization; (c), (f), (i) mirror prototypes from the three designs, after FEA optimizations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Single actuator principle, located under the mirror along the optical axis.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Position of forces c / b = f ( t 2 / t 1 ) versus thickness ratio b / a = 1.30 . Circles point out the cases c / b = 0 , t 2 / t 1 = 2 and 3.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

View of the prototype realized at LAM optical laboratory, allowing to generate a variable third order astigmatism. Two beams are placed under the thick ring and linked to it via solid links. The angular modulation is achieved via mechanical bridges, avoiding the cos ( 6 θ ) component of the deformation. A differential microscrew located between the beams acts as a mechanical actuator controlled in position.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Up: Optical path difference map of the deformed optical surface of the mirror. Down: Zernike coefficient values of the deformation of the optical surface. The optical quality is equal to 4 nm rms ( λ / 160 ) for an amplitude of 6.326 μm ( 10 λ ), corresponding to a Zernike astigmatism coefficient of 2940 nm .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Evolution of astigmatism rms amplitude versus displacement of differential microscrew. Tolerance on the displacement: ± 1 μm . Tolerance on the rms amplitude: ± 2.5 % .

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

c b = 1 1 + ( 1 γ ) ( 1 ν ) [ 1 4 1 1 ν b 2 a 2 a 4 4 b 4 ] 2 + ( 1 γ ) ( 1 ν ) [ 1 2 3 ν 1 ν b 2 a 2 + a 4 2 b 4 ] .
t ( r ) = t 0 [ 1 ρ 2 ] 1 / 3
ω ( ρ , θ ) = ω 0 + P a 2 2 π ( 3 + ν ) D × [ 2 log 2 1 + 1 + ν 1 ν ( 2 log 2 π 2 12 ) m = 2 , 4 , 6 , ( 1 m ( m 1 ) + 2 ( 1 + ν ) ( 1 ν ) ( m 1 ) m 2 ρ 2 m ( m + 1 ) ) ρ m cos m θ ] ,
ω ( ρ , θ ) m = 2 , 6 , 10 , ... ( 1 m ( m 1 ) + 2 ( 1 + ν ) ( 1 ν ) ( m 1 ) m 2 ρ 2 m ( m + 1 ) ) ρ m cos m θ .
ω ( x ) = ω 0 2 [ cos ( m π x L ) 1 ] , m > 0.
M = P 2 x P L 8 .
E I ω 0 2 4 π 2 L 2 cos m π x L = P 2 x P L 8 .
E I ω 0 2 4 π 2 L 2 cos ( π ρ ) = P L 4 ( 2 m ρ 1 2 ) .
h L = [ 3 2 P E k ω 0 π 2 ] 1 / 3 [ 2 m ρ 1 2 cos ( π ρ ) ] 1 / 3 .
t ( θ ) = t 0 [ ( 2 θ / π 0.5 ) cos ( m θ ) ] 1 / 3 , θ [ 0 , π 2 m ] ,
t ( θ ) = t 0 [ ( 2 θ / π 0.5 ) cos ( 2 θ ) ] 1 / 3 , θ [ 0 , π 4 ] .
{ γ 1 + 1 ( 1 ν ) [ 1 4 1 1 ν b 2 a 2 a 4 4 b 4 ] , γ 1 + 2 ( 1 ν ) [ 1 2 3 ν 1 ν b 2 a 2 + a 4 2 b 4 ] , o r γ 1 + 1 ( 1 ν ) [ 1 4 1 1 ν b 2 a 2 a 4 4 b 4 ] , γ 1 + 2 ( 1 ν ) [ 1 2 3 ν 1 ν b 2 a 2 + a 4 2 b 4 ] ,
γ 1 ( 1 2 a b ) 1 ( 1 - ν ) [ 1 4 + a 2 b 3 ν 1 ν b a + 2 ν 1 ν b 2 a 2 3 4 a 4 b 4 + a 5 2 b 5 ] .
γ = 1 + 1 ( 1 ν ) [ 1 4 2 ν 1 ν b 2 a 2 + 3 4 a 4 b 4 ] .

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