Abstract

In the remote sensing of the ocean near-surface properties, it is essential to derive accurate water-leaving radiance spectra through the process of the atmospheric correction. The atmospheric correction algorithm for Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) uses two near-infrared (NIR) bands at 765 and 865  nm (748 and 869   nm for MODIS) for retrieval of aerosol properties with assumption of the black ocean at the NIR wavelengths. Modifications are implemented to account for some of the NIR ocean contributions for the productive but not very turbid waters. For turbid waters in the coastal regions, however, the ocean could have significant contributions in the NIR, leading to significant errors in the satellite-derived ocean water-leaving radiances. For the shortwave infrared (SWIR) wavelengths (1000   nm), water has significantly larger absorption than those for the NIR bands. Thus the black ocean assumption at the SWIR bands is generally valid for turbid waters. In addition, for future sensors, it is also useful to include the UV bands to better quantify the ocean organic and inorganic materials, as well as for help in atmospheric correction. Simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of atmospheric correction for nonabsorbing and weakly absorbing aerosols using the NIR bands and various combinations of the SWIR bands for deriving the water-leaving radiances at the UV (340   nm) and visible wavelengths. Simulations show that atmospheric correction using the SWIR bands can generally produce results comparable to atmospheric correction using the NIR bands. In particular, the water-leaving radiance at the UV band (340   nm) can also be derived accurately. The results from a sensitivity study for the required sensor noise equivalent reflectance, (NEΔρ), [or the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)] for the NIR and SWIR bands are provided and discussed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006

M. Wang and W. Shi, "Cloud masking for ocean color data processing in the coastal regions," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 3196-3205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, "A multisensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products," Remote Sens. Environ. 102, 12-23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, and J.-F. Berthon, "Comparison of SeaWiFS, MODIS, and MERIS radiometric products at a coastal site," Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L06617, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, "Study of the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06, doi: 10.1029/ 2004JD004950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and W. Shi, "Estimation of ocean contribution at the MODIS near-infrared wavelengths along the east coast of the U.S.: two case studies," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L13606, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Lavender, M. H. Pinkerton, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and D. Blondeau-Patissier, "Modification to the atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS ocean color images over turbid waters," Cont. Shelf Res. 25, 539-555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, "A refinement for the Rayleigh radiance computation with variation of the atmospheric pressure," Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 5651-5663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, "An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series," Deep-Sea Res. , Part II 51, 5-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, "Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers," Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, "Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter," Mar. Chem. 89, 69-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, "Extrapolation of the aerosol reflectance from the near-infrared to the visible: the single-scattering epsilon vs multiple-scattering epsilon method," Int. J. Remote Sens. 25, 3637-3650 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

R. R. Li, Y. J. Kaufman, B. C. Gao, and C. O. Davis, "Remote sensing of suspended sediments and shallow coastal waters," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 559-566 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, "Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiple quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters," Appl. Opt. 41, 5755-5772 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. Peterson, "Optimization of a semi-analytical ocean color model for global scale applications," Appl. Opt. 41, 2705-2714 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wang, "The Rayleigh lookup tables for the SeaWiFS data processing: accounting for the effects of ocean surface roughness," Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 2693-2702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Chou, P. K. Chan, and M. Wang, "Aerosol radiative forcing derived from SeaWiFS-retrieved aerosol optical properties," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 748-757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, "Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in maritime environments," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501-523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, "Calibration of ocean color scanners: how much error is acceptable in the near-infrared?" Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 497-504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

1999

1998

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, "Verification of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24919-24935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, "In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors," Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 265-278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Torres, J. R. Herman, Z. Ahmad, and J. Gleason, "Derivation of aerosol properties from satellite measurements of backscattered ultraviolet radiation: theoretical basis," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17099-17110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

H. Yang and H. R. Gordon, "Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance," Appl. Opt. 36, 7887-7897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Fraser, S. Mattoo, E. N. Yeh, and C. R. McClain, "Algorithm for atmospheric and glint corrections of satellite measurements of ocean pigment," J. of Geophys. Res. 102, 17107-17118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, "Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081-17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Deschamps, "Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361-14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, "Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensor," Appl. Opt. 33, 7754-7763 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, "Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: A preliminary algorithm," Appl. Opt. 33, 443-452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, "A simple, moderately accurate, atmospheric correction algorithm for SeaWiFS," Remote Sens. Environ. 50, 231-239 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Evans and H. R. Gordon, "CZCS system calibration: A retrospective examination," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293-7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

1989

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, "MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145-152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, "Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510-1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

1983

1981

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, "Absorption by dissolved organic matter in the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains," Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 43-53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1973

Abbott, M. R.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Abreu, L. W.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, and S. A. Clough, Users Guide to LOWTRAN-7 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, AFGL-TR-88-0177, 1988).

Ahmad, Z.

B. C. Gao, M. J. Montes, Z. Ahmad, and C. O. Davis, "Atmospheric correction algorithm for hyperspectral remote sensing of ocean color from space," Appl. Opt. 39, 887-896 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Torres, J. R. Herman, Z. Ahmad, and J. Gleason, "Derivation of aerosol properties from satellite measurements of backscattered ultraviolet radiation: theoretical basis," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17099-17110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aiken, J.

S. J. Lavender, M. H. Pinkerton, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and D. Blondeau-Patissier, "Modification to the atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS ocean color images over turbid waters," Cont. Shelf Res. 25, 539-555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. P.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, and S. A. Clough, Users Guide to LOWTRAN-7 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, AFGL-TR-88-0177, 1988).

Arnone, R. A.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, "Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiple quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters," Appl. Opt. 41, 5755-5772 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, and P. M. Martinolich, "Spectral dependence of the scattering coefficient in Case-1 and Case-2 waters," Appl. Opt. 38, 2377-2383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, and V. Ransibrahmanakul, A Partially Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Retrieval of Water-Leaving Radiance from SeaWiFS in Coastal Waters, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, S.B. Hooker and E.R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2003), Vol. 22.

R. A. Arnone, P. Martinolich, R. W. Gould, M. Sydor, and R. P. Stumpf, "Coastal optical properties using SeaWiFS," in Ocean Optics XIV (Office of Naval Research, 1998).

Bailey, S.

M. Wang and S. Bailey, "Correction of the sun glint contamination on the SeaWiFS ocean and atmosphere products," Appl. Opt. 40, 4790-4798 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, S. Bailey, and C. R. McClain, "SeaWiFS provides unique global aerosol optical property data," Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81, 197 and 202 (2000).

Bailey, S. W.

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, "A multisensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products," Remote Sens. Environ. 102, 12-23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Calibration of SeaWiFS. II: Vicarious techniques," Appl. Opt. 40, 6701-6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Balch, W. M.

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, "Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers," Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Balch, W. P.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, R. A.

Barnes, W. L.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, "MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145-152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Barton, I.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Berthon, J.-F.

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, and J.-F. Berthon, "Comparison of SeaWiFS, MODIS, and MERIS radiometric products at a coastal site," Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L06617, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blondeau-Patissier, D.

S. J. Lavender, M. H. Pinkerton, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and D. Blondeau-Patissier, "Modification to the atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS ocean color images over turbid waters," Cont. Shelf Res. 25, 539-555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, "Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter," Mar. Chem. 89, 69-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, "Absorption by dissolved organic matter in the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains," Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 43-53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

Brown, O. B.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. W.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, "Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiple quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters," Appl. Opt. 41, 5755-5772 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hu, K. L. Carder, and F. E. Muller-Karger, "How precise are SeaWiFS ocean color estimates? Implications of digitization-noise errors," Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 239-249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, "Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510-1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chan, P. K.

M. D. Chou, P. K. Chan, and M. Wang, "Aerosol radiative forcing derived from SeaWiFS-retrieved aerosol optical properties," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 748-757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chetwynd, J. H.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, and S. A. Clough, Users Guide to LOWTRAN-7 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, AFGL-TR-88-0177, 1988).

Chou, M. D.

M. D. Chou, P. K. Chan, and M. Wang, "Aerosol radiative forcing derived from SeaWiFS-retrieved aerosol optical properties," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 748-757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chylek, P.

Clark, D. K.

J. R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Calibration of SeaWiFS. II: Vicarious techniques," Appl. Opt. 40, 6701-6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clough, S. A.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, and S. A. Clough, Users Guide to LOWTRAN-7 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, AFGL-TR-88-0177, 1988).

Davis, C. O.

R. R. Li, Y. J. Kaufman, B. C. Gao, and C. O. Davis, "Remote sensing of suspended sediments and shallow coastal waters," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 559-566 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Gao, M. J. Montes, Z. Ahmad, and C. O. Davis, "Atmospheric correction algorithm for hyperspectral remote sensing of ocean color from space," Appl. Opt. 39, 887-896 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Deschamps, P. Y.

M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, "Verification of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24919-24935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Deschamps, "Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361-14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Deschamps, M. Herman, and D. Tanre, "Modeling of the atmospheric effects and its application to the remote sensing of ocean color," Appl. Opt. 22, 3751-3758 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donaghay, P. L.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, "Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter," Mar. Chem. 89, 69-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dubovik, O.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, "Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in maritime environments," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501-523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, "Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in maritime environments," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501-523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eplee, J. R. E.

Esaias, W. E.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. H.

Evans, R. L.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fargion, G. S.

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, "Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers," Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, G. C.

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, "An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series," Deep-Sea Res. , Part II 51, 5-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, Models for the Aerosols of the Lower Atmosphere and the Effects of Humidity Variations on Their Optical Properties U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL-TR-79-0214, 1979).

Fraser, R. S.

R. S. Fraser, S. Mattoo, E. N. Yeh, and C. R. McClain, "Algorithm for atmospheric and glint corrections of satellite measurements of ocean pigment," J. of Geophys. Res. 102, 17107-17118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, "Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers," Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, "Verification of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24919-24935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Deschamps, "Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361-14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gallery, W. O.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, and S. A. Clough, Users Guide to LOWTRAN-7 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, AFGL-TR-88-0177, 1988).

Gao, B. C.

R. R. Li, Y. J. Kaufman, B. C. Gao, and C. O. Davis, "Remote sensing of suspended sediments and shallow coastal waters," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 559-566 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Gao, M. J. Montes, Z. Ahmad, and C. O. Davis, "Atmospheric correction algorithm for hyperspectral remote sensing of ocean color from space," Appl. Opt. 39, 887-896 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gleason, J.

O. Torres, J. R. Herman, Z. Ahmad, and J. Gleason, "Derivation of aerosol properties from satellite measurements of backscattered ultraviolet radiation: theoretical basis," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17099-17110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, "Calibration of ocean color scanners: how much error is acceptable in the near-infrared?" Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 497-504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, "Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493-6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, "In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors," Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 265-278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, "Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081-17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang and H. R. Gordon, "Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance," Appl. Opt. 36, 7887-7897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, "Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: A preliminary algorithm," Appl. Opt. 33, 443-452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, "Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensor," Appl. Opt. 33, 7754-7763 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Evans and H. R. Gordon, "CZCS system calibration: A retrospective examination," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293-7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, "A simple, moderately accurate, atmospheric correction algorithm for SeaWiFS," Remote Sens. Environ. 50, 231-239 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, "Surface roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. 1: The Rayleigh scattering component," Appl. Opt. 31, 4247-4260 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, and R. H. Evans, "Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner," Appl. Opt. 27, 862-871 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gould, R. W.

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, and P. M. Martinolich, "Spectral dependence of the scattering coefficient in Case-1 and Case-2 waters," Appl. Opt. 38, 2377-2383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arnone, P. Martinolich, R. W. Gould, M. Sydor, and R. P. Stumpf, "Coastal optical properties using SeaWiFS," in Ocean Optics XIV (Office of Naval Research, 1998).

R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, and V. Ransibrahmanakul, A Partially Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Retrieval of Water-Leaving Radiance from SeaWiFS in Coastal Waters, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, S.B. Hooker and E.R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2003), Vol. 22.

Hale, G. M.

Halthore, R. N.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, "Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in maritime environments," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501-523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Herman, J. R.

O. Torres, J. R. Herman, Z. Ahmad, and J. Gleason, "Derivation of aerosol properties from satellite measurements of backscattered ultraviolet radiation: theoretical basis," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17099-17110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

Hodge, F. E.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, "Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in maritime environments," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501-523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. B.

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, "An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series," Deep-Sea Res. , Part II 51, 5-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C.

C. Hu, K. L. Carder, and F. E. Muller-Karger, "How precise are SeaWiFS ocean color estimates? Implications of digitization-noise errors," Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 239-249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kahru, M.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y. J.

R. R. Li, Y. J. Kaufman, B. C. Gao, and C. O. Davis, "Remote sensing of suspended sediments and shallow coastal waters," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 559-566 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, "Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in maritime environments," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501-523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kneizys, F. X.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, and S. A. Clough, Users Guide to LOWTRAN-7 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, AFGL-TR-88-0177, 1988).

Knobelspiesse, K. D.

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, "Study of the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06, doi: 10.1029/ 2004JD004950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, "Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers," Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kou, L.

Labrie, D.

Lavender, S. J.

S. J. Lavender, M. H. Pinkerton, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and D. Blondeau-Patissier, "Modification to the atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS ocean color images over turbid waters," Cont. Shelf Res. 25, 539-555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z. P.

Letelier, R.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, R. R.

R. R. Li, Y. J. Kaufman, B. C. Gao, and C. O. Davis, "Remote sensing of suspended sediments and shallow coastal waters," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 559-566 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

Martinolich, P.

R. A. Arnone, P. Martinolich, R. W. Gould, M. Sydor, and R. P. Stumpf, "Coastal optical properties using SeaWiFS," in Ocean Optics XIV (Office of Naval Research, 1998).

Martinolich, P. M.

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, and P. M. Martinolich, "Spectral dependence of the scattering coefficient in Case-1 and Case-2 waters," Appl. Opt. 38, 2377-2383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, and V. Ransibrahmanakul, A Partially Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Retrieval of Water-Leaving Radiance from SeaWiFS in Coastal Waters, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, S.B. Hooker and E.R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2003), Vol. 22.

Mattoo, S.

R. S. Fraser, S. Mattoo, E. N. Yeh, and C. R. McClain, "Algorithm for atmospheric and glint corrections of satellite measurements of ocean pigment," J. of Geophys. Res. 102, 17107-17118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maymon, P. W.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, "MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145-152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, "Study of the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06, doi: 10.1029/ 2004JD004950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, "An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series," Deep-Sea Res. , Part II 51, 5-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Calibration of SeaWiFS. II: Vicarious techniques," Appl. Opt. 40, 6701-6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Fraser, S. Mattoo, E. N. Yeh, and C. R. McClain, "Algorithm for atmospheric and glint corrections of satellite measurements of ocean pigment," J. of Geophys. Res. 102, 17107-17118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, S. Bailey, and C. R. McClain, "SeaWiFS provides unique global aerosol optical property data," Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81, 197 and 202 (2000).

Melin, F.

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, and J.-F. Berthon, "Comparison of SeaWiFS, MODIS, and MERIS radiometric products at a coastal site," Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L06617, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, M. A.

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, "Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers," Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Minnet, P. J.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Montes, M. J.

Montgomery, H. E.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, "MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145-152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Moore, G. F.

S. J. Lavender, M. H. Pinkerton, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and D. Blondeau-Patissier, "Modification to the atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS ocean color images over turbid waters," Cont. Shelf Res. 25, 539-555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moore, K. D.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, "Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493-6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, "Absorption by dissolved organic matter in the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains," Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 43-53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Muller-Karger, F. E.

C. Hu, K. L. Carder, and F. E. Muller-Karger, "How precise are SeaWiFS ocean color estimates? Implications of digitization-noise errors," Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 239-249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O'Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ostrow, H.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, "MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145-152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ovidio, F.

Perry, M. J.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, "Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510-1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, A.

Pietras, C.

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, "Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers," Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, "Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in maritime environments," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501-523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pinkerton, M. H.

S. J. Lavender, M. H. Pinkerton, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and D. Blondeau-Patissier, "Modification to the atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS ocean color images over turbid waters," Cont. Shelf Res. 25, 539-555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Prieur, L.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, "Absorption by dissolved organic matter in the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains," Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 43-53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. R.

Ransibrahmanakul, V.

R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, and V. Ransibrahmanakul, A Partially Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Retrieval of Water-Leaving Radiance from SeaWiFS in Coastal Waters, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, S.B. Hooker and E.R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2003), Vol. 22.

Rijkeboer, M.

Robinson, W.

Robinson, W. D.

Roesler, C. S.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, "Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510-1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ruddick, K. G.

Salomonson, V. V.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, "MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145-152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schwindling, M.

M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, "Verification of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24919-24935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Deschamps, "Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361-14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Selby, J. E. A.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, and S. A. Clough, Users Guide to LOWTRAN-7 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, AFGL-TR-88-0177, 1988).

Shettle, E. P.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, and S. A. Clough, Users Guide to LOWTRAN-7 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, AFGL-TR-88-0177, 1988).

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, Models for the Aerosols of the Lower Atmosphere and the Effects of Humidity Variations on Their Optical Properties U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL-TR-79-0214, 1979).

Shi, W.

M. Wang and W. Shi, "Cloud masking for ocean color data processing in the coastal regions," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 3196-3205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and W. Shi, "Estimation of ocean contribution at the MODIS near-infrared wavelengths along the east coast of the U.S.: two case studies," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L13606, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

Slutsker, I.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, "Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in maritime environments," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501-523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, "Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in maritime environments," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501-523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stumpf, R. P.

R. A. Arnone, P. Martinolich, R. W. Gould, M. Sydor, and R. P. Stumpf, "Coastal optical properties using SeaWiFS," in Ocean Optics XIV (Office of Naval Research, 1998).

R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, and V. Ransibrahmanakul, A Partially Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Retrieval of Water-Leaving Radiance from SeaWiFS in Coastal Waters, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, S.B. Hooker and E.R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2003), Vol. 22.

Subramaniam, A.

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, "Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers," Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, J. M.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, "Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter," Mar. Chem. 89, 69-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sydor, M.

R. A. Arnone, P. Martinolich, R. W. Gould, M. Sydor, and R. P. Stumpf, "Coastal optical properties using SeaWiFS," in Ocean Optics XIV (Office of Naval Research, 1998).

Tanre, D.

Torres, O.

O. Torres, J. R. Herman, Z. Ahmad, and J. Gleason, "Derivation of aerosol properties from satellite measurements of backscattered ultraviolet radiation: theoretical basis," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17099-17110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Twardowski, M. S.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, "Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter," Mar. Chem. 89, 69-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, "Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493-6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

M. Wang and W. Shi, "Cloud masking for ocean color data processing in the coastal regions," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 3196-3205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and W. Shi, "Estimation of ocean contribution at the MODIS near-infrared wavelengths along the east coast of the U.S.: two case studies," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L13606, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, "A refinement for the Rayleigh radiance computation with variation of the atmospheric pressure," Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 5651-5663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, "Study of the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06, doi: 10.1029/ 2004JD004950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, "Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers," Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, "Extrapolation of the aerosol reflectance from the near-infrared to the visible: the single-scattering epsilon vs multiple-scattering epsilon method," Int. J. Remote Sens. 25, 3637-3650 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Chou, P. K. Chan, and M. Wang, "Aerosol radiative forcing derived from SeaWiFS-retrieved aerosol optical properties," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 748-757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, "Calibration of ocean color scanners: how much error is acceptable in the near-infrared?" Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 497-504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, "The Rayleigh lookup tables for the SeaWiFS data processing: accounting for the effects of ocean surface roughness," Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 2693-2702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and S. Bailey, "Correction of the sun glint contamination on the SeaWiFS ocean and atmosphere products," Appl. Opt. 40, 4790-4798 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Calibration of SeaWiFS. II: Vicarious techniques," Appl. Opt. 40, 6701-6718 (2001).
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D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, and W. Robinson, "Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption," Appl. Opt. 39, 3582-3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, "Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensor," Appl. Opt. 33, 7754-7763 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, "Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: A preliminary algorithm," Appl. Opt. 33, 443-452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, "A simple, moderately accurate, atmospheric correction algorithm for SeaWiFS," Remote Sens. Environ. 50, 231-239 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, "Surface roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. 1: The Rayleigh scattering component," Appl. Opt. 31, 4247-4260 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wang, "Aerosol polarization effects on atmospheric correction and aerosol retrievals in ocean color remote sensing," Appl. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

M. Wang, S. Bailey, and C. R. McClain, "SeaWiFS provides unique global aerosol optical property data," Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81, 197 and 202 (2000).

Werdell, P. J.

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, "A multisensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products," Remote Sens. Environ. 102, 12-23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Calibration of SeaWiFS. II: Vicarious techniques," Appl. Opt. 40, 6701-6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

Yeh, E. N.

R. S. Fraser, S. Mattoo, E. N. Yeh, and C. R. McClain, "Algorithm for atmospheric and glint corrections of satellite measurements of ocean pigment," J. of Geophys. Res. 102, 17107-17118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zibordi, G.

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, and J.-F. Berthon, "Comparison of SeaWiFS, MODIS, and MERIS radiometric products at a coastal site," Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L06617, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, and R. H. Evans, "Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner," Appl. Opt. 27, 862-871 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, "Surface roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. 1: The Rayleigh scattering component," Appl. Opt. 31, 4247-4260 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, "Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: A preliminary algorithm," Appl. Opt. 33, 443-452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y. Deschamps, M. Herman, and D. Tanre, "Modeling of the atmospheric effects and its application to the remote sensing of ocean color," Appl. Opt. 22, 3751-3758 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yang and H. R. Gordon, "Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance," Appl. Opt. 36, 7887-7897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and S. Bailey, "Correction of the sun glint contamination on the SeaWiFS ocean and atmosphere products," Appl. Opt. 40, 4790-4798 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, "Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensor," Appl. Opt. 33, 7754-7763 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, and W. Robinson, "Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption," Appl. Opt. 39, 3582-3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Ruddick, F. Ovidio, and M. Rijkeboer, "Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery for turbid coastal and inland waters," Appl. Opt. 39, 897-912 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, and P. M. Martinolich, "Spectral dependence of the scattering coefficient in Case-1 and Case-2 waters," Appl. Opt. 38, 2377-2383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Hale and M. R. Querry, "Optical constants of water in the 200 nm to 200 μm wavelength region," Appl. Opt. 12, 555-563 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Kou, D. Labrie, and P. Chylek, "Refractive indices of water and ice in the 0.65-2.5 μm spectral range," Appl. Opt. 32, 3531-3540 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Gao, M. J. Montes, Z. Ahmad, and C. O. Davis, "Atmospheric correction algorithm for hyperspectral remote sensing of ocean color from space," Appl. Opt. 39, 887-896 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, "Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiple quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters," Appl. Opt. 41, 5755-5772 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. Peterson, "Optimization of a semi-analytical ocean color model for global scale applications," Appl. Opt. 41, 2705-2714 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wang, "Aerosol polarization effects on atmospheric correction and aerosol retrievals in ocean color remote sensing," Appl. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

J. R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Calibration of SeaWiFS. II: Vicarious techniques," Appl. Opt. 40, 6701-6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cont. Shelf Res.

S. J. Lavender, M. H. Pinkerton, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and D. Blondeau-Patissier, "Modification to the atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS ocean color images over turbid waters," Cont. Shelf Res. 25, 539-555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Res.

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, "An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series," Deep-Sea Res. , Part II 51, 5-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

M. Wang and W. Shi, "Estimation of ocean contribution at the MODIS near-infrared wavelengths along the east coast of the U.S.: two case studies," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L13606, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, and J.-F. Berthon, "Comparison of SeaWiFS, MODIS, and MERIS radiometric products at a coastal site," Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L06617, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.

R. R. Li, Y. J. Kaufman, B. C. Gao, and C. O. Davis, "Remote sensing of suspended sediments and shallow coastal waters," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 559-566 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and W. Shi, "Cloud masking for ocean color data processing in the coastal regions," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 3196-3205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, "An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1250-1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, "MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145-152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens.

M. Wang, "The Rayleigh lookup tables for the SeaWiFS data processing: accounting for the effects of ocean surface roughness," Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 2693-2702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, "A refinement for the Rayleigh radiance computation with variation of the atmospheric pressure," Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 5651-5663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, "Extrapolation of the aerosol reflectance from the near-infrared to the visible: the single-scattering epsilon vs multiple-scattering epsilon method," Int. J. Remote Sens. 25, 3637-3650 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, "Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in maritime environments," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501-523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Chou, P. K. Chan, and M. Wang, "Aerosol radiative forcing derived from SeaWiFS-retrieved aerosol optical properties," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 748-757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

R. H. Evans and H. R. Gordon, "CZCS system calibration: A retrospective examination," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293-7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, "Verification of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24919-24935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, "Study of the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06, doi: 10.1029/ 2004JD004950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Torres, J. R. Herman, Z. Ahmad, and J. Gleason, "Derivation of aerosol properties from satellite measurements of backscattered ultraviolet radiation: theoretical basis," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17099-17110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, "Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081-17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, "Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493-6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Deschamps, "Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361-14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. of Geophys. Res.

R. S. Fraser, S. Mattoo, E. N. Yeh, and C. R. McClain, "Algorithm for atmospheric and glint corrections of satellite measurements of ocean pigment," J. of Geophys. Res. 102, 17107-17118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, "Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510-1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, "Absorption by dissolved organic matter in the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains," Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 43-53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Chem.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, "Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter," Mar. Chem. 89, 69-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ.

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, "A multisensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products," Remote Sens. Environ. 102, 12-23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Knobelspiesse, C. Pietras, G. S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M. A. Miller, A. Subramaniam, and W. M. Balch, "Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers," Remote Sens. Environ. 93, 87-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, "A simple, moderately accurate, atmospheric correction algorithm for SeaWiFS," Remote Sens. Environ. 50, 231-239 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, "In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors," Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 265-278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, "Calibration of ocean color scanners: how much error is acceptable in the near-infrared?" Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 497-504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, K. L. Carder, and F. E. Muller-Karger, "How precise are SeaWiFS ocean color estimates? Implications of digitization-noise errors," Remote Sens. Environ. 76, 239-249 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Wang, S. Bailey, and C. R. McClain, "SeaWiFS provides unique global aerosol optical property data," Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 81, 197 and 202 (2000).

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, Models for the Aerosols of the Lower Atmosphere and the Effects of Humidity Variations on Their Optical Properties U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL-TR-79-0214, 1979).

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, and S. A. Clough, Users Guide to LOWTRAN-7 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, AFGL-TR-88-0177, 1988).

NOAA, NASA, and USAF, U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1976 (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976), p. 227.

R. A. Arnone, P. Martinolich, R. W. Gould, M. Sydor, and R. P. Stumpf, "Coastal optical properties using SeaWiFS," in Ocean Optics XIV (Office of Naval Research, 1998).

R. P. Stumpf, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, P. M. Martinolich, and V. Ransibrahmanakul, A Partially Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Retrieval of Water-Leaving Radiance from SeaWiFS in Coastal Waters, NASA Tech. Memo. 2003-206892, S.B. Hooker and E.R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2003), Vol. 22.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Atmosphere transmittance as a function of the wavelength derived from LOWTRAN-7 using the 1976 U.S. standard atmosphere model.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Single-scattering epsilon ε ( λ , λ 0 ) as a function of the wavelength for the 12 aerosol models and for the reference wavelength at (a) 865   nm , (b) 1240   nm , (c) 1640   nm , and (d) 2130   nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated (a) TOA reflectance ρ t ( λ ) and (b) ratio of the TOA aerosol reflectance to the total reflectance ρ A ( λ ) / ρ t ( λ ) as a function of the wavelength from 340 to 2130   nm for the case of the black ocean and for aerosol models of the M80 and the T80 with aerosol optical thicknesses at 865   nm of 0.1 and 0.2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Error in the derived water-leaving reflectance [ t ρ w ( λ ) ] at wavelengths 340, 412, 443, 490, and 555   nm as a function of the solar-zenith angle for the M80 aerosol model with τ a ( 865 ) of 0.1 and for the algorithm performed using band combinations of (a) 765 and 865   nm , (b) 1000 and 1240   nm , (c) 1240 and 1640 nm, and (d) 1240 and 2130   nm . This is for the case of sensor-zenith angle of 45° and relative-azimuth angle of 90°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same as in Fig. 4 except that data are for the T80 aerosol model.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Error in the derived NIR water-leaving reflectance as a function of the solar-zenith angle for algorithm performed using the SWIR band combinations of 1000 and 1240   nm , 1240 and 1640   nm , 1240 and 2130   nm , and 1640 and 2130   nm and for Δ [ t ρ w ( λ ) ] derived at NIR wavelength with the aerosol model of (a) and (b) 765 and 865   nm with the M80 model and (c) and (d) 765 and 865   nm with the T80 model.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Histogram as a function of the ratio value (derived over true value) in the aerosol parameter with the algorithm performed using the band combinations of 765 and 865   nm , 1000 and 1240   nm , 1240 and 1640   nm , and 1240 and 2130   nm for (a) and (b) ratio in the aerosol optical thickness τ a ( 865 ) with the M80 and T80 model, respectively, and (c) and (d) ratio in the Ångström exponent α(510, 865) with the M80 and T80 models, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Error in the derived water-leaving reflectance [ t ρ w ( λ ) ] at wavelength 443   nm as a function of NEΔρ for the algorithm performed using band combinations of 765 and 865   nm , 1000 and 1240   nm , 1240 and 1640   nm , and 1240 and 2130   nm and for cases of (a) and (b) that the shorter band NE Δ ρ < 0 and the longer band NE Δ ρ > 0 with the M80 and T80 models, respectively, and (c) and (d) that the shorter band NE Δ ρ > 0 and the longer band NE Δ ρ < 0 with the M80 and T80 models, respectively.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Algorithm Performance Comparisons Using the NIR and the Various Combinations of SWIR Bands

Tables Icon

Table 2 Required NEΔρ and Corresponding SNR Values for the NIR and SWIR Bands a

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ t ( λ ) = ρ r ( λ ) + ρ A ( λ ) + t ( λ ) ρ w ( λ ) ,
ε ( λ , λ 0 ) = ρ a s ( λ ) ρ a s ( λ 0 ) ω a ( λ ) c ext ( λ ) p a ( θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ , λ ) ω a ( λ 0 ) c ext ( λ 0 ) p a ( θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ , λ 0 ) ,
ρ A ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ , τ a ) = i = 0 4 a i ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ ) × [ ρ a s ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ , τ a ) ] i ,
ρ a s ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ , τ a ) = i = 0 4 b i ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ ) × [ ρ A ( λ j , θ 0 , θ , Δ ϕ , τ a ) ] i ,

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