Abstract

We developed a new, to the best of our knowledge, test method to measure the wavefront error of the high-NA optics that is used to read the information on the high-capacity optical data storage devices. The main components are a pinhole point source and a Shack–Hartmann sensor. A pinhole generates the high-NA reference spherical wave, and a Shack–Hartmann sensor constructs the wavefront error of the target optics. Due to simplicity of the setup, it is easy to use several different wavelengths without significant changes of the optical elements in the test setup. To reduce the systematic errors in the system, a simple calibration method was developed. In this manner, we could measure the wavefront error of the NA 0.9 objective with the repeatability of 0.003λ rms (λ=632.8nm) and the accuracy of 0.01λ rms.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Shinoda, K. Saito, T. Ishimoto, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, M. Furuki, M. Takeda, Y. Akiyama, T. Shimouma, and M. Yamamoto, "High-density near-field optical disc recording using phase change media and polycarbonate substrate," in Optical Data Storage 2004, B. V. K. Kumar and H. Kobori, eds., Proc. SPIE 5380, 224-232 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. N. Smartt and W. H. Steel, "Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 351-356 (1975).
  3. Y. Sekine, A. Suzuki, M. Hasegawa, C. Ouchi, S. Hara, T. Hasegawa, Y. Kuramoto, and S. Kato, "Wavefront errors of reference spherical waves in high-numerical aperture point diffraction interferometers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 104-108 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, and J. Bokor, "A 3D numerical study of pinhole diffraction to predict the accuracy of EUV point diffraction interferometry," in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G.D. Kubiac and D.R. Kania, eds., OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 1996), pp. 133-137.
  5. K. Otaki, K. Ota, I. Nishiyama, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, and S. Okazaki, "Development of the point diffraction interferometer for extreme ultraviolet lithography: design, fabrication, and evaluation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2449-2458 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, and J. Bokor, "Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer," Opt. Lett. 21, 1526-1528 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. E. Millerd, S. J. Martinek, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, "Instantaneous phase-shift, point-diffraction interferometer," in Optical Data Storage 2004, B. V. K. Kumar and H. Kobori, eds., Proc. SPIE 5380, 422-429 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  8. I. Ghozeil, "Hartmann and other screen tests," in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, eds. (Wiley, 1992), pp. 367-396.
  9. J. A. Koch, R. W. Presta, R. A. Sacks, R. A. Zacharias, E. S. Bliss, M. J. Dailey, M. Feldman, A. A. Grey, F. R. Holdener, J. T. Salmon, L. G. Seppala, J. S. Toeppen, L. V. Atta, B. M. V. Wonterghem, W. T. Whistler, S. E. Winters, and B. W. Woods, "Experimental comparison of a Shack-Hartmann sensor and a phase-shifting interferometer for large-optics metrology applications," Appl. Opt. 39, 4540-4546 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. E. Greivenkamp, D. G. Smith, R. O. Gappinger, and G. A. Williby, "Optical testing using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors," in Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology, K. Iwata, ed., Proc. SPIE 4416, 260-263 (2001).
  11. J. Pfund, N. Lindlein, and J. Schwider, "Nonnull testing of rotationally symmetric aspheres: a systematic error assessment," Appl. Opt. 40, 439-446 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  12. H.-S. Yang, Y.-W. Lee, J.-B. Song, and I.-W. Lee, "Null Hartmann test for the fabrication of large aspheric surfaces," Opt. Express 13, 1839-1847 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. H.-S. Yang, J.-B. Song, I.-W. Lee, and Y.-W. Lee, "Testing of steep convex aspheric surface with a Hartmann sensor by using a CGH," Opt. Express 14, 3247-3254 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. T. M. Jeong, M. Menon, and G. Yoon, "Measurement of wavefront aberration in soft contact lenses by use of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor," Appl. Opt. 44, 4523-4527 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. W. H. Southwell, "Wavefront estimation fromm wavefront slope measurements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 998-1006 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Born and E. Wolf, "The diffraction theory of aberrations," in Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1989), pp. 459-490.

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (3)

M. Shinoda, K. Saito, T. Ishimoto, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, M. Furuki, M. Takeda, Y. Akiyama, T. Shimouma, and M. Yamamoto, "High-density near-field optical disc recording using phase change media and polycarbonate substrate," in Optical Data Storage 2004, B. V. K. Kumar and H. Kobori, eds., Proc. SPIE 5380, 224-232 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Sekine, A. Suzuki, M. Hasegawa, C. Ouchi, S. Hara, T. Hasegawa, Y. Kuramoto, and S. Kato, "Wavefront errors of reference spherical waves in high-numerical aperture point diffraction interferometers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 104-108 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. E. Millerd, S. J. Martinek, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, "Instantaneous phase-shift, point-diffraction interferometer," in Optical Data Storage 2004, B. V. K. Kumar and H. Kobori, eds., Proc. SPIE 5380, 422-429 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

K. Otaki, K. Ota, I. Nishiyama, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, and S. Okazaki, "Development of the point diffraction interferometer for extreme ultraviolet lithography: design, fabrication, and evaluation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2449-2458 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

J. E. Greivenkamp, D. G. Smith, R. O. Gappinger, and G. A. Williby, "Optical testing using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors," in Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology, K. Iwata, ed., Proc. SPIE 4416, 260-263 (2001).

J. Pfund, N. Lindlein, and J. Schwider, "Nonnull testing of rotationally symmetric aspheres: a systematic error assessment," Appl. Opt. 40, 439-446 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1996 (1)

1980 (1)

1975 (1)

R. N. Smartt and W. H. Steel, "Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 351-356 (1975).

Akiyama, Y.

M. Shinoda, K. Saito, T. Ishimoto, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, M. Furuki, M. Takeda, Y. Akiyama, T. Shimouma, and M. Yamamoto, "High-density near-field optical disc recording using phase change media and polycarbonate substrate," in Optical Data Storage 2004, B. V. K. Kumar and H. Kobori, eds., Proc. SPIE 5380, 224-232 (2004).
[Crossref]

Atta, L. V.

Bliss, E. S.

Bokor, J.

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, and J. Bokor, "Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer," Opt. Lett. 21, 1526-1528 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, and J. Bokor, "A 3D numerical study of pinhole diffraction to predict the accuracy of EUV point diffraction interferometry," in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G.D. Kubiac and D.R. Kania, eds., OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 1996), pp. 133-137.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, "The diffraction theory of aberrations," in Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1989), pp. 459-490.

Brock, N. J.

J. E. Millerd, S. J. Martinek, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, "Instantaneous phase-shift, point-diffraction interferometer," in Optical Data Storage 2004, B. V. K. Kumar and H. Kobori, eds., Proc. SPIE 5380, 422-429 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dailey, M. J.

Feldman, M.

Fukuda, Y.

K. Otaki, K. Ota, I. Nishiyama, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, and S. Okazaki, "Development of the point diffraction interferometer for extreme ultraviolet lithography: design, fabrication, and evaluation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2449-2458 (2002).
[Crossref]

Furuki, M.

M. Shinoda, K. Saito, T. Ishimoto, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, M. Furuki, M. Takeda, Y. Akiyama, T. Shimouma, and M. Yamamoto, "High-density near-field optical disc recording using phase change media and polycarbonate substrate," in Optical Data Storage 2004, B. V. K. Kumar and H. Kobori, eds., Proc. SPIE 5380, 224-232 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gappinger, R. O.

J. E. Greivenkamp, D. G. Smith, R. O. Gappinger, and G. A. Williby, "Optical testing using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors," in Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology, K. Iwata, ed., Proc. SPIE 4416, 260-263 (2001).

Ghozeil, I.

I. Ghozeil, "Hartmann and other screen tests," in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, eds. (Wiley, 1992), pp. 367-396.

Goldberg, K. A.

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, and J. Bokor, "Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer," Opt. Lett. 21, 1526-1528 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, and J. Bokor, "A 3D numerical study of pinhole diffraction to predict the accuracy of EUV point diffraction interferometry," in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G.D. Kubiac and D.R. Kania, eds., OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 1996), pp. 133-137.

Greivenkamp, J. E.

J. E. Greivenkamp, D. G. Smith, R. O. Gappinger, and G. A. Williby, "Optical testing using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors," in Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology, K. Iwata, ed., Proc. SPIE 4416, 260-263 (2001).

Grey, A. A.

Hara, S.

Y. Sekine, A. Suzuki, M. Hasegawa, C. Ouchi, S. Hara, T. Hasegawa, Y. Kuramoto, and S. Kato, "Wavefront errors of reference spherical waves in high-numerical aperture point diffraction interferometers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 104-108 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hasegawa, M.

Y. Sekine, A. Suzuki, M. Hasegawa, C. Ouchi, S. Hara, T. Hasegawa, Y. Kuramoto, and S. Kato, "Wavefront errors of reference spherical waves in high-numerical aperture point diffraction interferometers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 104-108 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hasegawa, T.

Y. Sekine, A. Suzuki, M. Hasegawa, C. Ouchi, S. Hara, T. Hasegawa, Y. Kuramoto, and S. Kato, "Wavefront errors of reference spherical waves in high-numerical aperture point diffraction interferometers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 104-108 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hayes, J. B.

J. E. Millerd, S. J. Martinek, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, "Instantaneous phase-shift, point-diffraction interferometer," in Optical Data Storage 2004, B. V. K. Kumar and H. Kobori, eds., Proc. SPIE 5380, 422-429 (2004).
[Crossref]

Holdener, F. R.

Ishimoto, T.

M. Shinoda, K. Saito, T. Ishimoto, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, M. Furuki, M. Takeda, Y. Akiyama, T. Shimouma, and M. Yamamoto, "High-density near-field optical disc recording using phase change media and polycarbonate substrate," in Optical Data Storage 2004, B. V. K. Kumar and H. Kobori, eds., Proc. SPIE 5380, 224-232 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jeong, T. M.

Kato, S.

Y. Sekine, A. Suzuki, M. Hasegawa, C. Ouchi, S. Hara, T. Hasegawa, Y. Kuramoto, and S. Kato, "Wavefront errors of reference spherical waves in high-numerical aperture point diffraction interferometers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 104-108 (2004).
[Crossref]

Koch, J. A.

Kondo, T.

M. Shinoda, K. Saito, T. Ishimoto, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, M. Furuki, M. Takeda, Y. Akiyama, T. Shimouma, and M. Yamamoto, "High-density near-field optical disc recording using phase change media and polycarbonate substrate," in Optical Data Storage 2004, B. V. K. Kumar and H. Kobori, eds., Proc. SPIE 5380, 224-232 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kuramoto, Y.

Y. Sekine, A. Suzuki, M. Hasegawa, C. Ouchi, S. Hara, T. Hasegawa, Y. Kuramoto, and S. Kato, "Wavefront errors of reference spherical waves in high-numerical aperture point diffraction interferometers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 104-108 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, I.-W.

Lee, Y.-W.

Lindlein, N.

Martinek, S. J.

J. E. Millerd, S. J. Martinek, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, "Instantaneous phase-shift, point-diffraction interferometer," in Optical Data Storage 2004, B. V. K. Kumar and H. Kobori, eds., Proc. SPIE 5380, 422-429 (2004).
[Crossref]

Medecki, H.

Menon, M.

Millerd, J. E.

J. E. Millerd, S. J. Martinek, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, "Instantaneous phase-shift, point-diffraction interferometer," in Optical Data Storage 2004, B. V. K. Kumar and H. Kobori, eds., Proc. SPIE 5380, 422-429 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nakaoki, A.

M. Shinoda, K. Saito, T. Ishimoto, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, M. Furuki, M. Takeda, Y. Akiyama, T. Shimouma, and M. Yamamoto, "High-density near-field optical disc recording using phase change media and polycarbonate substrate," in Optical Data Storage 2004, B. V. K. Kumar and H. Kobori, eds., Proc. SPIE 5380, 224-232 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nishiyama, I.

K. Otaki, K. Ota, I. Nishiyama, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, and S. Okazaki, "Development of the point diffraction interferometer for extreme ultraviolet lithography: design, fabrication, and evaluation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2449-2458 (2002).
[Crossref]

Okazaki, S.

K. Otaki, K. Ota, I. Nishiyama, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, and S. Okazaki, "Development of the point diffraction interferometer for extreme ultraviolet lithography: design, fabrication, and evaluation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2449-2458 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ota, K.

K. Otaki, K. Ota, I. Nishiyama, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, and S. Okazaki, "Development of the point diffraction interferometer for extreme ultraviolet lithography: design, fabrication, and evaluation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2449-2458 (2002).
[Crossref]

Otaki, K.

K. Otaki, K. Ota, I. Nishiyama, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, and S. Okazaki, "Development of the point diffraction interferometer for extreme ultraviolet lithography: design, fabrication, and evaluation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2449-2458 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ouchi, C.

Y. Sekine, A. Suzuki, M. Hasegawa, C. Ouchi, S. Hara, T. Hasegawa, Y. Kuramoto, and S. Kato, "Wavefront errors of reference spherical waves in high-numerical aperture point diffraction interferometers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 104-108 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pfund, J.

Presta, R. W.

Sacks, R. A.

Saito, K.

M. Shinoda, K. Saito, T. Ishimoto, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, M. Furuki, M. Takeda, Y. Akiyama, T. Shimouma, and M. Yamamoto, "High-density near-field optical disc recording using phase change media and polycarbonate substrate," in Optical Data Storage 2004, B. V. K. Kumar and H. Kobori, eds., Proc. SPIE 5380, 224-232 (2004).
[Crossref]

Salmon, J. T.

Schwider, J.

Sekine, Y.

Y. Sekine, A. Suzuki, M. Hasegawa, C. Ouchi, S. Hara, T. Hasegawa, Y. Kuramoto, and S. Kato, "Wavefront errors of reference spherical waves in high-numerical aperture point diffraction interferometers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 104-108 (2004).
[Crossref]

Seppala, L. G.

Shimouma, T.

M. Shinoda, K. Saito, T. Ishimoto, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, M. Furuki, M. Takeda, Y. Akiyama, T. Shimouma, and M. Yamamoto, "High-density near-field optical disc recording using phase change media and polycarbonate substrate," in Optical Data Storage 2004, B. V. K. Kumar and H. Kobori, eds., Proc. SPIE 5380, 224-232 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shinoda, M.

M. Shinoda, K. Saito, T. Ishimoto, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, M. Furuki, M. Takeda, Y. Akiyama, T. Shimouma, and M. Yamamoto, "High-density near-field optical disc recording using phase change media and polycarbonate substrate," in Optical Data Storage 2004, B. V. K. Kumar and H. Kobori, eds., Proc. SPIE 5380, 224-232 (2004).
[Crossref]

Smartt, R. N.

R. N. Smartt and W. H. Steel, "Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 351-356 (1975).

Smith, D. G.

J. E. Greivenkamp, D. G. Smith, R. O. Gappinger, and G. A. Williby, "Optical testing using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors," in Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology, K. Iwata, ed., Proc. SPIE 4416, 260-263 (2001).

Song, J.-B.

Southwell, W. H.

Steel, W. H.

R. N. Smartt and W. H. Steel, "Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 351-356 (1975).

Suzuki, A.

Y. Sekine, A. Suzuki, M. Hasegawa, C. Ouchi, S. Hara, T. Hasegawa, Y. Kuramoto, and S. Kato, "Wavefront errors of reference spherical waves in high-numerical aperture point diffraction interferometers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 104-108 (2004).
[Crossref]

Takeda, M.

M. Shinoda, K. Saito, T. Ishimoto, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, M. Furuki, M. Takeda, Y. Akiyama, T. Shimouma, and M. Yamamoto, "High-density near-field optical disc recording using phase change media and polycarbonate substrate," in Optical Data Storage 2004, B. V. K. Kumar and H. Kobori, eds., Proc. SPIE 5380, 224-232 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tejnil, E.

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, and J. Bokor, "Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer," Opt. Lett. 21, 1526-1528 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, and J. Bokor, "A 3D numerical study of pinhole diffraction to predict the accuracy of EUV point diffraction interferometry," in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G.D. Kubiac and D.R. Kania, eds., OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 1996), pp. 133-137.

Toeppen, J. S.

Whistler, W. T.

Williby, G. A.

J. E. Greivenkamp, D. G. Smith, R. O. Gappinger, and G. A. Williby, "Optical testing using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors," in Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology, K. Iwata, ed., Proc. SPIE 4416, 260-263 (2001).

Winters, S. E.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, "The diffraction theory of aberrations," in Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1989), pp. 459-490.

Wonterghem, B. M. V.

Woods, B. W.

Wyant, J. C.

J. E. Millerd, S. J. Martinek, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, "Instantaneous phase-shift, point-diffraction interferometer," in Optical Data Storage 2004, B. V. K. Kumar and H. Kobori, eds., Proc. SPIE 5380, 422-429 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, M.

M. Shinoda, K. Saito, T. Ishimoto, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, M. Furuki, M. Takeda, Y. Akiyama, T. Shimouma, and M. Yamamoto, "High-density near-field optical disc recording using phase change media and polycarbonate substrate," in Optical Data Storage 2004, B. V. K. Kumar and H. Kobori, eds., Proc. SPIE 5380, 224-232 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, T.

K. Otaki, K. Ota, I. Nishiyama, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, and S. Okazaki, "Development of the point diffraction interferometer for extreme ultraviolet lithography: design, fabrication, and evaluation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2449-2458 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.-S.

Yoon, G.

Zacharias, R. A.

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (2)

Y. Sekine, A. Suzuki, M. Hasegawa, C. Ouchi, S. Hara, T. Hasegawa, Y. Kuramoto, and S. Kato, "Wavefront errors of reference spherical waves in high-numerical aperture point diffraction interferometers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 104-108 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Otaki, K. Ota, I. Nishiyama, T. Yamamoto, Y. Fukuda, and S. Okazaki, "Development of the point diffraction interferometer for extreme ultraviolet lithography: design, fabrication, and evaluation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2449-2458 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. N. Smartt and W. H. Steel, "Theory and application of point-diffraction interferometers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 351-356 (1975).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. E. Millerd, S. J. Martinek, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, "Instantaneous phase-shift, point-diffraction interferometer," in Optical Data Storage 2004, B. V. K. Kumar and H. Kobori, eds., Proc. SPIE 5380, 422-429 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Shinoda, K. Saito, T. Ishimoto, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, M. Furuki, M. Takeda, Y. Akiyama, T. Shimouma, and M. Yamamoto, "High-density near-field optical disc recording using phase change media and polycarbonate substrate," in Optical Data Storage 2004, B. V. K. Kumar and H. Kobori, eds., Proc. SPIE 5380, 224-232 (2004).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, and J. Bokor, "A 3D numerical study of pinhole diffraction to predict the accuracy of EUV point diffraction interferometry," in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, G.D. Kubiac and D.R. Kania, eds., OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 1996), pp. 133-137.

I. Ghozeil, "Hartmann and other screen tests," in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, eds. (Wiley, 1992), pp. 367-396.

J. E. Greivenkamp, D. G. Smith, R. O. Gappinger, and G. A. Williby, "Optical testing using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors," in Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology, K. Iwata, ed., Proc. SPIE 4416, 260-263 (2001).

M. Born and E. Wolf, "The diffraction theory of aberrations," in Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1989), pp. 459-490.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Test setup for measuring transmitted wavefront aberration of high-NA optics.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM image of the 300 n m pinhole.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

WFE of the high-quality reference in the test setup (a) before the calibration and (b) after the calibration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

WFE of NA 0.9 objective lens (a) at λ = 632.8 n m and (b) at λ = 405 n m .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Magnitude of coefficients of Zernike circular polynomials. Each point is the averaged value after ten repeatability measurements of NA 0.9 objective.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measurements of NA 0.9 objective lens at 632.8 n m wavelength at two different axially rotation orientation (Born and Wolf representation was used).

Metrics