Abstract

What we believe to be a new experimental technique for the generation of a plane crystal surface perpendicular to the optic axis direction of a transparent birefringent uniaxial crystal is presented. A simple setup has been described for the initial optic axis alignment of a raw uniaxial crystal blank. Error correction methods have been illustrated. A technique for producing high optical quality surfaces by block polishing plane parallel crystal surfaces normal to the direction of the optic axis, in one setting, is discussed. The block with angular graduations facilitates the correction of angular error. A new conoscopy setup has been coupled to a Fizeau interferometer for high accuracy testing of the optic axis alignment with respect to the surface normal of the relevant polished surface of the uniaxial crystal. The results obtained for a quartz crystal blank are presented.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  12. X. Zhou and X. Xu, "A simple and convenient system for an optical method for crystal orientation," Cryst. Res. Technol. 31, K9-K10 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Ayras, A. T. Friberg, M. Kaivola, and M. M. Salomaa, "Conoscopic inteferometry of surface-acoustic-wave substrate crystals," Appl. Opt. 38, 5399-5407 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. L. V. Horn and H. H. Winter, "Analysis of the conoscopic measurement for uniaxial liquid crystal tilt angles," Appl. Opt. 40, 2089-2094 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Ohtsuka, H. Ara, and T. Ogawa, "A new simple arrangement for conoscopic figures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1541-1542 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. L. Bajor, "Application of imaging conoscope for optical inhomogeneity testing in LiNbO3 crystals and components," in Laser Interferometry VIII Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawinska, R. J. Pryputniewicz, and M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE 2860, 350-359 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. J. Guardalben, "Conoscopic alignment methods for birefringent optical elements in fusion lasers," Opt. Photon. News 8, 37-39 (1997).
  18. X. Chen, R Calemezuk, B. Salce, B. Lavorel, C. Akir, and L. Rajaonah, "Long-transient conoscopic pattern techniques," Solid State Commun. 110, 431-434 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. M. Mugnier, "Conoscopic holography toward three-dimensional reconstruction of opaque objects," Appl. Opt. 34, 1363-1371 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Badano and D. H. Fifadara, "Comparison of conoscopic, telescopic, and goniometric methods for measuring angular emissions from medical liquid crystal displays," Appl. Opt. 43, 4999-5005 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. A. Geday and A. M. Gazer, "A new view of conoscopic illumination of optically active crystals," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 35, 185-190 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. C. Su and C. C. Hsu, "Method for determining the optical axis and (ne, no) of a birefringent crystal," Appl. Opt. 41, 3936-3940 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. L. Zheng, O. A. Koniplev, and D. D. Mayerhofer, "Determination of the optical-axis orientation of a uniaxial crystal by frequency domain interferometry," Opt. Lett. 22, 931-933 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. R. M. A. Azzam, "Determination of the optic axis and optical properties of absorbing uniaxial crystals by reflection perpendicular incidence ellipsometry on wedge samples," Appl. Opt. 19, 3092-3095 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. K. Kos and A. Z. Siahmakoun, "Orientation of optic axis in wedged photorefractive crystals," Opt. Commun. 129, 217-223 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. J. Schock and C. A. Regan, "Determining optical axes of uniaxial crystals," Appl. Opt. 26, 2682-2689 (1987).
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  30. Y. T. Jeng and Y. L. Lo, "Heterodyne polariscope for sequential measurements of the complete optical parameters of a multiple order wave plate," Appl. Opt. 45, 1134-1141 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. D. Qu, R. Guo, S. Liu, Z. Liu, and Y. Gao, "Simple optical method for determination of crystal orientation in photorefractive crystals," Appl. Opt. 45, 6218-6222 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. P. S. K. Lee, J. B. Pors, M. P. V. Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, "Simple method for accurate characterization of birefringent crystals," Appl. Opt. 44, 866-870 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. S. M. Rosin, E. L. Johnson, and N. Mancktelow, "An optical method for the determination of 〈a〉 axis orientationtions in deformed aggregates of quartz," J. Struct. Geol. 26, 2059-2064 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  34. C. Jung, B. K. Rhee, and D. Kim, "Simple method for determining the crystalline axes of nonlinear uniaxial crystal with second-harmonic generation," Appl. Opt. 39, 5142-5146 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  35. P. Ayras, A. T. Friberg, M. Kaivola, and M. M. Salomaa, "Conoscopic inteferometry of wafers for surface-acoustic wave devices," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4039-4042 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  36. S. Prunet, B. Journet, and G. Fortunato, "Exact calculation of the optical path difference and description of a new birefringent interferometer," Opt. Eng. 38, 983-989 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2006 (4)

2005 (4)

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

S. Chatterjee, "Design considerations and fabrication techniques of Nomarski reflection microscope," Opt. Eng. 42, 2202-2213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

2001 (2)

2000 (2)

1999 (3)

X. Chen, R Calemezuk, B. Salce, B. Lavorel, C. Akir, and L. Rajaonah, "Long-transient conoscopic pattern techniques," Solid State Commun. 110, 431-434 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Ayras, A. T. Friberg, M. Kaivola, and M. M. Salomaa, "Conoscopic inteferometry of surface-acoustic-wave substrate crystals," Appl. Opt. 38, 5399-5407 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Prunet, B. Journet, and G. Fortunato, "Exact calculation of the optical path difference and description of a new birefringent interferometer," Opt. Eng. 38, 983-989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

L. Zheng, O. A. Koniplev, and D. D. Mayerhofer, "Determination of the optical-axis orientation of a uniaxial crystal by frequency domain interferometry," Opt. Lett. 22, 931-933 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ayras, A. T. Friberg, M. Kaivola, and M. M. Salomaa, "Conoscopic inteferometry of wafers for surface-acoustic wave devices," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4039-4042 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Guardalben, "Conoscopic alignment methods for birefringent optical elements in fusion lasers," Opt. Photon. News 8, 37-39 (1997).

1996 (3)

A. L. Bajor, "Application of imaging conoscope for optical inhomogeneity testing in LiNbO3 crystals and components," in Laser Interferometry VIII Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawinska, R. J. Pryputniewicz, and M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE 2860, 350-359 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou and X. Xu, "A simple and convenient system for an optical method for crystal orientation," Cryst. Res. Technol. 31, K9-K10 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Kos and A. Z. Siahmakoun, "Orientation of optic axis in wedged photorefractive crystals," Opt. Commun. 129, 217-223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

L. M. Mugnier, "Conoscopic holography toward three-dimensional reconstruction of opaque objects," Appl. Opt. 34, 1363-1371 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. West and M. H. Smith, "Polarization errors associated with birefringent waveplates," Opt. Eng. 34, 1574-1580 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1987 (1)

H. J. Schock and C. A. Regan, "Determining optical axes of uniaxial crystals," Appl. Opt. 26, 2682-2689 (1987).

1984 (1)

K. Ohtsuka, H. Ara, and T. Ogawa, "A new simple arrangement for conoscopic figures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1541-1542 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1973 (1)

H. Tas, "Orientation determination with polarized light," Metallography 6, 1-8 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Aguilar, M. R.

Akir, C.

X. Chen, R Calemezuk, B. Salce, B. Lavorel, C. Akir, and L. Rajaonah, "Long-transient conoscopic pattern techniques," Solid State Commun. 110, 431-434 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ara, H.

K. Ohtsuka, H. Ara, and T. Ogawa, "A new simple arrangement for conoscopic figures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1541-1542 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Auguilar, M. R.

Avendano-Alejo, M.

Ayras, P.

P. Ayras, A. T. Friberg, M. Kaivola, and M. M. Salomaa, "Conoscopic inteferometry of surface-acoustic-wave substrate crystals," Appl. Opt. 38, 5399-5407 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Ayras, A. T. Friberg, M. Kaivola, and M. M. Salomaa, "Conoscopic inteferometry of wafers for surface-acoustic wave devices," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4039-4042 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M. A.

Badano, A.

Bajor, A. L.

A. L. Bajor, "Application of imaging conoscope for optical inhomogeneity testing in LiNbO3 crystals and components," in Laser Interferometry VIII Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawinska, R. J. Pryputniewicz, and M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE 2860, 350-359 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boer, J. F. D.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, "Optics of crystals," in Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1989), pp. 678-680, 691-694, 698-702.

Calemezuk, R

X. Chen, R Calemezuk, B. Salce, B. Lavorel, C. Akir, and L. Rajaonah, "Long-transient conoscopic pattern techniques," Solid State Commun. 110, 431-434 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cense, B.

Chatterjee, S.

S. Chatterjee, "Design considerations and fabrication techniques of Nomarski reflection microscope," Opt. Eng. 42, 2202-2213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, R Calemezuk, B. Salce, B. Lavorel, C. Akir, and L. Rajaonah, "Long-transient conoscopic pattern techniques," Solid State Commun. 110, 431-434 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chu, R. H.

Ciattoni, A.

Crosignani, B.

Duncan, A. J.

Exter, M. P. V.

Fifadara, D. H.

Fortunato, G.

S. Prunet, B. Journet, and G. Fortunato, "Exact calculation of the optical path difference and description of a new birefringent interferometer," Opt. Eng. 38, 983-989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Friberg, A. T.

P. Ayras, A. T. Friberg, M. Kaivola, and M. M. Salomaa, "Conoscopic inteferometry of surface-acoustic-wave substrate crystals," Appl. Opt. 38, 5399-5407 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Ayras, A. T. Friberg, M. Kaivola, and M. M. Salomaa, "Conoscopic inteferometry of wafers for surface-acoustic wave devices," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4039-4042 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gangnus, S. V.

Gao, Y.

Gazer, A. M.

M. A. Geday and A. M. Gazer, "A new view of conoscopic illumination of optically active crystals," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 35, 185-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Geday, M. A.

M. A. Geday and A. M. Gazer, "A new view of conoscopic illumination of optically active crystals," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 35, 185-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, D.

D. Goldstein, "Polarization optical elements," in Polarized Light (Dekker, 2003), pp. 445-477, 511-532.

Guardalben, M. J.

M. J. Guardalben, "Conoscopic alignment methods for birefringent optical elements in fusion lasers," Opt. Photon. News 8, 37-39 (1997).

Guo, R.

Hartmann, C. S.

S. Jen and C. S. Hartmann, "An apparatus for determining the crystal orientation of SAW wafers," in Proceedings of IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, M. Levy, S.C. Schneide, and B.R. McAvoy, eds. (IEEE, 1994), pp. 397-401.

Horn, B. L. V.

Hsu, C. C.

Jen, S.

S. Jen and C. S. Hartmann, "An apparatus for determining the crystal orientation of SAW wafers," in Proceedings of IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, M. Levy, S.C. Schneide, and B.R. McAvoy, eds. (IEEE, 1994), pp. 397-401.

Jeng, Y. T.

Johnson, E. L.

S. M. Rosin, E. L. Johnson, and N. Mancktelow, "An optical method for the determination of 〈a〉 axis orientationtions in deformed aggregates of quartz," J. Struct. Geol. 26, 2059-2064 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Journet, B.

S. Prunet, B. Journet, and G. Fortunato, "Exact calculation of the optical path difference and description of a new birefringent interferometer," Opt. Eng. 38, 983-989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jung, C.

Kaivola, M.

P. Ayras, A. T. Friberg, M. Kaivola, and M. M. Salomaa, "Conoscopic inteferometry of surface-acoustic-wave substrate crystals," Appl. Opt. 38, 5399-5407 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Ayras, A. T. Friberg, M. Kaivola, and M. M. Salomaa, "Conoscopic inteferometry of wafers for surface-acoustic wave devices," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4039-4042 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Karow, H. H.

H. H. Karow, Fabrication Methods for Precision Optics (Wiley, 1993), pp. 704-721.

Kim, D.

Koniplev, O. A.

Kos, K.

K. Kos and A. Z. Siahmakoun, "Orientation of optic axis in wedged photorefractive crystals," Opt. Commun. 129, 217-223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lavorel, B.

X. Chen, R Calemezuk, B. Salce, B. Lavorel, C. Akir, and L. Rajaonah, "Long-transient conoscopic pattern techniques," Solid State Commun. 110, 431-434 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, P. S. K.

Lesso, J. P.

Liu, S.

Liu, Z.

Lo, Y. L.

Mancktelow, N.

S. M. Rosin, E. L. Johnson, and N. Mancktelow, "An optical method for the determination of 〈a〉 axis orientationtions in deformed aggregates of quartz," J. Struct. Geol. 26, 2059-2064 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matcher, S. J.

Mayerhofer, D. D.

Mentel, J.

Mugnier, L. M.

Murty, M. V. R. K.

M. V. R. K. Murty, "Newton, Fizeau and Haidinger interferometers," in Optical Shop Testing, D.Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 1992), p. 22.

Murviand, A. A.

Ogawa, T

K. Ohtsuka, H. Ara, and T. Ogawa, "A new simple arrangement for conoscopic figures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1541-1542 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuka, K.

K. Ohtsuka, H. Ara, and T. Ogawa, "A new simple arrangement for conoscopic figures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1541-1542 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Pors, J. B.

Porto, P. D.

Prunet, S.

S. Prunet, B. Journet, and G. Fortunato, "Exact calculation of the optical path difference and description of a new birefringent interferometer," Opt. Eng. 38, 983-989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Qu, D.

Rajaonah, L.

X. Chen, R Calemezuk, B. Salce, B. Lavorel, C. Akir, and L. Rajaonah, "Long-transient conoscopic pattern techniques," Solid State Commun. 110, 431-434 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Regan, C. A.

H. J. Schock and C. A. Regan, "Determining optical axes of uniaxial crystals," Appl. Opt. 26, 2682-2689 (1987).

Rhee, B. K.

Rosin, S. M.

S. M. Rosin, E. L. Johnson, and N. Mancktelow, "An optical method for the determination of 〈a〉 axis orientationtions in deformed aggregates of quartz," J. Struct. Geol. 26, 2059-2064 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salce, B.

X. Chen, R Calemezuk, B. Salce, B. Lavorel, C. Akir, and L. Rajaonah, "Long-transient conoscopic pattern techniques," Solid State Commun. 110, 431-434 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salomaa, M. M.

P. Ayras, A. T. Friberg, M. Kaivola, and M. M. Salomaa, "Conoscopic inteferometry of surface-acoustic-wave substrate crystals," Appl. Opt. 38, 5399-5407 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Ayras, A. T. Friberg, M. Kaivola, and M. M. Salomaa, "Conoscopic inteferometry of wafers for surface-acoustic wave devices," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4039-4042 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, E.

Schock, H. J.

H. J. Schock and C. A. Regan, "Determining optical axes of uniaxial crystals," Appl. Opt. 26, 2682-2689 (1987).

Siahmakoun, A. Z.

K. Kos and A. Z. Siahmakoun, "Orientation of optic axis in wedged photorefractive crystals," Opt. Commun. 129, 217-223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

Smith, M. H.

E. A. West and M. H. Smith, "Polarization errors associated with birefringent waveplates," Opt. Eng. 34, 1574-1580 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stroganov, V. I.

Su, D. C.

Tas, H.

H. Tas, "Orientation determination with polarized light," Metallography 6, 1-8 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Town, G.

Ugryumova, N.

West, E. A.

E. A. West and M. H. Smith, "Polarization errors associated with birefringent waveplates," Opt. Eng. 34, 1574-1580 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Winter, H. H.

Woerdman, J. P.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, "Optics of crystals," in Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1989), pp. 678-680, 691-694, 698-702.

Xu, X.

X. Zhou and X. Xu, "A simple and convenient system for an optical method for crystal orientation," Cryst. Res. Technol. 31, K9-K10 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, L.

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou and X. Xu, "A simple and convenient system for an optical method for crystal orientation," Cryst. Res. Technol. 31, K9-K10 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (14)

H. J. Schock and C. A. Regan, "Determining optical axes of uniaxial crystals," Appl. Opt. 26, 2682-2689 (1987).

L. M. Mugnier, "Conoscopic holography toward three-dimensional reconstruction of opaque objects," Appl. Opt. 34, 1363-1371 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mentel, E. Schmidt, and Mavrudis, "Birefringent filters with arbitrary orientations of the optic axis: an analysis of improved accuracy," Appl. Opt. 31, 5022-5029 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ayras, A. T. Friberg, M. Kaivola, and M. M. Salomaa, "Conoscopic inteferometry of surface-acoustic-wave substrate crystals," Appl. Opt. 38, 5399-5407 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Lesso, A. J. Duncan, W. Sibbett, and M. J. Padgett, "Aberrations introduced by a lens made from a birefringent material," Appl. Opt. 39, 592-598 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Jung, B. K. Rhee, and D. Kim, "Simple method for determining the crystalline axes of nonlinear uniaxial crystal with second-harmonic generation," Appl. Opt. 39, 5142-5146 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. L. V. Horn and H. H. Winter, "Analysis of the conoscopic measurement for uniaxial liquid crystal tilt angles," Appl. Opt. 40, 2089-2094 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. M. A. Azzam, "Determination of the optic axis and optical properties of absorbing uniaxial crystals by reflection perpendicular incidence ellipsometry on wedge samples," Appl. Opt. 19, 3092-3095 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Chu and G. Town, "Birefringent filter synthesis by use of a digital filter design algorithm," Appl. Opt. 41, 3412-3418 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Su and C. C. Hsu, "Method for determining the optical axis and (ne, no) of a birefringent crystal," Appl. Opt. 41, 3936-3940 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Badano and D. H. Fifadara, "Comparison of conoscopic, telescopic, and goniometric methods for measuring angular emissions from medical liquid crystal displays," Appl. Opt. 43, 4999-5005 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. K. Lee, J. B. Pors, M. P. V. Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, "Simple method for accurate characterization of birefringent crystals," Appl. Opt. 44, 866-870 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Jeng and Y. L. Lo, "Heterodyne polariscope for sequential measurements of the complete optical parameters of a multiple order wave plate," Appl. Opt. 45, 1134-1141 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Qu, R. Guo, S. Liu, Z. Liu, and Y. Gao, "Simple optical method for determination of crystal orientation in photorefractive crystals," Appl. Opt. 45, 6218-6222 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cryst. Res. Technol. (1)

X. Zhou and X. Xu, "A simple and convenient system for an optical method for crystal orientation," Cryst. Res. Technol. 31, K9-K10 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Crystallogr. (1)

M. A. Geday and A. M. Gazer, "A new view of conoscopic illumination of optically active crystals," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 35, 185-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Ayras, A. T. Friberg, M. Kaivola, and M. M. Salomaa, "Conoscopic inteferometry of wafers for surface-acoustic wave devices," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4039-4042 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Opt. Technol. (1)

J. Struct. Geol. (1)

S. M. Rosin, E. L. Johnson, and N. Mancktelow, "An optical method for the determination of 〈a〉 axis orientationtions in deformed aggregates of quartz," J. Struct. Geol. 26, 2059-2064 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Ohtsuka, H. Ara, and T. Ogawa, "A new simple arrangement for conoscopic figures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1541-1542 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Metallography (1)

H. Tas, "Orientation determination with polarized light," Metallography 6, 1-8 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. Kos and A. Z. Siahmakoun, "Orientation of optic axis in wedged photorefractive crystals," Opt. Commun. 129, 217-223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

S. Prunet, B. Journet, and G. Fortunato, "Exact calculation of the optical path difference and description of a new birefringent interferometer," Opt. Eng. 38, 983-989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ray paths through UC.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical schematic of Setup I. (b) Path of a ray passing along the optic axis direction. S2, Screen; A, analyzer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(A) Drawn circles on translucent screen S2. (B) Coincidence of the center of the drawn circles on S2 with that of the conoscopic fringes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Accurate positioning of the UC by alignment of reference lines (MN) with Cartesian axes XY on BP during rectification of the angle error.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(A) UC with angular error (θ) between optic axis O2C and surface normal O1N, the upper surface I (glass plate) is autocollimated for normal setting (reading zero on the scale reticle). (B) Correction of angular error of bottom surface II by selective fine grinding of II up to reading ON1 (θ) on the scale reticle of AC. (C) Correction of angular error of surface I by making it parallel to surface II.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Block for polishing two parallel surfaces of UC in one setting.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical schematic of Setup II.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical schematic of the conoscopy setup.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic of the tip–tilt type mount for holding the UC block, T, tilting screws.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Spatial filter for manipulation of beam intensity.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(A) Circular conoscopic fringes obtained with Setup II for a quartz crystal whose optical axis has been aligned along the direction of the surface normal within close limit (20 s of arc). (B) Fizeau fringes between the surface of the crystal and a reference surface kept normal to the central collimated beam.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Fitting of the coordinates of the maxima of the first bright ring of the conoscopic fringes to a circle (Scale: 1 division corresponds to 24.46 μ m , along the X and Y directions).

Equations (6)

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δ = [ ( 2 π / λ ) ( h / cos r ) ( n e n o ) sin 2 θ ] ,
ρ sin 2 θ = C ,
T a n θ 1 = s / d ,
S i n θ = ( S i n θ 1 ) / n o .
T a n θ 2 = S f / f ,
S i n θ f = ( S i n θ 2 ) / n o .

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