Abstract

Thin solid films of salmon deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) have been fabricated by treatment with a surfactant and used as host for the laser dye sulforhodamine (SRh). The DNA films have an absorption peak at 260nm owing to absorption by the nitrogenous aromatic bases. The SRh molecules in the DNA films have absorption and emission peaks at 578 and 602nm, respectively. The maximum emission was obtained at 1wt.  % SRh in DNA, equivalent to 100 DNA base pairs per SRh molecule. A distributed feedback grating structure was fabricated on a SiO2Si substrate using interference lithography. The grating period of 437nm was selected, corresponding to second-order emission at the amplified spontaneous emission wavelength of 650nm. Lasing was obtained by pumping with a doubled Nd:YAG laser at 532nm. The lasing threshold was 3μJ, corresponding to 30μJ/cm2 or 4kW/cm2. The emission linewidth decreased from 30nm in the amplified spontaneous emission mode to <0.4nm (instrument limited) in the lasing mode. The slope efficiency of the lasing was 1.2%.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007 (1)

J. A. Hagen, W. X. Li, H. Spaeth J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, "Molecular beam deposition of DNA nanometer films," Nano Lett . 7, 133-137 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. Hagen, W. Li, A. J. Steckl, and J. G. Grote, "Enhanced emission efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes using deoxyribonucleic acid complex as an electron blocking layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171109 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

M. A. Stroscio and M. Dutta, "Integrated biological-semiconductor devices," Proc. IEEE 93, 1772-1783 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. G. Grote, E. M. Heckman, D. Diggs, J. A. Hagen, P. Yaney, A. J. Steckl, G. S. He, Q. Zheng, P. N. Prasad, J. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, "DNA-based materials for electro-optic applications," in Proc. SPIE 5934, 593406-01 (2005).

E. Heckman, J. Hagen, P. Yaney, J. Grote, and F. K. Hopkins, "Processing techniques for deoxyribonucleic acid: biopolymer for photonics applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211115 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

K. D. Dorkenoo, O. Cregut, and A. Fort, "Organic plastic laser in holographic materials by photopolymerization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2733-2735 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

N. Tsutsumi, T. Kawahira, and W. Sakai, "Amplified spontaneous emission and distributed feedback lasing from a conjugated compound in various polymer matrices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2533-2535 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Metcalfe and J. A. Thomas, "Kinetically inert transition metal complexes that reversibly bind to DNA," Chem. Soc. Rev. 32, 215-224 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Junicke, J. R. Hart, J. Kisko, O. Glebov, I. R. Kirsch, and J. K. Barton, "A rhodium(III) complex for high-affinity DNA base-pair mismatch recognition," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 3737-3742 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

Y. Kawabe, L. Wang, T. Nakamura, and N. Ogata, "Thin-film lasers based on dye-deoxyribonucleic acid-lipid complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1372-1374 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y. Oki, T. Yoshiura, Y. Chisaki, and M. Maeda, "Fabrication of a distributed-feedback dye laser with a grating structure in its plastic waveguide," Appl. Optics 41, 5030-5035 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

G. Zhang, L. Wang, and N. Ogata, "Optical and optoelectronic materials derived from biopolymer deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)," in Proc. SPIE 4580, 337-346 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, J. Yoshida, and N. Ogata, "Self-assembled supramolecular films derived from marine deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-cationic surfactant complexes: large-scale preparation and optical and thermal properties," Chem. Mater. 13, 1273-1281 (2001).
[Crossref]

U. Scherf, S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, and R. F. Mahrt, "Conjugated polymers: lasing and stimulated emission," Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 5, 143-154 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

Y. Kawabe, L. Wang, S. Horinouchi, and N. Ogata, "Amplified spontaneous emission from fluorescent-dye-doped DNA-surfactant complex films," Adv. Mater. 12, 1281-1283 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

N. Tessler, "Lasers based on semiconducting organic materials," Adv. Mater. 11, 363-370 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

Y. Oki, K. Ohno, and M. Maeda, "Tunable untrashort pulse generation from a waveguided laser with premixed-dye-doped plastic film," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 37, 6403-6407 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, J. Barroso, and R. Sastre, "Laser performance of Coumarin 540A dye molecules in polymeric host media with different viscosities: from liquid solution to solid polymer matrix," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 650-659 (1998).
[Crossref]

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Partharathy, and S. R. Forrest, "Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

W. L. Sha, C.-H. Liu, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, "Competition between two lasing modes of sulforhodamine 640 in highly scattering media," Opt. Lett. 21, 1277-1279 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Tanaka and Y. Okahata, "A DNA-lipid complex in organic media and formation of an aligned cast film," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 10679-10683 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

N. M. Lawandi, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature 368, 436-438 (1994).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

1971 (1)

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Stimulated emission in a periodic structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152-154 (1971).
[Crossref]

Alfano, R. R.

Balachandran, R. M.

N. M. Lawandi, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature 368, 436-438 (1994).
[Crossref]

Baldo, M.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Partharathy, and S. R. Forrest, "Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[Crossref]

Barroso, J.

A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, J. Barroso, and R. Sastre, "Laser performance of Coumarin 540A dye molecules in polymeric host media with different viscosities: from liquid solution to solid polymer matrix," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 650-659 (1998).
[Crossref]

Barton, J. K.

H. Junicke, J. R. Hart, J. Kisko, O. Glebov, I. R. Kirsch, and J. K. Barton, "A rhodium(III) complex for high-affinity DNA base-pair mismatch recognition," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 3737-3742 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bulovic, V.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Partharathy, and S. R. Forrest, "Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[Crossref]

Burrows, P. E.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Partharathy, and S. R. Forrest, "Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chisaki, Y.

Y. Oki, T. Yoshiura, Y. Chisaki, and M. Maeda, "Fabrication of a distributed-feedback dye laser with a grating structure in its plastic waveguide," Appl. Optics 41, 5030-5035 (2002).
[Crossref]

Costela, A.

A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, J. Barroso, and R. Sastre, "Laser performance of Coumarin 540A dye molecules in polymeric host media with different viscosities: from liquid solution to solid polymer matrix," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 650-659 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cregut, O.

K. D. Dorkenoo, O. Cregut, and A. Fort, "Organic plastic laser in holographic materials by photopolymerization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2733-2735 (2004).
[Crossref]

Diggs, D.

J. G. Grote, E. M. Heckman, D. Diggs, J. A. Hagen, P. Yaney, A. J. Steckl, G. S. He, Q. Zheng, P. N. Prasad, J. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, "DNA-based materials for electro-optic applications," in Proc. SPIE 5934, 593406-01 (2005).

Dorkenoo, K. D.

K. D. Dorkenoo, O. Cregut, and A. Fort, "Organic plastic laser in holographic materials by photopolymerization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2733-2735 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dunn, B.

Dutta, M.

M. A. Stroscio and M. Dutta, "Integrated biological-semiconductor devices," Proc. IEEE 93, 1772-1783 (2005).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S. R.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Partharathy, and S. R. Forrest, "Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fort, A.

K. D. Dorkenoo, O. Cregut, and A. Fort, "Organic plastic laser in holographic materials by photopolymerization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2733-2735 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fuqua, P. D.

Garcia-Moreno, I.

A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, J. Barroso, and R. Sastre, "Laser performance of Coumarin 540A dye molecules in polymeric host media with different viscosities: from liquid solution to solid polymer matrix," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 650-659 (1998).
[Crossref]

Glebov, O.

H. Junicke, J. R. Hart, J. Kisko, O. Glebov, I. R. Kirsch, and J. K. Barton, "A rhodium(III) complex for high-affinity DNA base-pair mismatch recognition," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 3737-3742 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gomes, A. S. L.

N. M. Lawandi, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature 368, 436-438 (1994).
[Crossref]

Grote, J.

E. Heckman, J. Hagen, P. Yaney, J. Grote, and F. K. Hopkins, "Processing techniques for deoxyribonucleic acid: biopolymer for photonics applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211115 (2005).
[Crossref]

Grote, J. G.

J. A. Hagen, W. X. Li, H. Spaeth J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, "Molecular beam deposition of DNA nanometer films," Nano Lett . 7, 133-137 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hagen, W. Li, A. J. Steckl, and J. G. Grote, "Enhanced emission efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes using deoxyribonucleic acid complex as an electron blocking layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171109 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. G. Grote, E. M. Heckman, D. Diggs, J. A. Hagen, P. Yaney, A. J. Steckl, G. S. He, Q. Zheng, P. N. Prasad, J. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, "DNA-based materials for electro-optic applications," in Proc. SPIE 5934, 593406-01 (2005).

Hagen, J.

J. Hagen, W. Li, A. J. Steckl, and J. G. Grote, "Enhanced emission efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes using deoxyribonucleic acid complex as an electron blocking layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171109 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Heckman, J. Hagen, P. Yaney, J. Grote, and F. K. Hopkins, "Processing techniques for deoxyribonucleic acid: biopolymer for photonics applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211115 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hagen, J. A.

J. A. Hagen, W. X. Li, H. Spaeth J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, "Molecular beam deposition of DNA nanometer films," Nano Lett . 7, 133-137 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Grote, E. M. Heckman, D. Diggs, J. A. Hagen, P. Yaney, A. J. Steckl, G. S. He, Q. Zheng, P. N. Prasad, J. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, "DNA-based materials for electro-optic applications," in Proc. SPIE 5934, 593406-01 (2005).

Hart, J. R.

H. Junicke, J. R. Hart, J. Kisko, O. Glebov, I. R. Kirsch, and J. K. Barton, "A rhodium(III) complex for high-affinity DNA base-pair mismatch recognition," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 3737-3742 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, G. S.

J. G. Grote, E. M. Heckman, D. Diggs, J. A. Hagen, P. Yaney, A. J. Steckl, G. S. He, Q. Zheng, P. N. Prasad, J. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, "DNA-based materials for electro-optic applications," in Proc. SPIE 5934, 593406-01 (2005).

Heckman, E.

E. Heckman, J. Hagen, P. Yaney, J. Grote, and F. K. Hopkins, "Processing techniques for deoxyribonucleic acid: biopolymer for photonics applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211115 (2005).
[Crossref]

Heckman, E. M.

J. G. Grote, E. M. Heckman, D. Diggs, J. A. Hagen, P. Yaney, A. J. Steckl, G. S. He, Q. Zheng, P. N. Prasad, J. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, "DNA-based materials for electro-optic applications," in Proc. SPIE 5934, 593406-01 (2005).

Hopkins, F. K.

J. G. Grote, E. M. Heckman, D. Diggs, J. A. Hagen, P. Yaney, A. J. Steckl, G. S. He, Q. Zheng, P. N. Prasad, J. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, "DNA-based materials for electro-optic applications," in Proc. SPIE 5934, 593406-01 (2005).

E. Heckman, J. Hagen, P. Yaney, J. Grote, and F. K. Hopkins, "Processing techniques for deoxyribonucleic acid: biopolymer for photonics applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211115 (2005).
[Crossref]

Horinouchi, S.

Y. Kawabe, L. Wang, S. Horinouchi, and N. Ogata, "Amplified spontaneous emission from fluorescent-dye-doped DNA-surfactant complex films," Adv. Mater. 12, 1281-1283 (2000).
[Crossref]

Junicke, H.

H. Junicke, J. R. Hart, J. Kisko, O. Glebov, I. R. Kirsch, and J. K. Barton, "A rhodium(III) complex for high-affinity DNA base-pair mismatch recognition," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 3737-3742 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawabe, Y.

Y. Kawabe, L. Wang, T. Nakamura, and N. Ogata, "Thin-film lasers based on dye-deoxyribonucleic acid-lipid complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1372-1374 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y. Kawabe, L. Wang, S. Horinouchi, and N. Ogata, "Amplified spontaneous emission from fluorescent-dye-doped DNA-surfactant complex films," Adv. Mater. 12, 1281-1283 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kawahira, T.

N. Tsutsumi, T. Kawahira, and W. Sakai, "Amplified spontaneous emission and distributed feedback lasing from a conjugated compound in various polymer matrices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2533-2535 (2003).
[Crossref]

Khalfin, V. B.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Partharathy, and S. R. Forrest, "Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[Crossref]

King, T. A.

Kirsch, I. R.

H. Junicke, J. R. Hart, J. Kisko, O. Glebov, I. R. Kirsch, and J. K. Barton, "A rhodium(III) complex for high-affinity DNA base-pair mismatch recognition," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 3737-3742 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kisko, J.

H. Junicke, J. R. Hart, J. Kisko, O. Glebov, I. R. Kirsch, and J. K. Barton, "A rhodium(III) complex for high-affinity DNA base-pair mismatch recognition," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 3737-3742 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knobbe, E. T.

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Stimulated emission in a periodic structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152-154 (1971).
[Crossref]

Kozlov, V. G.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Partharathy, and S. R. Forrest, "Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lawandi, N. M.

N. M. Lawandi, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature 368, 436-438 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lemmer, U.

U. Scherf, S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, and R. F. Mahrt, "Conjugated polymers: lasing and stimulated emission," Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 5, 143-154 (2001).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

J. Hagen, W. Li, A. J. Steckl, and J. G. Grote, "Enhanced emission efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes using deoxyribonucleic acid complex as an electron blocking layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, W. X.

J. A. Hagen, W. X. Li, H. Spaeth J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, "Molecular beam deposition of DNA nanometer films," Nano Lett . 7, 133-137 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, C.-H.

Liu, F.

Maeda, M.

Y. Oki, T. Yoshiura, Y. Chisaki, and M. Maeda, "Fabrication of a distributed-feedback dye laser with a grating structure in its plastic waveguide," Appl. Optics 41, 5030-5035 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y. Oki, K. Ohno, and M. Maeda, "Tunable untrashort pulse generation from a waveguided laser with premixed-dye-doped plastic film," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 37, 6403-6407 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mahrt, R. F.

U. Scherf, S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, and R. F. Mahrt, "Conjugated polymers: lasing and stimulated emission," Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 5, 143-154 (2001).
[Crossref]

Metcalfe, C.

C. Metcalfe and J. A. Thomas, "Kinetically inert transition metal complexes that reversibly bind to DNA," Chem. Soc. Rev. 32, 215-224 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakamura, T.

Y. Kawabe, L. Wang, T. Nakamura, and N. Ogata, "Thin-film lasers based on dye-deoxyribonucleic acid-lipid complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1372-1374 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nishida, F.

Norden, B.

A. Rodger and B. Norden, Circular Dichroism and Linear Dichroism (Oxford U. Press, 1997).

Ogata, N.

Y. Kawabe, L. Wang, T. Nakamura, and N. Ogata, "Thin-film lasers based on dye-deoxyribonucleic acid-lipid complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1372-1374 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, J. Yoshida, and N. Ogata, "Self-assembled supramolecular films derived from marine deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-cationic surfactant complexes: large-scale preparation and optical and thermal properties," Chem. Mater. 13, 1273-1281 (2001).
[Crossref]

G. Zhang, L. Wang, and N. Ogata, "Optical and optoelectronic materials derived from biopolymer deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)," in Proc. SPIE 4580, 337-346 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. Kawabe, L. Wang, S. Horinouchi, and N. Ogata, "Amplified spontaneous emission from fluorescent-dye-doped DNA-surfactant complex films," Adv. Mater. 12, 1281-1283 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ohno, K.

Y. Oki, K. Ohno, and M. Maeda, "Tunable untrashort pulse generation from a waveguided laser with premixed-dye-doped plastic film," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 37, 6403-6407 (1998).
[Crossref]

Okahata, Y.

K. Tanaka and Y. Okahata, "A DNA-lipid complex in organic media and formation of an aligned cast film," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 10679-10683 (1996).
[Crossref]

Oki, Y.

Y. Oki, T. Yoshiura, Y. Chisaki, and M. Maeda, "Fabrication of a distributed-feedback dye laser with a grating structure in its plastic waveguide," Appl. Optics 41, 5030-5035 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y. Oki, K. Ohno, and M. Maeda, "Tunable untrashort pulse generation from a waveguided laser with premixed-dye-doped plastic film," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 37, 6403-6407 (1998).
[Crossref]

Partharathy, G.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Partharathy, and S. R. Forrest, "Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[Crossref]

Prasad, P. N.

J. G. Grote, E. M. Heckman, D. Diggs, J. A. Hagen, P. Yaney, A. J. Steckl, G. S. He, Q. Zheng, P. N. Prasad, J. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, "DNA-based materials for electro-optic applications," in Proc. SPIE 5934, 593406-01 (2005).

Rahn, M. D.

Riechel, S.

U. Scherf, S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, and R. F. Mahrt, "Conjugated polymers: lasing and stimulated emission," Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 5, 143-154 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rodger, A.

A. Rodger and B. Norden, Circular Dichroism and Linear Dichroism (Oxford U. Press, 1997).

Sakai, W.

N. Tsutsumi, T. Kawahira, and W. Sakai, "Amplified spontaneous emission and distributed feedback lasing from a conjugated compound in various polymer matrices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2533-2535 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sastre, R.

A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, J. Barroso, and R. Sastre, "Laser performance of Coumarin 540A dye molecules in polymeric host media with different viscosities: from liquid solution to solid polymer matrix," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 650-659 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sauvain, E.

N. M. Lawandi, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature 368, 436-438 (1994).
[Crossref]

Scherf, U.

U. Scherf, S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, and R. F. Mahrt, "Conjugated polymers: lasing and stimulated emission," Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 5, 143-154 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sha, W. L.

Shank, C. V.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Stimulated emission in a periodic structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152-154 (1971).
[Crossref]

Spaeth, H.

J. A. Hagen, W. X. Li, H. Spaeth J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, "Molecular beam deposition of DNA nanometer films," Nano Lett . 7, 133-137 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steckl, A. J.

J. A. Hagen, W. X. Li, H. Spaeth J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, "Molecular beam deposition of DNA nanometer films," Nano Lett . 7, 133-137 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hagen, W. Li, A. J. Steckl, and J. G. Grote, "Enhanced emission efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes using deoxyribonucleic acid complex as an electron blocking layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171109 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. G. Grote, E. M. Heckman, D. Diggs, J. A. Hagen, P. Yaney, A. J. Steckl, G. S. He, Q. Zheng, P. N. Prasad, J. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, "DNA-based materials for electro-optic applications," in Proc. SPIE 5934, 593406-01 (2005).

A. J. Steckl, "DNA--a new material for photonics," Nature Photon. 1, 3-5 (2007).

Stroscio, M. A.

M. A. Stroscio and M. Dutta, "Integrated biological-semiconductor devices," Proc. IEEE 93, 1772-1783 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka and Y. Okahata, "A DNA-lipid complex in organic media and formation of an aligned cast film," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 10679-10683 (1996).
[Crossref]

Tessler, N.

N. Tessler, "Lasers based on semiconducting organic materials," Adv. Mater. 11, 363-370 (1999).
[Crossref]

Thomas, J. A.

C. Metcalfe and J. A. Thomas, "Kinetically inert transition metal complexes that reversibly bind to DNA," Chem. Soc. Rev. 32, 215-224 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsutsumi, N.

N. Tsutsumi, T. Kawahira, and W. Sakai, "Amplified spontaneous emission and distributed feedback lasing from a conjugated compound in various polymer matrices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2533-2535 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Y. Kawabe, L. Wang, T. Nakamura, and N. Ogata, "Thin-film lasers based on dye-deoxyribonucleic acid-lipid complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1372-1374 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, J. Yoshida, and N. Ogata, "Self-assembled supramolecular films derived from marine deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-cationic surfactant complexes: large-scale preparation and optical and thermal properties," Chem. Mater. 13, 1273-1281 (2001).
[Crossref]

G. Zhang, L. Wang, and N. Ogata, "Optical and optoelectronic materials derived from biopolymer deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)," in Proc. SPIE 4580, 337-346 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. Kawabe, L. Wang, S. Horinouchi, and N. Ogata, "Amplified spontaneous emission from fluorescent-dye-doped DNA-surfactant complex films," Adv. Mater. 12, 1281-1283 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yaney, P.

E. Heckman, J. Hagen, P. Yaney, J. Grote, and F. K. Hopkins, "Processing techniques for deoxyribonucleic acid: biopolymer for photonics applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211115 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. G. Grote, E. M. Heckman, D. Diggs, J. A. Hagen, P. Yaney, A. J. Steckl, G. S. He, Q. Zheng, P. N. Prasad, J. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, "DNA-based materials for electro-optic applications," in Proc. SPIE 5934, 593406-01 (2005).

Yoshida, J.

L. Wang, J. Yoshida, and N. Ogata, "Self-assembled supramolecular films derived from marine deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-cationic surfactant complexes: large-scale preparation and optical and thermal properties," Chem. Mater. 13, 1273-1281 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yoshiura, T.

Y. Oki, T. Yoshiura, Y. Chisaki, and M. Maeda, "Fabrication of a distributed-feedback dye laser with a grating structure in its plastic waveguide," Appl. Optics 41, 5030-5035 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zetts, J.

J. G. Grote, E. M. Heckman, D. Diggs, J. A. Hagen, P. Yaney, A. J. Steckl, G. S. He, Q. Zheng, P. N. Prasad, J. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, "DNA-based materials for electro-optic applications," in Proc. SPIE 5934, 593406-01 (2005).

Zhang, G.

G. Zhang, L. Wang, and N. Ogata, "Optical and optoelectronic materials derived from biopolymer deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)," in Proc. SPIE 4580, 337-346 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Q.

J. G. Grote, E. M. Heckman, D. Diggs, J. A. Hagen, P. Yaney, A. J. Steckl, G. S. He, Q. Zheng, P. N. Prasad, J. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, "DNA-based materials for electro-optic applications," in Proc. SPIE 5934, 593406-01 (2005).

Adv. Mater. (2)

N. Tessler, "Lasers based on semiconducting organic materials," Adv. Mater. 11, 363-370 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. Kawabe, L. Wang, S. Horinouchi, and N. Ogata, "Amplified spontaneous emission from fluorescent-dye-doped DNA-surfactant complex films," Adv. Mater. 12, 1281-1283 (2000).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Optics (1)

Y. Oki, T. Yoshiura, Y. Chisaki, and M. Maeda, "Fabrication of a distributed-feedback dye laser with a grating structure in its plastic waveguide," Appl. Optics 41, 5030-5035 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

K. D. Dorkenoo, O. Cregut, and A. Fort, "Organic plastic laser in holographic materials by photopolymerization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2733-2735 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Hagen, W. Li, A. J. Steckl, and J. G. Grote, "Enhanced emission efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes using deoxyribonucleic acid complex as an electron blocking layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171109 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Stimulated emission in a periodic structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152-154 (1971).
[Crossref]

N. Tsutsumi, T. Kawahira, and W. Sakai, "Amplified spontaneous emission and distributed feedback lasing from a conjugated compound in various polymer matrices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2533-2535 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Kawabe, L. Wang, T. Nakamura, and N. Ogata, "Thin-film lasers based on dye-deoxyribonucleic acid-lipid complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1372-1374 (2002).
[Crossref]

E. Heckman, J. Hagen, P. Yaney, J. Grote, and F. K. Hopkins, "Processing techniques for deoxyribonucleic acid: biopolymer for photonics applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211115 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

L. Wang, J. Yoshida, and N. Ogata, "Self-assembled supramolecular films derived from marine deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-cationic surfactant complexes: large-scale preparation and optical and thermal properties," Chem. Mater. 13, 1273-1281 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

C. Metcalfe and J. A. Thomas, "Kinetically inert transition metal complexes that reversibly bind to DNA," Chem. Soc. Rev. 32, 215-224 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (1)

U. Scherf, S. Riechel, U. Lemmer, and R. F. Mahrt, "Conjugated polymers: lasing and stimulated emission," Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 5, 143-154 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

K. Tanaka and Y. Okahata, "A DNA-lipid complex in organic media and formation of an aligned cast film," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 10679-10683 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Partharathy, and S. R. Forrest, "Study of lasing action based on Förster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, J. Barroso, and R. Sastre, "Laser performance of Coumarin 540A dye molecules in polymeric host media with different viscosities: from liquid solution to solid polymer matrix," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 650-659 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 (1)

Y. Oki, K. Ohno, and M. Maeda, "Tunable untrashort pulse generation from a waveguided laser with premixed-dye-doped plastic film," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 37, 6403-6407 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett (1)

J. A. Hagen, W. X. Li, H. Spaeth J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, "Molecular beam deposition of DNA nanometer films," Nano Lett . 7, 133-137 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

N. M. Lawandi, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature 368, 436-438 (1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

M. A. Stroscio and M. Dutta, "Integrated biological-semiconductor devices," Proc. IEEE 93, 1772-1783 (2005).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

H. Junicke, J. R. Hart, J. Kisko, O. Glebov, I. R. Kirsch, and J. K. Barton, "A rhodium(III) complex for high-affinity DNA base-pair mismatch recognition," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 3737-3742 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

G. Zhang, L. Wang, and N. Ogata, "Optical and optoelectronic materials derived from biopolymer deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)," in Proc. SPIE 4580, 337-346 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. G. Grote, E. M. Heckman, D. Diggs, J. A. Hagen, P. Yaney, A. J. Steckl, G. S. He, Q. Zheng, P. N. Prasad, J. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, "DNA-based materials for electro-optic applications," in Proc. SPIE 5934, 593406-01 (2005).

Other (2)

A. J. Steckl, "DNA--a new material for photonics," Nature Photon. 1, 3-5 (2007).

A. Rodger and B. Norden, Circular Dichroism and Linear Dichroism (Oxford U. Press, 1997).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) DNA and sulforhodamine structures with possible site for intercalation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

DFB laser grating. (a) Structure, (b) Lloyd mirror interference lithography.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Absorption spectra of undoped DNA and PMMA and sulforhodamine 640 (SRh) thin films and PL spectra for undoped DNA and PMMA and DNA:SRh.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Integrated SRh photoluminescence versus concentration in DNA and PMMA. (a) SRh concentration by weight, (b) SRh molecules per DNA base pairs and PMMA monomer units. Inset, optical emission photographs for DNA and PMMA films doped with 0.7 wt.   % SRh conc.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Circular dichroism intensity versus SRh concentration in DNA butanol solution. Inset, CD spectra for several DNA:SRh solutions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Amplified spontaneous and stimulated emission from DNA:SRh DFB structures.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Output energy and linewidth from DNA:SRh DFB structures and thin film as a function of pump energy.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Output energy and linewidth from PMMA:SRh DFB structure and thin film as a function of pump energy.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Input–output energy slope efficiency from DNA:SRh and PMMA:SRh DFB structures.

Equations (2)

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2 Λ = p λ B n e f f ,
Λ = λ H e C d 2 sin θ ,

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