Abstract

A plasma-electrode Pockels cell (PEPC) has been developed for use on the OMEGA extended performance (EP) laser system that can be used in a high-contrast optical switch, as required for isolation of the system from retroreflected pulses. Contrast ratios reliably exceeded 500:1 locally everywhere in the clear aperture. The key to achieving this improvement was the use of circular windows simply supported on compliant O rings, which is shown to produce very low stress-induced birefringence despite vacuum loading. Reliable operation was achieved operating at a relatively high operating pressure, low operating pressures being found to be strongly correlated to occurrences of local loss of plasma density.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, "High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser," Opt. Photon. News 16, 30-36 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, "The National Ignition Facility," Opt. Eng. 43, 2841-2853 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Goldhar and M. A. Henesian, "Electro-optical switches with plasma electrodes," Opt. Lett. 9, 73-75 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. A. Henesian and J. Goldhar, "Demonstration of electro-optical switching at the 26 cm × 26 cm aperture using plasma electrodes," Opt. Lett. 9, 516-518 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. A. Rhodes, B. Woods, J. J. DeYoreo, D. A. Roberts, and L. J. Atherton, "Performance of large-aperture optical switches for high-energy inertial-confinement fusion lasers," Appl. Opt. 34, 5312-5325 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Bailly-Salins, C. Sudres, and J.-P. Marret, "Plasma electrode Pockels cell of CEA's megajoule laser project," in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 148-155 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. A. Rhodes, S. Fochs, and P. Biltoft, "Plasma electrode Pockels cell for the National Ignition Facility," Fusion Technol. 32, 1113-1116 (1998).
  8. L. G. Seppala, Birefringence Measurements of Spatial Filter Lenses, Laser Program Annual Report 1986 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-50021-86, 4-69-4-71,1986).
  9. N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, "Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255-262 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. D. Boley and M. A. Rhodes, "Modeling of plasma behavior in a plasma electrode Pockels cell," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 27, 713-726 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. D. Boley and M. A. Rhodes, "Model of the influence of magnetic fields on a plasma electrode Pockels cell," in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion: Second Annual International Conference, M. L. Andre, ed., Proc. SPIE 3047, 672-679 (1997).
  12. S. N. Fochs, M. A. Rhodes, and C. D. Boley, "B-field interactions and electrode optimization in the plasma electrode Pockels cell," in Solid State Lasers for Applicationto Inertial Confinement Fusion: Second Annual International Conference, M. L. Andre, ed., Proc. SPIE 3047, 680-691 (1997).
  13. O. Lubin and O. Heuzé, "Modelling of stress-induced birefringence in vacuum barrier lenses," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 699-708 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. J. Guardalben, "Conoscopic alignment methods for birefringent optical elements in fusion lasers," Engineering and Laboratory Notes, Opt. Photon. News (Supplement), 8(8), 37-39 (1997).

2005 (1)

L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, "High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser," Opt. Photon. News 16, 30-36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, "The National Ignition Facility," Opt. Eng. 43, 2841-2853 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

R. Bailly-Salins, C. Sudres, and J.-P. Marret, "Plasma electrode Pockels cell of CEA's megajoule laser project," in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 148-155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Boley and M. A. Rhodes, "Modeling of plasma behavior in a plasma electrode Pockels cell," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 27, 713-726 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. A. Rhodes, S. Fochs, and P. Biltoft, "Plasma electrode Pockels cell for the National Ignition Facility," Fusion Technol. 32, 1113-1116 (1998).

O. Lubin and O. Heuzé, "Modelling of stress-induced birefringence in vacuum barrier lenses," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 699-708 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

M. J. Guardalben, "Conoscopic alignment methods for birefringent optical elements in fusion lasers," Engineering and Laboratory Notes, Opt. Photon. News (Supplement), 8(8), 37-39 (1997).

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, "Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Boley and M. A. Rhodes, "Model of the influence of magnetic fields on a plasma electrode Pockels cell," in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion: Second Annual International Conference, M. L. Andre, ed., Proc. SPIE 3047, 672-679 (1997).

S. N. Fochs, M. A. Rhodes, and C. D. Boley, "B-field interactions and electrode optimization in the plasma electrode Pockels cell," in Solid State Lasers for Applicationto Inertial Confinement Fusion: Second Annual International Conference, M. L. Andre, ed., Proc. SPIE 3047, 680-691 (1997).

1995 (1)

1984 (2)

Atherton, L. J.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, "Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Rhodes, B. Woods, J. J. DeYoreo, D. A. Roberts, and L. J. Atherton, "Performance of large-aperture optical switches for high-energy inertial-confinement fusion lasers," Appl. Opt. 34, 5312-5325 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bailly-Salins, R.

R. Bailly-Salins, C. Sudres, and J.-P. Marret, "Plasma electrode Pockels cell of CEA's megajoule laser project," in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 148-155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Biltoft, P.

M. A. Rhodes, S. Fochs, and P. Biltoft, "Plasma electrode Pockels cell for the National Ignition Facility," Fusion Technol. 32, 1113-1116 (1998).

Boley, C. D.

C. D. Boley and M. A. Rhodes, "Modeling of plasma behavior in a plasma electrode Pockels cell," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 27, 713-726 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Boley and M. A. Rhodes, "Model of the influence of magnetic fields on a plasma electrode Pockels cell," in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion: Second Annual International Conference, M. L. Andre, ed., Proc. SPIE 3047, 672-679 (1997).

S. N. Fochs, M. A. Rhodes, and C. D. Boley, "B-field interactions and electrode optimization in the plasma electrode Pockels cell," in Solid State Lasers for Applicationto Inertial Confinement Fusion: Second Annual International Conference, M. L. Andre, ed., Proc. SPIE 3047, 680-691 (1997).

De Yoreo, J. J.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, "Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dehaven, M. R.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, "Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

DeYoreo, J. J.

Fochs, S.

M. A. Rhodes, S. Fochs, and P. Biltoft, "Plasma electrode Pockels cell for the National Ignition Facility," Fusion Technol. 32, 1113-1116 (1998).

Fochs, S. N.

S. N. Fochs, M. A. Rhodes, and C. D. Boley, "B-field interactions and electrode optimization in the plasma electrode Pockels cell," in Solid State Lasers for Applicationto Inertial Confinement Fusion: Second Annual International Conference, M. L. Andre, ed., Proc. SPIE 3047, 680-691 (1997).

Goldhar, J.

Guardalben, M. J.

M. J. Guardalben, "Conoscopic alignment methods for birefringent optical elements in fusion lasers," Engineering and Laboratory Notes, Opt. Photon. News (Supplement), 8(8), 37-39 (1997).

Henesian, M. A.

Heuzé, O.

O. Lubin and O. Heuzé, "Modelling of stress-induced birefringence in vacuum barrier lenses," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 699-708 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, J. H.

L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, "High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser," Opt. Photon. News 16, 30-36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, T. J.

L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, "High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser," Opt. Photon. News 16, 30-36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kruschwitz, B. E.

L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, "High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser," Opt. Photon. News 16, 30-36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Loucks, S. J.

L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, "High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser," Opt. Photon. News 16, 30-36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lubin, O.

O. Lubin and O. Heuzé, "Modelling of stress-induced birefringence in vacuum barrier lenses," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 699-708 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marret, J.-P.

R. Bailly-Salins, C. Sudres, and J.-P. Marret, "Plasma electrode Pockels cell of CEA's megajoule laser project," in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 148-155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maywar, D. N.

L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, "High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser," Opt. Photon. News 16, 30-36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McCrory, R. L.

L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, "High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser," Opt. Photon. News 16, 30-36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meyerhofer, D. D.

L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, "High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser," Opt. Photon. News 16, 30-36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miller, G. H.

G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, "The National Ignition Facility," Opt. Eng. 43, 2841-2853 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Montgomery, K. E.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, "Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morse, S. F. B.

L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, "High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser," Opt. Photon. News 16, 30-36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moses, E. I.

G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, "The National Ignition Facility," Opt. Eng. 43, 2841-2853 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, M. A.

C. D. Boley and M. A. Rhodes, "Modeling of plasma behavior in a plasma electrode Pockels cell," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 27, 713-726 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Rhodes, S. Fochs, and P. Biltoft, "Plasma electrode Pockels cell for the National Ignition Facility," Fusion Technol. 32, 1113-1116 (1998).

C. D. Boley and M. A. Rhodes, "Model of the influence of magnetic fields on a plasma electrode Pockels cell," in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion: Second Annual International Conference, M. L. Andre, ed., Proc. SPIE 3047, 672-679 (1997).

S. N. Fochs, M. A. Rhodes, and C. D. Boley, "B-field interactions and electrode optimization in the plasma electrode Pockels cell," in Solid State Lasers for Applicationto Inertial Confinement Fusion: Second Annual International Conference, M. L. Andre, ed., Proc. SPIE 3047, 680-691 (1997).

M. A. Rhodes, B. Woods, J. J. DeYoreo, D. A. Roberts, and L. J. Atherton, "Performance of large-aperture optical switches for high-energy inertial-confinement fusion lasers," Appl. Opt. 34, 5312-5325 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, M.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, "Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, D. A.

Seppala, L. G.

L. G. Seppala, Birefringence Measurements of Spatial Filter Lenses, Laser Program Annual Report 1986 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-50021-86, 4-69-4-71,1986).

Stoeckl, C.

L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, "High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser," Opt. Photon. News 16, 30-36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sudres, C.

R. Bailly-Salins, C. Sudres, and J.-P. Marret, "Plasma electrode Pockels cell of CEA's megajoule laser project," in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 148-155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vital, R. L.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, "Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Waxer, L. J.

L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, "High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser," Opt. Photon. News 16, 30-36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Woods, B.

Wuest, C. R.

G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, "The National Ignition Facility," Opt. Eng. 43, 2841-2853 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zaitseva, N. P.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, "Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zuegel, J. D.

L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, "High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser," Opt. Photon. News 16, 30-36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Fusion Technol. (1)

M. A. Rhodes, S. Fochs, and P. Biltoft, "Plasma electrode Pockels cell for the National Ignition Facility," Fusion Technol. 32, 1113-1116 (1998).

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. (1)

C. D. Boley and M. A. Rhodes, "Modeling of plasma behavior in a plasma electrode Pockels cell," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 27, 713-726 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, "Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 255-262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, "The National Ignition Facility," Opt. Eng. 43, 2841-2853 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Photon. News (2)

L. J. Waxer, D. N. Maywar, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, B. E. Kruschwitz, S. J. Loucks, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. F. B. Morse, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel, "High-energy petawatt capability for the OMEGA laser," Opt. Photon. News 16, 30-36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Guardalben, "Conoscopic alignment methods for birefringent optical elements in fusion lasers," Engineering and Laboratory Notes, Opt. Photon. News (Supplement), 8(8), 37-39 (1997).

Proc. SPIE (3)

C. D. Boley and M. A. Rhodes, "Model of the influence of magnetic fields on a plasma electrode Pockels cell," in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion: Second Annual International Conference, M. L. Andre, ed., Proc. SPIE 3047, 672-679 (1997).

S. N. Fochs, M. A. Rhodes, and C. D. Boley, "B-field interactions and electrode optimization in the plasma electrode Pockels cell," in Solid State Lasers for Applicationto Inertial Confinement Fusion: Second Annual International Conference, M. L. Andre, ed., Proc. SPIE 3047, 680-691 (1997).

R. Bailly-Salins, C. Sudres, and J.-P. Marret, "Plasma electrode Pockels cell of CEA's megajoule laser project," in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 148-155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

O. Lubin and O. Heuzé, "Modelling of stress-induced birefringence in vacuum barrier lenses," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 699-708 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

L. G. Seppala, Birefringence Measurements of Spatial Filter Lenses, Laser Program Annual Report 1986 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-50021-86, 4-69-4-71,1986).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the OMEGA EP laser system showing the PEPC in relation to key beamline components. The timing diagram shows the state of the PEPC as a function of time. Times during which the laser pulse passes through the PEPC are highlighted.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of the prototype PEPC during plasma ignition. The outline of the windows is indicated by the white dashed circle and the region analyzed by the stress birefringence model is indicated by the black dashed square.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-sectional view of the PEPC showing the key elements of the PEPC system. SPG, switch pulse generator; PPG, plasma pulse generators (two).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diagram of the full-aperture polarimeter system used to test the PEPC performance.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Baseline passive contrast-ratio measurements performed without the PEPC introduced into the polarimeter, indicating the maximum measurable contrast ratio. (a) Local contrast map obtained from image data, (b) histogram of full-aperture contrast measurements obtained from photodiode data.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Passive contrast-ratio measurements performed with the PEPC in the polarimeter. (a) PEPC at atmosphere, (b) PEPC pumped down to <100  mT .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Map of the pass 5 active contrast ratio measured over the clear aperture of the PEPC cell. The map was generated by overlapping three sequences of measurements with the PEPC cell in different positions laterally, thus minimizing the obscuration attributable to the secondary mirror mount.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured probability of a low-contrast fringe occurring because of locally poor plasma conductivity, as a function of operating pressure.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Plots of minimum local contrast ratio for individual shots during extended testing over >6 h. (a) Simulated 1 h on–off use conditions, (b) PEPC run nearly continuously.

Metrics