Abstract

The dynamic changes of the anterior surface of the eye are investigated. A Twyman-Green interferometer is used to record topographic images at 40 ms intervals. A method of analysis of the dynamic changes in topography by use of Zernike polynomials enables a general distinction to be made between dynamic alterations in the shape of the cornea itself and the changes in the layer of the tears. The influence of deviations in the shape of the anterior surface of the eye on the retinal image is estimated.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. J. Licznerski, M. Lechna-Marczynska, and H. T. Kasprzak, "Application of Twyman-Green interferometer for evaluation of in vivo breakup characteristic of the human tear film," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 176-182 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. J. Licznerski, H. T. Kasprzak, and W. Kowalik, "Two interference techniques for in-vivo assessment of the tear film stability on a cornea and contact lens," Proc. SPIE 3320, 183-186 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Dubra, C. Paterson, and J. C. Dainty, "Double-lateral shearing interferometer for the quantitative measurement of the tear film topography," Appl. Opt. 44, 1191-1199 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. K. Pierscionek, A. Popiolek-Masajada, and H. Kasprzak, "Corneal shape change during accommodation," Eye 15, 766-769 (2001).
  5. J. C. He, J. Gwiazda, F. Thorn, R. Held, and W. Huang, "Change in corneal shape and corneal wave-front aberrations with accommodation," J. Vision 3, 456-463 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Yasuda, T. Yamaguchi, and K. Ohkoshi, "Changes in corneal curvature in accommodation," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1297-1301 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Buehren, M. J. Collins, J. Loughridge, L. G. Carney, and D. R. Iskander, "Corneal topography and accommodation," Cornea 22, 311-316 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. A. Schachar, "Effect of accommodation on the cornea," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 30, 531-533 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Kasprzak and B. K. Pierscionek, "Modelling the gravitational sag of the cornea and the subsequent quality of the refracted image," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2153-2166 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Kwito, M. R. Sawusch, P. J. McDonnell, D. C. Gritz, H. Moreira, and D. Evensen, "Effect of extraocular muscle surgery on corneal topography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 873-878 (1991).
  11. M. Nardi, M. P. Bartolomei, A. Romani, and L. Barca, "Intraocular pressure changes in secondary positions of gaze in normal subjects and in restrictive ocular motility disorders," Graefes Arch. Ophthalmol. 226, 8-10 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. J. Licznerski, H. T. Kasprzak, and W. Kowalik, "In-vivo measurements of the tear film on a cornea and a contact lens by use of interferometry," Proc. SPIE 2930, 157-161 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Rottenkolber and H. Podbielska, "High-precision Twyman-Green interferometer for measuring of ophthalmic surfaces," Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 74, 348-353 (1996).
  14. W. Kowalik, H. Kasprzak, and E. Jankowska-Kuchta, "Analysis of in vivo interferometric measurement of the corneal topography," Optik 109, 155-162 (1998).
  15. F. H. M. Jongsma, J. de Brabander, and F. Hendrikse, "Review and classification of corneal topographers," Lasers Med. Sci. 14, 2-19 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. M. Tiffany, N. Winter, and G. Bliss, "Tear film stability and tear surface tension," Current Eye Res. 8, 507-515 (1989).
  17. L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, and VSIA Standards Taskforce Members, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," in Vision Science and Its Applications, V.Lakshminarayanan, ed., Vol. 35 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 232-244.
  18. F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution," J. Physiol. 181, 576-593 (1965).
  19. D. R. Iskander and M. J. Collins, "Applications of high-speed videokeratoscopy," Clin. Exp. Optom. 88, 223-231 (2005).
  20. D. H. Szczesna, J. Jaronski, H. T. Kasprzak, and U. Stenevi, "Interferometric measurements of dynamic changes of tear film," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 34028 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, "Fluctuations of accommodation under steady viewing," J. Physiol. 145, 579-594 (1959).
  22. B. Winn, J. R. Pugh, B. Gilmartin, and B. Owens, "Arterial pulse modulates steady-state ocular accommodation," Current Eye Res. 9, 971-975 (1990).
  23. M. J. Collins, B. Davis, and J. Wood, "Microfluctuations of steady-state accommodation and the cardiopulmonary system," Vision Res. 35, 2491-2502 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Zhu, M. J. Collins, and D. R. Iskander, "Microfluctuations of wavefront aberrations of the eye," Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 24, 562-571 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, and D. R. Williams, "Compensation of corneal aberrations by the internal optics in the human eye," J. Vision 1, 1-8 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. Artal, A. Benito, and J. Tabernero, "The human eye is an example of robust optical design," J. Vision 6, 1-7 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

D. H. Szczesna, J. Jaronski, H. T. Kasprzak, and U. Stenevi, "Interferometric measurements of dynamic changes of tear film," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 34028 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, A. Benito, and J. Tabernero, "The human eye is an example of robust optical design," J. Vision 6, 1-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

R. A. Schachar, "Effect of accommodation on the cornea," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 30, 531-533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhu, M. J. Collins, and D. R. Iskander, "Microfluctuations of wavefront aberrations of the eye," Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 24, 562-571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

J. C. He, J. Gwiazda, F. Thorn, R. Held, and W. Huang, "Change in corneal shape and corneal wave-front aberrations with accommodation," J. Vision 3, 456-463 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Yasuda, T. Yamaguchi, and K. Ohkoshi, "Changes in corneal curvature in accommodation," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1297-1301 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Buehren, M. J. Collins, J. Loughridge, L. G. Carney, and D. R. Iskander, "Corneal topography and accommodation," Cornea 22, 311-316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. Kasprzak and B. K. Pierscionek, "Modelling the gravitational sag of the cornea and the subsequent quality of the refracted image," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2153-2166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

B. K. Pierscionek, A. Popiolek-Masajada, and H. Kasprzak, "Corneal shape change during accommodation," Eye 15, 766-769 (2001).

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, and D. R. Williams, "Compensation of corneal aberrations by the internal optics in the human eye," J. Vision 1, 1-8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

F. H. M. Jongsma, J. de Brabander, and F. Hendrikse, "Review and classification of corneal topographers," Lasers Med. Sci. 14, 2-19 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

W. Kowalik, H. Kasprzak, and E. Jankowska-Kuchta, "Analysis of in vivo interferometric measurement of the corneal topography," Optik 109, 155-162 (1998).

T. J. Licznerski, M. Lechna-Marczynska, and H. T. Kasprzak, "Application of Twyman-Green interferometer for evaluation of in vivo breakup characteristic of the human tear film," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 176-182 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Licznerski, H. T. Kasprzak, and W. Kowalik, "Two interference techniques for in-vivo assessment of the tear film stability on a cornea and contact lens," Proc. SPIE 3320, 183-186 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

T. J. Licznerski, H. T. Kasprzak, and W. Kowalik, "In-vivo measurements of the tear film on a cornea and a contact lens by use of interferometry," Proc. SPIE 2930, 157-161 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Rottenkolber and H. Podbielska, "High-precision Twyman-Green interferometer for measuring of ophthalmic surfaces," Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 74, 348-353 (1996).

1995 (1)

M. J. Collins, B. Davis, and J. Wood, "Microfluctuations of steady-state accommodation and the cardiopulmonary system," Vision Res. 35, 2491-2502 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. Kwito, M. R. Sawusch, P. J. McDonnell, D. C. Gritz, H. Moreira, and D. Evensen, "Effect of extraocular muscle surgery on corneal topography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 873-878 (1991).

1990 (1)

B. Winn, J. R. Pugh, B. Gilmartin, and B. Owens, "Arterial pulse modulates steady-state ocular accommodation," Current Eye Res. 9, 971-975 (1990).

1989 (1)

J. M. Tiffany, N. Winter, and G. Bliss, "Tear film stability and tear surface tension," Current Eye Res. 8, 507-515 (1989).

1988 (1)

M. Nardi, M. P. Bartolomei, A. Romani, and L. Barca, "Intraocular pressure changes in secondary positions of gaze in normal subjects and in restrictive ocular motility disorders," Graefes Arch. Ophthalmol. 226, 8-10 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution," J. Physiol. 181, 576-593 (1965).

1959 (1)

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, "Fluctuations of accommodation under steady viewing," J. Physiol. 145, 579-594 (1959).

Applegate, R. A.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, and VSIA Standards Taskforce Members, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," in Vision Science and Its Applications, V.Lakshminarayanan, ed., Vol. 35 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 232-244.

Artal, P.

P. Artal, A. Benito, and J. Tabernero, "The human eye is an example of robust optical design," J. Vision 6, 1-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, and D. R. Williams, "Compensation of corneal aberrations by the internal optics in the human eye," J. Vision 1, 1-8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barca, L.

M. Nardi, M. P. Bartolomei, A. Romani, and L. Barca, "Intraocular pressure changes in secondary positions of gaze in normal subjects and in restrictive ocular motility disorders," Graefes Arch. Ophthalmol. 226, 8-10 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bartolomei, M. P.

M. Nardi, M. P. Bartolomei, A. Romani, and L. Barca, "Intraocular pressure changes in secondary positions of gaze in normal subjects and in restrictive ocular motility disorders," Graefes Arch. Ophthalmol. 226, 8-10 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Benito, A.

P. Artal, A. Benito, and J. Tabernero, "The human eye is an example of robust optical design," J. Vision 6, 1-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berrio, E.

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, and D. R. Williams, "Compensation of corneal aberrations by the internal optics in the human eye," J. Vision 1, 1-8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bliss, G.

J. M. Tiffany, N. Winter, and G. Bliss, "Tear film stability and tear surface tension," Current Eye Res. 8, 507-515 (1989).

Buehren, T.

T. Buehren, M. J. Collins, J. Loughridge, L. G. Carney, and D. R. Iskander, "Corneal topography and accommodation," Cornea 22, 311-316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution," J. Physiol. 181, 576-593 (1965).

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, "Fluctuations of accommodation under steady viewing," J. Physiol. 145, 579-594 (1959).

Carney, L. G.

T. Buehren, M. J. Collins, J. Loughridge, L. G. Carney, and D. R. Iskander, "Corneal topography and accommodation," Cornea 22, 311-316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Collins, M. J.

D. R. Iskander and M. J. Collins, "Applications of high-speed videokeratoscopy," Clin. Exp. Optom. 88, 223-231 (2005).

M. Zhu, M. J. Collins, and D. R. Iskander, "Microfluctuations of wavefront aberrations of the eye," Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 24, 562-571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Buehren, M. J. Collins, J. Loughridge, L. G. Carney, and D. R. Iskander, "Corneal topography and accommodation," Cornea 22, 311-316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Collins, B. Davis, and J. Wood, "Microfluctuations of steady-state accommodation and the cardiopulmonary system," Vision Res. 35, 2491-2502 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, J. C.

Davis, B.

M. J. Collins, B. Davis, and J. Wood, "Microfluctuations of steady-state accommodation and the cardiopulmonary system," Vision Res. 35, 2491-2502 (1995).
[CrossRef]

de Brabander, J.

F. H. M. Jongsma, J. de Brabander, and F. Hendrikse, "Review and classification of corneal topographers," Lasers Med. Sci. 14, 2-19 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dubra, A.

Evensen, D.

S. Kwito, M. R. Sawusch, P. J. McDonnell, D. C. Gritz, H. Moreira, and D. Evensen, "Effect of extraocular muscle surgery on corneal topography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 873-878 (1991).

Gilmartin, B.

B. Winn, J. R. Pugh, B. Gilmartin, and B. Owens, "Arterial pulse modulates steady-state ocular accommodation," Current Eye Res. 9, 971-975 (1990).

Green, D. G.

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution," J. Physiol. 181, 576-593 (1965).

Gritz, D. C.

S. Kwito, M. R. Sawusch, P. J. McDonnell, D. C. Gritz, H. Moreira, and D. Evensen, "Effect of extraocular muscle surgery on corneal topography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 873-878 (1991).

Guirao, A.

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, and D. R. Williams, "Compensation of corneal aberrations by the internal optics in the human eye," J. Vision 1, 1-8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gwiazda, J.

J. C. He, J. Gwiazda, F. Thorn, R. Held, and W. Huang, "Change in corneal shape and corneal wave-front aberrations with accommodation," J. Vision 3, 456-463 (2003).
[CrossRef]

He, J. C.

J. C. He, J. Gwiazda, F. Thorn, R. Held, and W. Huang, "Change in corneal shape and corneal wave-front aberrations with accommodation," J. Vision 3, 456-463 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Held, R.

J. C. He, J. Gwiazda, F. Thorn, R. Held, and W. Huang, "Change in corneal shape and corneal wave-front aberrations with accommodation," J. Vision 3, 456-463 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hendrikse, F.

F. H. M. Jongsma, J. de Brabander, and F. Hendrikse, "Review and classification of corneal topographers," Lasers Med. Sci. 14, 2-19 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

J. C. He, J. Gwiazda, F. Thorn, R. Held, and W. Huang, "Change in corneal shape and corneal wave-front aberrations with accommodation," J. Vision 3, 456-463 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iskander, D. R.

D. R. Iskander and M. J. Collins, "Applications of high-speed videokeratoscopy," Clin. Exp. Optom. 88, 223-231 (2005).

M. Zhu, M. J. Collins, and D. R. Iskander, "Microfluctuations of wavefront aberrations of the eye," Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 24, 562-571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Buehren, M. J. Collins, J. Loughridge, L. G. Carney, and D. R. Iskander, "Corneal topography and accommodation," Cornea 22, 311-316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jankowska-Kuchta, E.

W. Kowalik, H. Kasprzak, and E. Jankowska-Kuchta, "Analysis of in vivo interferometric measurement of the corneal topography," Optik 109, 155-162 (1998).

Jaronski, J.

D. H. Szczesna, J. Jaronski, H. T. Kasprzak, and U. Stenevi, "Interferometric measurements of dynamic changes of tear film," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 34028 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jongsma, F. H. M.

F. H. M. Jongsma, J. de Brabander, and F. Hendrikse, "Review and classification of corneal topographers," Lasers Med. Sci. 14, 2-19 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kasprzak, H.

H. Kasprzak and B. K. Pierscionek, "Modelling the gravitational sag of the cornea and the subsequent quality of the refracted image," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2153-2166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Pierscionek, A. Popiolek-Masajada, and H. Kasprzak, "Corneal shape change during accommodation," Eye 15, 766-769 (2001).

W. Kowalik, H. Kasprzak, and E. Jankowska-Kuchta, "Analysis of in vivo interferometric measurement of the corneal topography," Optik 109, 155-162 (1998).

Kasprzak, H. T.

D. H. Szczesna, J. Jaronski, H. T. Kasprzak, and U. Stenevi, "Interferometric measurements of dynamic changes of tear film," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 34028 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Licznerski, M. Lechna-Marczynska, and H. T. Kasprzak, "Application of Twyman-Green interferometer for evaluation of in vivo breakup characteristic of the human tear film," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 176-182 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Licznerski, H. T. Kasprzak, and W. Kowalik, "Two interference techniques for in-vivo assessment of the tear film stability on a cornea and contact lens," Proc. SPIE 3320, 183-186 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Licznerski, H. T. Kasprzak, and W. Kowalik, "In-vivo measurements of the tear film on a cornea and a contact lens by use of interferometry," Proc. SPIE 2930, 157-161 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kowalik, W.

W. Kowalik, H. Kasprzak, and E. Jankowska-Kuchta, "Analysis of in vivo interferometric measurement of the corneal topography," Optik 109, 155-162 (1998).

T. J. Licznerski, H. T. Kasprzak, and W. Kowalik, "Two interference techniques for in-vivo assessment of the tear film stability on a cornea and contact lens," Proc. SPIE 3320, 183-186 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Licznerski, H. T. Kasprzak, and W. Kowalik, "In-vivo measurements of the tear film on a cornea and a contact lens by use of interferometry," Proc. SPIE 2930, 157-161 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kwito, S.

S. Kwito, M. R. Sawusch, P. J. McDonnell, D. C. Gritz, H. Moreira, and D. Evensen, "Effect of extraocular muscle surgery on corneal topography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 873-878 (1991).

Lechna-Marczynska, M.

T. J. Licznerski, M. Lechna-Marczynska, and H. T. Kasprzak, "Application of Twyman-Green interferometer for evaluation of in vivo breakup characteristic of the human tear film," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 176-182 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Licznerski, T. J.

T. J. Licznerski, H. T. Kasprzak, and W. Kowalik, "Two interference techniques for in-vivo assessment of the tear film stability on a cornea and contact lens," Proc. SPIE 3320, 183-186 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Licznerski, M. Lechna-Marczynska, and H. T. Kasprzak, "Application of Twyman-Green interferometer for evaluation of in vivo breakup characteristic of the human tear film," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 176-182 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Licznerski, H. T. Kasprzak, and W. Kowalik, "In-vivo measurements of the tear film on a cornea and a contact lens by use of interferometry," Proc. SPIE 2930, 157-161 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Loughridge, J.

T. Buehren, M. J. Collins, J. Loughridge, L. G. Carney, and D. R. Iskander, "Corneal topography and accommodation," Cornea 22, 311-316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McDonnell, P. J.

S. Kwito, M. R. Sawusch, P. J. McDonnell, D. C. Gritz, H. Moreira, and D. Evensen, "Effect of extraocular muscle surgery on corneal topography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 873-878 (1991).

Moreira, H.

S. Kwito, M. R. Sawusch, P. J. McDonnell, D. C. Gritz, H. Moreira, and D. Evensen, "Effect of extraocular muscle surgery on corneal topography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 873-878 (1991).

Nardi, M.

M. Nardi, M. P. Bartolomei, A. Romani, and L. Barca, "Intraocular pressure changes in secondary positions of gaze in normal subjects and in restrictive ocular motility disorders," Graefes Arch. Ophthalmol. 226, 8-10 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ohkoshi, K.

A. Yasuda, T. Yamaguchi, and K. Ohkoshi, "Changes in corneal curvature in accommodation," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1297-1301 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Owens, B.

B. Winn, J. R. Pugh, B. Gilmartin, and B. Owens, "Arterial pulse modulates steady-state ocular accommodation," Current Eye Res. 9, 971-975 (1990).

Paterson, C.

Pierscionek, B. K.

H. Kasprzak and B. K. Pierscionek, "Modelling the gravitational sag of the cornea and the subsequent quality of the refracted image," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2153-2166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Pierscionek, A. Popiolek-Masajada, and H. Kasprzak, "Corneal shape change during accommodation," Eye 15, 766-769 (2001).

Podbielska, H.

M. Rottenkolber and H. Podbielska, "High-precision Twyman-Green interferometer for measuring of ophthalmic surfaces," Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 74, 348-353 (1996).

Popiolek-Masajada, A.

B. K. Pierscionek, A. Popiolek-Masajada, and H. Kasprzak, "Corneal shape change during accommodation," Eye 15, 766-769 (2001).

Pugh, J. R.

B. Winn, J. R. Pugh, B. Gilmartin, and B. Owens, "Arterial pulse modulates steady-state ocular accommodation," Current Eye Res. 9, 971-975 (1990).

Robson, J. G.

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, "Fluctuations of accommodation under steady viewing," J. Physiol. 145, 579-594 (1959).

Romani, A.

M. Nardi, M. P. Bartolomei, A. Romani, and L. Barca, "Intraocular pressure changes in secondary positions of gaze in normal subjects and in restrictive ocular motility disorders," Graefes Arch. Ophthalmol. 226, 8-10 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rottenkolber, M.

M. Rottenkolber and H. Podbielska, "High-precision Twyman-Green interferometer for measuring of ophthalmic surfaces," Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 74, 348-353 (1996).

Sawusch, M. R.

S. Kwito, M. R. Sawusch, P. J. McDonnell, D. C. Gritz, H. Moreira, and D. Evensen, "Effect of extraocular muscle surgery on corneal topography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 109, 873-878 (1991).

Schachar, R. A.

R. A. Schachar, "Effect of accommodation on the cornea," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 30, 531-533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schwiegerling, J. T.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, and VSIA Standards Taskforce Members, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," in Vision Science and Its Applications, V.Lakshminarayanan, ed., Vol. 35 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 232-244.

Stenevi, U.

D. H. Szczesna, J. Jaronski, H. T. Kasprzak, and U. Stenevi, "Interferometric measurements of dynamic changes of tear film," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 34028 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Szczesna, D. H.

D. H. Szczesna, J. Jaronski, H. T. Kasprzak, and U. Stenevi, "Interferometric measurements of dynamic changes of tear film," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 34028 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tabernero, J.

P. Artal, A. Benito, and J. Tabernero, "The human eye is an example of robust optical design," J. Vision 6, 1-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thibos, L. N.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, and VSIA Standards Taskforce Members, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," in Vision Science and Its Applications, V.Lakshminarayanan, ed., Vol. 35 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 232-244.

Thorn, F.

J. C. He, J. Gwiazda, F. Thorn, R. Held, and W. Huang, "Change in corneal shape and corneal wave-front aberrations with accommodation," J. Vision 3, 456-463 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tiffany, J. M.

J. M. Tiffany, N. Winter, and G. Bliss, "Tear film stability and tear surface tension," Current Eye Res. 8, 507-515 (1989).

Webb, R.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, and VSIA Standards Taskforce Members, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," in Vision Science and Its Applications, V.Lakshminarayanan, ed., Vol. 35 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 232-244.

Westheimer, G.

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, "Fluctuations of accommodation under steady viewing," J. Physiol. 145, 579-594 (1959).

Williams, D. R.

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, and D. R. Williams, "Compensation of corneal aberrations by the internal optics in the human eye," J. Vision 1, 1-8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Winn, B.

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