Abstract

A chirped pulse amplification laser with zigzag slab Nd:glass amplifiers dedicated to x-ray laser research is described. The laser provides a 1.6 ps duration pulse with 7  J energy at a repetition rate of 0.1Hz. In the power amplifier system, laser light is amplified in a two-step manner: The first step is image-relayed multipass amplification up to 1  J with a 10mm×10mm beam. The second step is double-pass amplification up to >10  J with a 10mm×90mm beam. By using this laser system, the saturated amplification of the Ni-like Ag laser at a wavelength of 13.9nm has been successfully demonstrated.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, "Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748-2751 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system," Phys. Rev. A 66, 338151-338157 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, A. Sasaki, K. Nagashima, N. Hasegawa, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, M. Nishikino, and Y. Kato, "Analysis of gain generation of the TCE x-ray laser through temporal duration," in Proceedings of 9th International Conference on X-ray Lasers (IOP, 2005), Vol. 186, pp. 111-114.
  4. T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, N. Hasegawa, K. Nagashima, K. Sukegawa, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, S. Namba, M. Koike, A. Nagashima, and Y. Kato, "Development of a pumping laser system for x-ray laser research," Appl. Opt. 42, 2198-2205 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Nishikino, M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, M. Kishimoto, M. Kado, T. Kawachi, K. Sukegawa, Y. Ochi, N. Hasegawa, and Y. Kato, "Demonstration of a soft-x-ray laser at 13.9 nm with full spatial coherence," Phys. Rev. A 68, 0618021-0618024 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, K. Sukegawa, N. Hasegawa, T. Kawachi, M. Kado, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, H. Maruyama, A. Sawada, M. Ando, and Y. Kato, "Picosecond snapshot of the speckles from ferroelectric BaTiO3 by means of X-ray lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2576021-2576024 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, A. Sawada, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Maruyama, and M. Ando, "Picosecond view of microscopic-scale polarization clusters in paraelectric BaTiO3," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 0876011-0876014 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Ozaki, R. A. Ganeev, A. Ishizawa, T. Kanai, and H. Kuroda, "Highly directive 18.9 nm nickel-like molybdenum x-ray laser operating at 150 mJ pump energy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2539021-2539024 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Dunn, S. Moon, R. Smith, R. Keenan, J. Nilson, K. B. Fournier, J. Kuba, A. L. Osterheld, J. J. Rocca, B. Luther, Y. Wang, and M. Marconi, "Numerical studies of transient and capillary x-ray lasers and their applications," in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications V, E. E. Fill and S. Suckewer, eds., Proc. SPIE 5197, 221-228 (2003).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, H. Matsui, T. Eguchi, M. Yamanaka, Y. Kato, M. Nakatsuka, Y. Izawa, S. Nakai, T. Kanzaki, and H. Kan, "Design and performance of a diode-pumped Nd:silica-phosphate glass zig-zag slab laser amplifier for inertial fusion energy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6415-6425 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, A. Sawada, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Maruyama, and M. Ando, "Picosecond view of microscopic-scale polarization clusters in paraelectric BaTiO3," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 0876011-0876014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Dunn, S. Moon, R. Smith, R. Keenan, J. Nilson, K. B. Fournier, J. Kuba, A. L. Osterheld, J. J. Rocca, B. Luther, Y. Wang, and M. Marconi, "Numerical studies of transient and capillary x-ray lasers and their applications," in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications V, E. E. Fill and S. Suckewer, eds., Proc. SPIE 5197, 221-228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, N. Hasegawa, K. Nagashima, K. Sukegawa, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, S. Namba, M. Koike, A. Nagashima, and Y. Kato, "Development of a pumping laser system for x-ray laser research," Appl. Opt. 42, 2198-2205 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nishikino, M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, M. Kishimoto, M. Kado, T. Kawachi, K. Sukegawa, Y. Ochi, N. Hasegawa, and Y. Kato, "Demonstration of a soft-x-ray laser at 13.9 nm with full spatial coherence," Phys. Rev. A 68, 0618021-0618024 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, K. Sukegawa, N. Hasegawa, T. Kawachi, M. Kado, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, H. Maruyama, A. Sawada, M. Ando, and Y. Kato, "Picosecond snapshot of the speckles from ferroelectric BaTiO3 by means of X-ray lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2576021-2576024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system," Phys. Rev. A 66, 338151-338157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Ozaki, R. A. Ganeev, A. Ishizawa, T. Kanai, and H. Kuroda, "Highly directive 18.9 nm nickel-like molybdenum x-ray laser operating at 150 mJ pump energy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2539021-2539024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, H. Matsui, T. Eguchi, M. Yamanaka, Y. Kato, M. Nakatsuka, Y. Izawa, S. Nakai, T. Kanzaki, and H. Kan, "Design and performance of a diode-pumped Nd:silica-phosphate glass zig-zag slab laser amplifier for inertial fusion energy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6415-6425 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M. J. Shoup III, J. H. Kelly, and D. L. Smith, "Design and testing of a large-aperture, high-gain, Brewster's angle zigzag Nd:glass slab amplifier," Appl. Opt. 36, 5827-5838 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, "Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748-2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1966 (1)

J. P. Markiewics and J. L. Emmet, "Design of flashlamp driving circuits," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 707-711 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvik, "Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2346-2349 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Alessei, D.

Alessi, D.

Ando, M.

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, A. Sawada, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Maruyama, and M. Ando, "Picosecond view of microscopic-scale polarization clusters in paraelectric BaTiO3," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 0876011-0876014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, K. Sukegawa, N. Hasegawa, T. Kawachi, M. Kado, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, H. Maruyama, A. Sawada, M. Ando, and Y. Kato, "Picosecond snapshot of the speckles from ferroelectric BaTiO3 by means of X-ray lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2576021-2576024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berril, M.

Daido, H.

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, K. Sukegawa, N. Hasegawa, T. Kawachi, M. Kado, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, H. Maruyama, A. Sawada, M. Ando, and Y. Kato, "Picosecond snapshot of the speckles from ferroelectric BaTiO3 by means of X-ray lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2576021-2576024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system," Phys. Rev. A 66, 338151-338157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, J.

A. Weith, M. A. Larotonda, Y. Wang, B. Luther, D. Alessi, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, and J. Dunn, "Continuous high-repetition-rate operation of collisional soft-x-ray lasers with solid targets," Opt. Lett. 31, 1994-1996 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Dunn, S. Moon, R. Smith, R. Keenan, J. Nilson, K. B. Fournier, J. Kuba, A. L. Osterheld, J. J. Rocca, B. Luther, Y. Wang, and M. Marconi, "Numerical studies of transient and capillary x-ray lasers and their applications," in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications V, E. E. Fill and S. Suckewer, eds., Proc. SPIE 5197, 221-228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eguchi, T.

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, H. Matsui, T. Eguchi, M. Yamanaka, Y. Kato, M. Nakatsuka, Y. Izawa, S. Nakai, T. Kanzaki, and H. Kan, "Design and performance of a diode-pumped Nd:silica-phosphate glass zig-zag slab laser amplifier for inertial fusion energy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6415-6425 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Elton, R. C.

R. C. Elton, X-ray Lasers (Academic, 1990).

Emmet, J. L.

J. P. Markiewics and J. L. Emmet, "Design of flashlamp driving circuits," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 707-711 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, K. B.

V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Dunn, S. Moon, R. Smith, R. Keenan, J. Nilson, K. B. Fournier, J. Kuba, A. L. Osterheld, J. J. Rocca, B. Luther, Y. Wang, and M. Marconi, "Numerical studies of transient and capillary x-ray lasers and their applications," in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications V, E. E. Fill and S. Suckewer, eds., Proc. SPIE 5197, 221-228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frantz, L. M.

L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvik, "Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2346-2349 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Ganeev, R. A.

T. Ozaki, R. A. Ganeev, A. Ishizawa, T. Kanai, and H. Kuroda, "Highly directive 18.9 nm nickel-like molybdenum x-ray laser operating at 150 mJ pump energy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2539021-2539024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, N.

M. Nishikino, M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, M. Kishimoto, M. Kado, T. Kawachi, K. Sukegawa, Y. Ochi, N. Hasegawa, and Y. Kato, "Demonstration of a soft-x-ray laser at 13.9 nm with full spatial coherence," Phys. Rev. A 68, 0618021-0618024 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, N. Hasegawa, K. Nagashima, K. Sukegawa, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, S. Namba, M. Koike, A. Nagashima, and Y. Kato, "Development of a pumping laser system for x-ray laser research," Appl. Opt. 42, 2198-2205 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, K. Sukegawa, N. Hasegawa, T. Kawachi, M. Kado, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, H. Maruyama, A. Sawada, M. Ando, and Y. Kato, "Picosecond snapshot of the speckles from ferroelectric BaTiO3 by means of X-ray lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2576021-2576024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system," Phys. Rev. A 66, 338151-338157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, A. Sasaki, K. Nagashima, N. Hasegawa, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, M. Nishikino, and Y. Kato, "Analysis of gain generation of the TCE x-ray laser through temporal duration," in Proceedings of 9th International Conference on X-ray Lasers (IOP, 2005), Vol. 186, pp. 111-114.

Ishizawa, A.

T. Ozaki, R. A. Ganeev, A. Ishizawa, T. Kanai, and H. Kuroda, "Highly directive 18.9 nm nickel-like molybdenum x-ray laser operating at 150 mJ pump energy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2539021-2539024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Izawa, Y.

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, H. Matsui, T. Eguchi, M. Yamanaka, Y. Kato, M. Nakatsuka, Y. Izawa, S. Nakai, T. Kanzaki, and H. Kan, "Design and performance of a diode-pumped Nd:silica-phosphate glass zig-zag slab laser amplifier for inertial fusion energy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6415-6425 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kado, M.

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, N. Hasegawa, K. Nagashima, K. Sukegawa, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, S. Namba, M. Koike, A. Nagashima, and Y. Kato, "Development of a pumping laser system for x-ray laser research," Appl. Opt. 42, 2198-2205 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nishikino, M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, M. Kishimoto, M. Kado, T. Kawachi, K. Sukegawa, Y. Ochi, N. Hasegawa, and Y. Kato, "Demonstration of a soft-x-ray laser at 13.9 nm with full spatial coherence," Phys. Rev. A 68, 0618021-0618024 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, K. Sukegawa, N. Hasegawa, T. Kawachi, M. Kado, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, H. Maruyama, A. Sawada, M. Ando, and Y. Kato, "Picosecond snapshot of the speckles from ferroelectric BaTiO3 by means of X-ray lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2576021-2576024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system," Phys. Rev. A 66, 338151-338157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kalachnikov, M.

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, "Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748-2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kan, H.

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, H. Matsui, T. Eguchi, M. Yamanaka, Y. Kato, M. Nakatsuka, Y. Izawa, S. Nakai, T. Kanzaki, and H. Kan, "Design and performance of a diode-pumped Nd:silica-phosphate glass zig-zag slab laser amplifier for inertial fusion energy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6415-6425 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kanabe, T.

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, H. Matsui, T. Eguchi, M. Yamanaka, Y. Kato, M. Nakatsuka, Y. Izawa, S. Nakai, T. Kanzaki, and H. Kan, "Design and performance of a diode-pumped Nd:silica-phosphate glass zig-zag slab laser amplifier for inertial fusion energy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6415-6425 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kanai, T.

T. Ozaki, R. A. Ganeev, A. Ishizawa, T. Kanai, and H. Kuroda, "Highly directive 18.9 nm nickel-like molybdenum x-ray laser operating at 150 mJ pump energy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2539021-2539024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kane, A.

Kanzaki, T.

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, H. Matsui, T. Eguchi, M. Yamanaka, Y. Kato, M. Nakatsuka, Y. Izawa, S. Nakai, T. Kanzaki, and H. Kan, "Design and performance of a diode-pumped Nd:silica-phosphate glass zig-zag slab laser amplifier for inertial fusion energy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6415-6425 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kato, Y.

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, N. Hasegawa, K. Nagashima, K. Sukegawa, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, S. Namba, M. Koike, A. Nagashima, and Y. Kato, "Development of a pumping laser system for x-ray laser research," Appl. Opt. 42, 2198-2205 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nishikino, M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, M. Kishimoto, M. Kado, T. Kawachi, K. Sukegawa, Y. Ochi, N. Hasegawa, and Y. Kato, "Demonstration of a soft-x-ray laser at 13.9 nm with full spatial coherence," Phys. Rev. A 68, 0618021-0618024 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, K. Sukegawa, N. Hasegawa, T. Kawachi, M. Kado, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, H. Maruyama, A. Sawada, M. Ando, and Y. Kato, "Picosecond snapshot of the speckles from ferroelectric BaTiO3 by means of X-ray lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2576021-2576024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system," Phys. Rev. A 66, 338151-338157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, H. Matsui, T. Eguchi, M. Yamanaka, Y. Kato, M. Nakatsuka, Y. Izawa, S. Nakai, T. Kanzaki, and H. Kan, "Design and performance of a diode-pumped Nd:silica-phosphate glass zig-zag slab laser amplifier for inertial fusion energy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6415-6425 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, A. Sasaki, K. Nagashima, N. Hasegawa, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, M. Nishikino, and Y. Kato, "Analysis of gain generation of the TCE x-ray laser through temporal duration," in Proceedings of 9th International Conference on X-ray Lasers (IOP, 2005), Vol. 186, pp. 111-114.

Kawachi, T.

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, N. Hasegawa, K. Nagashima, K. Sukegawa, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, S. Namba, M. Koike, A. Nagashima, and Y. Kato, "Development of a pumping laser system for x-ray laser research," Appl. Opt. 42, 2198-2205 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nishikino, M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, M. Kishimoto, M. Kado, T. Kawachi, K. Sukegawa, Y. Ochi, N. Hasegawa, and Y. Kato, "Demonstration of a soft-x-ray laser at 13.9 nm with full spatial coherence," Phys. Rev. A 68, 0618021-0618024 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, K. Sukegawa, N. Hasegawa, T. Kawachi, M. Kado, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, H. Maruyama, A. Sawada, M. Ando, and Y. Kato, "Picosecond snapshot of the speckles from ferroelectric BaTiO3 by means of X-ray lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2576021-2576024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system," Phys. Rev. A 66, 338151-338157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, A. Sasaki, K. Nagashima, N. Hasegawa, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, M. Nishikino, and Y. Kato, "Analysis of gain generation of the TCE x-ray laser through temporal duration," in Proceedings of 9th International Conference on X-ray Lasers (IOP, 2005), Vol. 186, pp. 111-114.

Kawashima, T.

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, H. Matsui, T. Eguchi, M. Yamanaka, Y. Kato, M. Nakatsuka, Y. Izawa, S. Nakai, T. Kanzaki, and H. Kan, "Design and performance of a diode-pumped Nd:silica-phosphate glass zig-zag slab laser amplifier for inertial fusion energy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6415-6425 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Keenan, R.

V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Dunn, S. Moon, R. Smith, R. Keenan, J. Nilson, K. B. Fournier, J. Kuba, A. L. Osterheld, J. J. Rocca, B. Luther, Y. Wang, and M. Marconi, "Numerical studies of transient and capillary x-ray lasers and their applications," in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications V, E. E. Fill and S. Suckewer, eds., Proc. SPIE 5197, 221-228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, J. H.

Kilpio, A. V.

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system," Phys. Rev. A 66, 338151-338157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kishimoto, M.

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, A. Sawada, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Maruyama, and M. Ando, "Picosecond view of microscopic-scale polarization clusters in paraelectric BaTiO3," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 0876011-0876014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Nishikino, M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, M. Kishimoto, M. Kado, T. Kawachi, K. Sukegawa, Y. Ochi, N. Hasegawa, and Y. Kato, "Demonstration of a soft-x-ray laser at 13.9 nm with full spatial coherence," Phys. Rev. A 68, 0618021-0618024 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, K. Sukegawa, N. Hasegawa, T. Kawachi, M. Kado, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, H. Maruyama, A. Sawada, M. Ando, and Y. Kato, "Picosecond snapshot of the speckles from ferroelectric BaTiO3 by means of X-ray lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2576021-2576024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system," Phys. Rev. A 66, 338151-338157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, A. Sasaki, K. Nagashima, N. Hasegawa, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, M. Nishikino, and Y. Kato, "Analysis of gain generation of the TCE x-ray laser through temporal duration," in Proceedings of 9th International Conference on X-ray Lasers (IOP, 2005), Vol. 186, pp. 111-114.

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, 2006).

Koike, M.

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, N. Hasegawa, K. Nagashima, K. Sukegawa, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, S. Namba, M. Koike, A. Nagashima, and Y. Kato, "Development of a pumping laser system for x-ray laser research," Appl. Opt. 42, 2198-2205 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system," Phys. Rev. A 66, 338151-338157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuba, J.

V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Dunn, S. Moon, R. Smith, R. Keenan, J. Nilson, K. B. Fournier, J. Kuba, A. L. Osterheld, J. J. Rocca, B. Luther, Y. Wang, and M. Marconi, "Numerical studies of transient and capillary x-ray lasers and their applications," in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications V, E. E. Fill and S. Suckewer, eds., Proc. SPIE 5197, 221-228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, H.

T. Ozaki, R. A. Ganeev, A. Ishizawa, T. Kanai, and H. Kuroda, "Highly directive 18.9 nm nickel-like molybdenum x-ray laser operating at 150 mJ pump energy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2539021-2539024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Larotonda, M. A.

Lu, P.

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, A. Sawada, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Maruyama, and M. Ando, "Picosecond view of microscopic-scale polarization clusters in paraelectric BaTiO3," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 0876011-0876014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, N. Hasegawa, K. Nagashima, K. Sukegawa, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, S. Namba, M. Koike, A. Nagashima, and Y. Kato, "Development of a pumping laser system for x-ray laser research," Appl. Opt. 42, 2198-2205 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, K. Sukegawa, N. Hasegawa, T. Kawachi, M. Kado, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, H. Maruyama, A. Sawada, M. Ando, and Y. Kato, "Picosecond snapshot of the speckles from ferroelectric BaTiO3 by means of X-ray lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2576021-2576024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system," Phys. Rev. A 66, 338151-338157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luther, B.

A. Weith, M. A. Larotonda, Y. Wang, B. Luther, D. Alessi, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, and J. Dunn, "Continuous high-repetition-rate operation of collisional soft-x-ray lasers with solid targets," Opt. Lett. 31, 1994-1996 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Dunn, S. Moon, R. Smith, R. Keenan, J. Nilson, K. B. Fournier, J. Kuba, A. L. Osterheld, J. J. Rocca, B. Luther, Y. Wang, and M. Marconi, "Numerical studies of transient and capillary x-ray lasers and their applications," in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications V, E. E. Fill and S. Suckewer, eds., Proc. SPIE 5197, 221-228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luther, B. M.

Marconi, M.

V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Dunn, S. Moon, R. Smith, R. Keenan, J. Nilson, K. B. Fournier, J. Kuba, A. L. Osterheld, J. J. Rocca, B. Luther, Y. Wang, and M. Marconi, "Numerical studies of transient and capillary x-ray lasers and their applications," in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications V, E. E. Fill and S. Suckewer, eds., Proc. SPIE 5197, 221-228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marconi, M. C.

Markiewics, J. P.

J. P. Markiewics and J. L. Emmet, "Design of flashlamp driving circuits," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 707-711 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, H.

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, A. Sawada, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Maruyama, and M. Ando, "Picosecond view of microscopic-scale polarization clusters in paraelectric BaTiO3," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 0876011-0876014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, K. Sukegawa, N. Hasegawa, T. Kawachi, M. Kado, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, H. Maruyama, A. Sawada, M. Ando, and Y. Kato, "Picosecond snapshot of the speckles from ferroelectric BaTiO3 by means of X-ray lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2576021-2576024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, H.

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, H. Matsui, T. Eguchi, M. Yamanaka, Y. Kato, M. Nakatsuka, Y. Izawa, S. Nakai, T. Kanzaki, and H. Kan, "Design and performance of a diode-pumped Nd:silica-phosphate glass zig-zag slab laser amplifier for inertial fusion energy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6415-6425 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moon, S.

V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Dunn, S. Moon, R. Smith, R. Keenan, J. Nilson, K. B. Fournier, J. Kuba, A. L. Osterheld, J. J. Rocca, B. Luther, Y. Wang, and M. Marconi, "Numerical studies of transient and capillary x-ray lasers and their applications," in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications V, E. E. Fill and S. Suckewer, eds., Proc. SPIE 5197, 221-228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nagashima, A.

Nagashima, K.

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, A. Sawada, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Maruyama, and M. Ando, "Picosecond view of microscopic-scale polarization clusters in paraelectric BaTiO3," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 0876011-0876014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Nishikino, M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, M. Kishimoto, M. Kado, T. Kawachi, K. Sukegawa, Y. Ochi, N. Hasegawa, and Y. Kato, "Demonstration of a soft-x-ray laser at 13.9 nm with full spatial coherence," Phys. Rev. A 68, 0618021-0618024 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, N. Hasegawa, K. Nagashima, K. Sukegawa, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, S. Namba, M. Koike, A. Nagashima, and Y. Kato, "Development of a pumping laser system for x-ray laser research," Appl. Opt. 42, 2198-2205 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, K. Sukegawa, N. Hasegawa, T. Kawachi, M. Kado, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, H. Maruyama, A. Sawada, M. Ando, and Y. Kato, "Picosecond snapshot of the speckles from ferroelectric BaTiO3 by means of X-ray lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2576021-2576024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system," Phys. Rev. A 66, 338151-338157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, A. Sasaki, K. Nagashima, N. Hasegawa, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, M. Nishikino, and Y. Kato, "Analysis of gain generation of the TCE x-ray laser through temporal duration," in Proceedings of 9th International Conference on X-ray Lasers (IOP, 2005), Vol. 186, pp. 111-114.

Nakai, S.

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, H. Matsui, T. Eguchi, M. Yamanaka, Y. Kato, M. Nakatsuka, Y. Izawa, S. Nakai, T. Kanzaki, and H. Kan, "Design and performance of a diode-pumped Nd:silica-phosphate glass zig-zag slab laser amplifier for inertial fusion energy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6415-6425 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakatsuka, M.

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, H. Matsui, T. Eguchi, M. Yamanaka, Y. Kato, M. Nakatsuka, Y. Izawa, S. Nakai, T. Kanzaki, and H. Kan, "Design and performance of a diode-pumped Nd:silica-phosphate glass zig-zag slab laser amplifier for inertial fusion energy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6415-6425 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Namba, S.

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, N. Hasegawa, K. Nagashima, K. Sukegawa, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, S. Namba, M. Koike, A. Nagashima, and Y. Kato, "Development of a pumping laser system for x-ray laser research," Appl. Opt. 42, 2198-2205 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system," Phys. Rev. A 66, 338151-338157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Namikawa, K.

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, A. Sawada, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Maruyama, and M. Ando, "Picosecond view of microscopic-scale polarization clusters in paraelectric BaTiO3," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 0876011-0876014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, K. Sukegawa, N. Hasegawa, T. Kawachi, M. Kado, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, H. Maruyama, A. Sawada, M. Ando, and Y. Kato, "Picosecond snapshot of the speckles from ferroelectric BaTiO3 by means of X-ray lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2576021-2576024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nickles, P. V.

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, "Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748-2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nilson, J.

V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Dunn, S. Moon, R. Smith, R. Keenan, J. Nilson, K. B. Fournier, J. Kuba, A. L. Osterheld, J. J. Rocca, B. Luther, Y. Wang, and M. Marconi, "Numerical studies of transient and capillary x-ray lasers and their applications," in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications V, E. E. Fill and S. Suckewer, eds., Proc. SPIE 5197, 221-228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nishikino, M.

M. Nishikino, M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, M. Kishimoto, M. Kado, T. Kawachi, K. Sukegawa, Y. Ochi, N. Hasegawa, and Y. Kato, "Demonstration of a soft-x-ray laser at 13.9 nm with full spatial coherence," Phys. Rev. A 68, 0618021-0618024 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, A. Sasaki, K. Nagashima, N. Hasegawa, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, M. Nishikino, and Y. Kato, "Analysis of gain generation of the TCE x-ray laser through temporal duration," in Proceedings of 9th International Conference on X-ray Lasers (IOP, 2005), Vol. 186, pp. 111-114.

Nodvik, J. S.

L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvik, "Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2346-2349 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Ochi, Y.

M. Nishikino, M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, M. Kishimoto, M. Kado, T. Kawachi, K. Sukegawa, Y. Ochi, N. Hasegawa, and Y. Kato, "Demonstration of a soft-x-ray laser at 13.9 nm with full spatial coherence," Phys. Rev. A 68, 0618021-0618024 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, A. Sasaki, K. Nagashima, N. Hasegawa, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, M. Nishikino, and Y. Kato, "Analysis of gain generation of the TCE x-ray laser through temporal duration," in Proceedings of 9th International Conference on X-ray Lasers (IOP, 2005), Vol. 186, pp. 111-114.

Osterheld, A. L.

V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Dunn, S. Moon, R. Smith, R. Keenan, J. Nilson, K. B. Fournier, J. Kuba, A. L. Osterheld, J. J. Rocca, B. Luther, Y. Wang, and M. Marconi, "Numerical studies of transient and capillary x-ray lasers and their applications," in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications V, E. E. Fill and S. Suckewer, eds., Proc. SPIE 5197, 221-228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, T.

T. Ozaki, R. A. Ganeev, A. Ishizawa, T. Kanai, and H. Kuroda, "Highly directive 18.9 nm nickel-like molybdenum x-ray laser operating at 150 mJ pump energy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2539021-2539024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, J. J.

A. Weith, M. A. Larotonda, Y. Wang, B. Luther, D. Alessi, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, and J. Dunn, "Continuous high-repetition-rate operation of collisional soft-x-ray lasers with solid targets," Opt. Lett. 31, 1994-1996 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Rocca, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, M. Berril, and D. Alessei, "Saturated 13.2 nm high-repetition-rate laser in nickellike cadmium," Opt. Lett. 30, 2581-2583 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Dunn, S. Moon, R. Smith, R. Keenan, J. Nilson, K. B. Fournier, J. Kuba, A. L. Osterheld, J. J. Rocca, B. Luther, Y. Wang, and M. Marconi, "Numerical studies of transient and capillary x-ray lasers and their applications," in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications V, E. E. Fill and S. Suckewer, eds., Proc. SPIE 5197, 221-228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sandner, W.

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, "Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748-2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, A.

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system," Phys. Rev. A 66, 338151-338157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, A. Sasaki, K. Nagashima, N. Hasegawa, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, M. Nishikino, and Y. Kato, "Analysis of gain generation of the TCE x-ray laser through temporal duration," in Proceedings of 9th International Conference on X-ray Lasers (IOP, 2005), Vol. 186, pp. 111-114.

Sawada, A.

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, A. Sawada, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Maruyama, and M. Ando, "Picosecond view of microscopic-scale polarization clusters in paraelectric BaTiO3," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 0876011-0876014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, K. Sukegawa, N. Hasegawa, T. Kawachi, M. Kado, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, H. Maruyama, A. Sawada, M. Ando, and Y. Kato, "Picosecond snapshot of the speckles from ferroelectric BaTiO3 by means of X-ray lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2576021-2576024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schnürer, M.

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, "Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748-2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shlyaptsev, V. N.

V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Dunn, S. Moon, R. Smith, R. Keenan, J. Nilson, K. B. Fournier, J. Kuba, A. L. Osterheld, J. J. Rocca, B. Luther, Y. Wang, and M. Marconi, "Numerical studies of transient and capillary x-ray lasers and their applications," in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications V, E. E. Fill and S. Suckewer, eds., Proc. SPIE 5197, 221-228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, "Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748-2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shoup, M. J.

Smith, D. L.

Smith, R.

V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Dunn, S. Moon, R. Smith, R. Keenan, J. Nilson, K. B. Fournier, J. Kuba, A. L. Osterheld, J. J. Rocca, B. Luther, Y. Wang, and M. Marconi, "Numerical studies of transient and capillary x-ray lasers and their applications," in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications V, E. E. Fill and S. Suckewer, eds., Proc. SPIE 5197, 221-228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

Sukegawa, K.

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, N. Hasegawa, K. Nagashima, K. Sukegawa, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, S. Namba, M. Koike, A. Nagashima, and Y. Kato, "Development of a pumping laser system for x-ray laser research," Appl. Opt. 42, 2198-2205 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nishikino, M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, M. Kishimoto, M. Kado, T. Kawachi, K. Sukegawa, Y. Ochi, N. Hasegawa, and Y. Kato, "Demonstration of a soft-x-ray laser at 13.9 nm with full spatial coherence," Phys. Rev. A 68, 0618021-0618024 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, K. Sukegawa, N. Hasegawa, T. Kawachi, M. Kado, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, H. Maruyama, A. Sawada, M. Ando, and Y. Kato, "Picosecond snapshot of the speckles from ferroelectric BaTiO3 by means of X-ray lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2576021-2576024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tai, R.

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system," Phys. Rev. A 66, 338151-338157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tai, R. Z.

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, A. Sawada, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Maruyama, and M. Ando, "Picosecond view of microscopic-scale polarization clusters in paraelectric BaTiO3," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 0876011-0876014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, K. Sukegawa, N. Hasegawa, T. Kawachi, M. Kado, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, H. Maruyama, A. Sawada, M. Ando, and Y. Kato, "Picosecond snapshot of the speckles from ferroelectric BaTiO3 by means of X-ray lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2576021-2576024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, K.

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, N. Hasegawa, K. Nagashima, K. Sukegawa, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, S. Namba, M. Koike, A. Nagashima, and Y. Kato, "Development of a pumping laser system for x-ray laser research," Appl. Opt. 42, 2198-2205 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system," Phys. Rev. A 66, 338151-338157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, A. Sawada, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Maruyama, and M. Ando, "Picosecond view of microscopic-scale polarization clusters in paraelectric BaTiO3," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 0876011-0876014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Nishikino, M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, M. Kishimoto, M. Kado, T. Kawachi, K. Sukegawa, Y. Ochi, N. Hasegawa, and Y. Kato, "Demonstration of a soft-x-ray laser at 13.9 nm with full spatial coherence," Phys. Rev. A 68, 0618021-0618024 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, N. Hasegawa, K. Nagashima, K. Sukegawa, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, S. Namba, M. Koike, A. Nagashima, and Y. Kato, "Development of a pumping laser system for x-ray laser research," Appl. Opt. 42, 2198-2205 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, K. Sukegawa, N. Hasegawa, T. Kawachi, M. Kado, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, H. Maruyama, A. Sawada, M. Ando, and Y. Kato, "Picosecond snapshot of the speckles from ferroelectric BaTiO3 by means of X-ray lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2576021-2576024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system," Phys. Rev. A 66, 338151-338157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, A. Sasaki, K. Nagashima, N. Hasegawa, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, M. Nishikino, and Y. Kato, "Analysis of gain generation of the TCE x-ray laser through temporal duration," in Proceedings of 9th International Conference on X-ray Lasers (IOP, 2005), Vol. 186, pp. 111-114.

Tang, H.

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system," Phys. Rev. A 66, 338151-338157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

A. Weith, M. A. Larotonda, Y. Wang, B. Luther, D. Alessi, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, and J. Dunn, "Continuous high-repetition-rate operation of collisional soft-x-ray lasers with solid targets," Opt. Lett. 31, 1994-1996 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Rocca, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, M. Berril, and D. Alessei, "Saturated 13.2 nm high-repetition-rate laser in nickellike cadmium," Opt. Lett. 30, 2581-2583 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Dunn, S. Moon, R. Smith, R. Keenan, J. Nilson, K. B. Fournier, J. Kuba, A. L. Osterheld, J. J. Rocca, B. Luther, Y. Wang, and M. Marconi, "Numerical studies of transient and capillary x-ray lasers and their applications," in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications V, E. E. Fill and S. Suckewer, eds., Proc. SPIE 5197, 221-228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weith, A.

Will, I.

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, "Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748-2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, M.

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, H. Matsui, T. Eguchi, M. Yamanaka, Y. Kato, M. Nakatsuka, Y. Izawa, S. Nakai, T. Kanzaki, and H. Kan, "Design and performance of a diode-pumped Nd:silica-phosphate glass zig-zag slab laser amplifier for inertial fusion energy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6415-6425 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. P. Markiewics and J. L. Emmet, "Design of flashlamp driving circuits," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 707-711 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvik, "Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2346-2349 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Kawashima, T. Kanabe, H. Matsui, T. Eguchi, M. Yamanaka, Y. Kato, M. Nakatsuka, Y. Izawa, S. Nakai, T. Kanzaki, and H. Kan, "Design and performance of a diode-pumped Nd:silica-phosphate glass zig-zag slab laser amplifier for inertial fusion energy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6415-6425 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

T. Kawachi, M. Kado, M. Tanaka, A. Sasaki, N. Hasegawa, A. V. Kilpio, S. Namba, K. Nagashima, P. Lu, K. Takahashi, H. Tang, R. Tai, M. Kishimoto, M. Koike, H. Daido, and Y. Kato, "Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system," Phys. Rev. A 66, 338151-338157 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Nishikino, M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, M. Kishimoto, M. Kado, T. Kawachi, K. Sukegawa, Y. Ochi, N. Hasegawa, and Y. Kato, "Demonstration of a soft-x-ray laser at 13.9 nm with full spatial coherence," Phys. Rev. A 68, 0618021-0618024 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, K. Sukegawa, N. Hasegawa, T. Kawachi, M. Kado, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Daido, H. Maruyama, A. Sawada, M. Ando, and Y. Kato, "Picosecond snapshot of the speckles from ferroelectric BaTiO3 by means of X-ray lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2576021-2576024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Z. Tai, K. Namikawa, A. Sawada, M. Kishimoto, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, K. Nagashima, H. Maruyama, and M. Ando, "Picosecond view of microscopic-scale polarization clusters in paraelectric BaTiO3," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 0876011-0876014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Ozaki, R. A. Ganeev, A. Ishizawa, T. Kanai, and H. Kuroda, "Highly directive 18.9 nm nickel-like molybdenum x-ray laser operating at 150 mJ pump energy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 2539021-2539024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

V. N. Shlyaptsev, J. Dunn, S. Moon, R. Smith, R. Keenan, J. Nilson, K. B. Fournier, J. Kuba, A. L. Osterheld, J. J. Rocca, B. Luther, Y. Wang, and M. Marconi, "Numerical studies of transient and capillary x-ray lasers and their applications," in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications V, E. E. Fill and S. Suckewer, eds., Proc. SPIE 5197, 221-228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, A. Sasaki, K. Nagashima, N. Hasegawa, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, M. Nishikino, and Y. Kato, "Analysis of gain generation of the TCE x-ray laser through temporal duration," in Proceedings of 9th International Conference on X-ray Lasers (IOP, 2005), Vol. 186, pp. 111-114.

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R. C. Elton, X-ray Lasers (Academic, 1990).

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic design of the main amplification system using zigzag slab Nd:glass amplifiers. SA, PL, FR, H- or Q-WP, SLP, M, PC, CLP, and ZSA represent a soft aperture, a polarizer, a Faraday rotator, a half- or quarter-wave plate, a spherical lens pair, a flat mirror, a Pockels cell, a cylindrical lens pair, and a zigzag slab amplifier, respectively. The s and p mean polarization directions of the seed light.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Optical paths for the slab glass of ZSA-1. The laser glass is 15 mm in width, 99 mm in length, and 17 mm in height with a wedge angle of 89 degrees for both end faces. Propagating laser light is a 10 cm × 10 cm beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical pulse shape of flash lamp emission. The duration of the emission is 360 μs (FWHM). The incident time of the seed light is set at the peak of the emission (280 μs).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Front and top views of ZSA-1. The laser glass is pumped by eight Xe flash lamps from both sides. The laser glass is sealed by O-rings at the end faces.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Small-signal gain (left-hand side) and stored energy density (right-hand side) of one-cycle (four-pass) amplification as a function of the input electric energy (or voltage) to the flash lamps.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Amplified energy by ZSA-1 as a function of the number of amplification cycles. Circles represent the experimental points. The solid curve represents theoretical calculation based on the Frantz–Nodvik model by using experimental pumping conditions.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Beam patterns of the amplified laser light in the multipass amplification: (a) three-cycle, (b) four-cycle, and (c) five-cycle. Vertical and horizontal profiles are obtained by integrating over the whole region of the image.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Front and top views of ZSA-2. The laser glass is pumped by 24 Xe flash lamps from both sides.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Optical paths for the slab glass of ZSA-2. The laser glass is 15 mm in width, 205 mm in length, and 110 mm in height with a wedge angle of 89 degrees for both the end faces. Propagating laser light is a 10 cm × 90 cm beam.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Final output energy of the power amplifier system as a function of the input electric energy (or voltage) to the flash lamps. Energy extraction over 10 J is obtained for the input energy > 33 kJ with six-cycle amplification in the first half.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Amplified beam pattern after ZSA-2. (The image is indicated by rotating 90 degrees.)

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Fluctuation of output energy of 30 contiguous shots operated at 0.1 Hz repetition. The RMS fluctuation is 21% of the mean (11 J).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Schematic diagram of the pulse compressor.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(Color online) Compressed pulse shapes measured by a femtosecond streak camera and a PIN photodiode with a 6 GHz oscilloscope (inside). The laser pulse consists of the ∼1.6 ps main pulse and a 1∕8 intensity prepulse. Pulse separation is 1.1 ns .

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Typical shot trace on the Ti slab target. The on-target laser energy is 6.4   J . The line focus is estimated to be 20 μm in width and 7.5 cm in length.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

(Color online) Typical spectrum of the Ni-like Ag laser obtained by using the flat-field spectrometer. In this case, on-target laser energy is 7.9   J and plasma length is 0.7 cm .

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

(Color online) Energy output of the Ni-like Ag laser for various target lengths. The small-signal gain until the target length of 0.4 cm is estimated to be 41.9 , and the gain–length product (gL) is 16.3 . The output energy in the saturated region is 1 μJ .

Equations (5)

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E s t = h ν σ l z ln ( G 0 ) ,
E i = E s ln { 1 + [ exp ( α E i 1 E s ) 1 ] G i 1 } ,
G i = exp [ ( E st n = 0 i 1 E n / l ) σ l z h ν ] ,
Q max = 12 R d 2 = 5.9 W / cm 3 ,
f rep = Q max / 5 P ,

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