Abstract

The latest in a series of solar occultation satellite instruments, Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III, was placed into orbit in December 2001, and data were obtained until March 2006. Measurements were made of the extinction attributable to aerosols and cloud at a number of wavelengths between 290 and 1550  nm. The analysis of data obtained by its predecessor, SAGE II, has shown that an intercomparison of such data at two or more wavelengths may be used to separate the effects of cloud and aerosol. This analysis has been done on a routine basis for many years using SAGE II data at 525 and 1020  nm and applied extensively to global studies of tropospheric cloud and aerosol. Here we describe the aerosol–cloud separation algorithm developed for use with the SAGE III data, which uses the extinction at 525, 1020, and 1550  nm. This algorithm is now being used to produce vertical profiles of cloud presence as a standard SAGE III data product. These profiles have a vertical resolution of 0.5 km and cover the altitude range from 6.0 to 30.0 km, and data are presently available from March 2002 onward. An outline is given of the development of this algorithm, the nature of the SAGE III data, and the algorithm performance. To maintain continuity with SAGE II cloud data, the relative performances of the SAGE II and SAGE III algorithms are also examined. An example of the application of the algorithm to SAGE III tropospheric data is shown and discussed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2005 (1)

Y. Yamanouchi, R. Treffeisen, A. Herber, M. Shiobara, S. Yamagata, K. Hara, K. Sato, M. Yabuki, Y. Tomikawa, A. Rinke, R. Neuber, R. Schumachter, M. Kriews, J. Strom, O. Schrems, and H. Gernandt, "Arctic study of tropospheric aerosol and radiation (ASTAR) 2000: Arctic haze case study," Tellus 57B, 141-152 (2005).

2004 (3)

J. Kline, B. Huebert, S. Howell, B. Blomquist, J. Zhuang, T. Bertram, and J. Carrillo, "Aerosol composition and size versus altitude measured from the C-130 during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Han, H. Ueda, K. Matsuda, R. Zhang, K. Arao, Y. Kanai, and H. Hasome, "Modal study on particle size segregation and deposition during Asian dust events in March 2002," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Kim, Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, D. Trochkin, A. Matsuki, M. Yamada, B. Chen, D. Zhang, M. Nagatani, and H. Nakata, "Dust particles in the free atmosphere over desert areas on the Asian continent: Measurements from summer 2001 to summer 2002 with balloonborne optical particle counter and lidar, Dunhuang, China," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (7)

T. Deshler, M. E. Hervig, D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, and J. B. Liley, "Thirty years of in situ stratospheric aerosol size distribution measurements from Laramie, Wyoming (41 °N), using balloonborne instruments," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, C. R. Trepte, P.-H. Wang, and P. L. Lucker, "Problems in separating aerosol and cloud in the stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment (SAGE) II data set under conditions of lofted dust: application to the Asian deserts," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason and G. Taha, "SAGE III aerosol extinction measurements: initial results," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, B. A. Wielicki, T. Wong, R. D. Cess, M. Zhang, L. B. Vann, and G. S. Kent, "Characteristics of the 1997/1998 El Nino cloud distributions," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).

A. Minikin, A. Petzold, J. Strom, R. Krejci, M. Seifert, P. van Velthoven, H. Schlager, and U. Schumann, "Aircraft observations of the upper tropospheric fine particle aerosol in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres at mid-latitudes," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Poole, C. R. Trepte, V. L. Harvey, G. C. Toon, and R. L. Van Valkenburg, "SAGE III observations of Arctic polar stratospheric clouds--December 2002," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Han, D. C. Montague, and J. R. Snider, "Airborne measurements of aerosol extinction in the lower and middle troposphere over Wyoming, USA," Atmos. Environ. 37, 789-802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

J. Williams, M. de Reus, R. Krejci, H. Fischer, and J. Strom, "Application of the variability-size relationship to atmospheric aerosol studies: estimating aerosol lifetimes and ages," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2, 133-145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Spang, G. Eidmann, M. Riese, D. Offermann, P. Preusse, L. Pfister, and P.-H. Wang, "CRISTA observations of cirrus clouds around the tropopause," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, B. A. Wielicki, T. Wong, and B. Vann, "Satellite observations of long-term changes in tropical cloud and outgoing longwave radiation from 1985 to 1998," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Bregman, P.-H. Wang, and J. Lelieveld, "Chemical ozone loss on subvisible ice clouds, calculated with a three-dimensional chemistry-transport model," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, P.-H. Wang, and B. A. Wielicki, "Cloud structure anomalies over the tropical Pacific during the 1997/98 El Nino," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4547-4550 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, L. Lange, G. Roberts, J. Cafmeyer, I. Rajta, W. Maenhaut, B. N. Holben, P. Artaxo, and J. Lelieveld, "Saharan dust in Brazil and Suriname during the large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA)--Cooperative LBA Regional Experiment (CLAIRE) in March 1998," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14919-14934 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, M. Zhang, and T. Lui, "Spatial and temporal characteristics of dust storms in China and its surrounding regions, 1960-1999: relations to source area and climate," J. Geophys. 106, 10325-10333 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, R. E. Veiga, L. B. Vann, P. Minnis, and G. S. Kent, "A further study of the method for estimation of SAGE II opaque cloud occurrence," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12603-12513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. R. Collins, H. H. Jonsson, J. H. Seinfeld, R. C. Flagan, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, P. B. Russell, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, L. M. Russell, and J. P. Putaud, "In situ aerosol-size distributions and clear-column radiative closure during ACE-2," Tellus 52B, 498-525 (2000).

1999 (2)

J. L. Mergenthaler, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, and G. A. Ely, "Cryogenic limb array etalon spectrometer observations of tropical cirrus," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 22183-22194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Wylie and P.-H. Wang, "Comparison of SAGE-II and HIRS colocated cloud height measurements," Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3373-3375 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

G. S. Kent, C. R. Trepte, K. M. Skeens, and P.-H. Wang, "Long-term SAGE I and SAGE II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol extinction," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28863-28874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, D. Rind, C. R. Trepte, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, and K. M. Skeens, "An empirical model study of the tropospheric meridional circulation based on SAGE II observations," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13801-13818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, C. R. Trepte, K. M. Skeens, and D. M. Winker, "LITE and SAGE II measurements of aerosols in the southern-hemisphere upper troposphere," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 111-119 (1998).

1997 (4)

S. Solomon, S. Borrmann, R. R. Garcia, R. Portmann, L. Thomason, L. R. Poole, D. Winker, and M. P. McCormick, "Heterogeneous chlorine chemistry in the tropopause region," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21411-21429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, and K. M. Skeens, "Discrimination of cloud and aerosol in the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III occultation data," Appl. Opt. 33, 8639-8649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Wylie and P.-H. Wang, "Comparison of cloud frequency data from the high-resolution infrared radiometer sounder and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 29893-29900 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, P.-H. Wang, and K. M. Skeens, "Simulation of SAGE II cloud measurements using airborne lidar data," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21795-21807 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, and K. M. Skeens, "A 6-year climatology of cloud occurrence frequency from SAGE II observations (1985-1991)," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 29407-29429 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, and K. M. Skeens, "A 6-year climatology of cloud occurrence frequency from SAGE II observations (1985-1990)," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 29407-29429 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Koch, D. J. Jacob, and W. C. Graustein, "Vertical transport of tropospheric aerosols as indicated by 7Be and 210Pb in a chemical tracer model," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18651-18666 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, and K. S. Skeens, "Multi-year stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characteristics," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13875-13899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, and D. Rind, "Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds, 1. Global and zonal mean cloud amounts," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1121-1136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, and D. Rind, "Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds, 2. Locating cloud tops," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1137-1148 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, and K. M. Skeens, "Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements," Atmos. Res. 34, 53-83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Wake and P. A. Mayewski, "Modern eolian dust deposition in central Asia," Tellus 46B, 220-233 (1994).

R. F. Pueschel, J. M. Livingstone, G. V. Ferry, and T. E. DeFelice, "Aerosol abundances and optical characteristics in the Pacific basin free troposphere," Atmos. Environ. 28, 951-960 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

D. J. Hofmann, "Twenty years of balloonborne tropospheric aerosol measurements at Laramie, Wyoming," J. Geophys. Res. 98, 12753-12766 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, M. P. McCormick, and K. M. Skeens, "A model for the separation of cloud and aerosol in SAGE II occultation data," J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725-20735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, and W. R. Rozier, "Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 °N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility," Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435-1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

G. S. Kent and M. P. McCormick, "Separation of cloud and aerosol in two-wavelength satellite occultation data," Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 428-431 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, and P. Provost, "SAGE II inversion algorithm," J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339-8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1981 (1)

J. L. Gras and J. E. Laby, "Southern Hemisphere stratospheric aerosol measurements, III--Size distribution, 1974-1979," J. Geophys. Res. 86, 9767-9775 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. E. Hansen and J. W. Hovenier, "Interpretation of the polarization of Venus," J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1137-1160 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Andreae, M. O.

P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, L. Lange, G. Roberts, J. Cafmeyer, I. Rajta, W. Maenhaut, B. N. Holben, P. Artaxo, and J. Lelieveld, "Saharan dust in Brazil and Suriname during the large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA)--Cooperative LBA Regional Experiment (CLAIRE) in March 1998," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14919-14934 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, H.

H., Arakawa, ed. Climates of Northern and Eastern Asia (Elsevier, 1969).

Arao, K.

Z. Han, H. Ueda, K. Matsuda, R. Zhang, K. Arao, Y. Kanai, and H. Hasome, "Modal study on particle size segregation and deposition during Asian dust events in March 2002," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Artaxo, P.

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P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, and K. M. Skeens, "Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements," Atmos. Res. 34, 53-83 (1994).
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T. Deshler, M. E. Hervig, D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, and J. B. Liley, "Thirty years of in situ stratospheric aerosol size distribution measurements from Laramie, Wyoming (41 °N), using balloonborne instruments," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
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T. Deshler, M. E. Hervig, D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, and J. B. Liley, "Thirty years of in situ stratospheric aerosol size distribution measurements from Laramie, Wyoming (41 °N), using balloonborne instruments," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
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J. Kline, B. Huebert, S. Howell, B. Blomquist, J. Zhuang, T. Bertram, and J. Carrillo, "Aerosol composition and size versus altitude measured from the C-130 during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
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J. Kline, B. Huebert, S. Howell, B. Blomquist, J. Zhuang, T. Bertram, and J. Carrillo, "Aerosol composition and size versus altitude measured from the C-130 during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
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D. M. Koch, D. J. Jacob, and W. C. Graustein, "Vertical transport of tropospheric aerosols as indicated by 7Be and 210Pb in a chemical tracer model," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18651-18666 (1996).
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T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, and W. R. Rozier, "Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 °N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility," Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435-1438 (1993).
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Z. Han, H. Ueda, K. Matsuda, R. Zhang, K. Arao, Y. Kanai, and H. Hasome, "Modal study on particle size segregation and deposition during Asian dust events in March 2002," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
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Kim, Y. S.

Y. S. Kim, Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, D. Trochkin, A. Matsuki, M. Yamada, B. Chen, D. Zhang, M. Nagatani, and H. Nakata, "Dust particles in the free atmosphere over desert areas on the Asian continent: Measurements from summer 2001 to summer 2002 with balloonborne optical particle counter and lidar, Dunhuang, China," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
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J. Kline, B. Huebert, S. Howell, B. Blomquist, J. Zhuang, T. Bertram, and J. Carrillo, "Aerosol composition and size versus altitude measured from the C-130 during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
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Y. Yamanouchi, R. Treffeisen, A. Herber, M. Shiobara, S. Yamagata, K. Hara, K. Sato, M. Yabuki, Y. Tomikawa, A. Rinke, R. Neuber, R. Schumachter, M. Kriews, J. Strom, O. Schrems, and H. Gernandt, "Arctic study of tropospheric aerosol and radiation (ASTAR) 2000: Arctic haze case study," Tellus 57B, 141-152 (2005).

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J. L. Mergenthaler, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, and G. A. Ely, "Cryogenic limb array etalon spectrometer observations of tropical cirrus," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 22183-22194 (1999).
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P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, L. Lange, G. Roberts, J. Cafmeyer, I. Rajta, W. Maenhaut, B. N. Holben, P. Artaxo, and J. Lelieveld, "Saharan dust in Brazil and Suriname during the large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA)--Cooperative LBA Regional Experiment (CLAIRE) in March 1998," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14919-14934 (2001).
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B. Bregman, P.-H. Wang, and J. Lelieveld, "Chemical ozone loss on subvisible ice clouds, calculated with a three-dimensional chemistry-transport model," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
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P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, L. Lange, G. Roberts, J. Cafmeyer, I. Rajta, W. Maenhaut, B. N. Holben, P. Artaxo, and J. Lelieveld, "Saharan dust in Brazil and Suriname during the large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA)--Cooperative LBA Regional Experiment (CLAIRE) in March 1998," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14919-14934 (2001).
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F. Parungo, R. Schnell, A. Yoshinago, L. Pago, Y. Kim, C. Zhu, J. Harriss, B. Bodhaine, M. Zhou, Z. Chen, F. Qian, X. Li, D. Yang, X. Fang, P. Yan, X. Yu, and K. Park, "Asian duststorms and their effects on radiation and climate: Part III," STC Technical Report 3111 (Science and Technology Corporation, 1996).

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D. R. Collins, H. H. Jonsson, J. H. Seinfeld, R. C. Flagan, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, P. B. Russell, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, L. M. Russell, and J. P. Putaud, "In situ aerosol-size distributions and clear-column radiative closure during ACE-2," Tellus 52B, 498-525 (2000).

Livingstone, J. M.

R. F. Pueschel, J. M. Livingstone, G. V. Ferry, and T. E. DeFelice, "Aerosol abundances and optical characteristics in the Pacific basin free troposphere," Atmos. Environ. 28, 951-960 (1994).
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G. S. Kent, C. R. Trepte, P.-H. Wang, and P. L. Lucker, "Problems in separating aerosol and cloud in the stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment (SAGE) II data set under conditions of lofted dust: application to the Asian deserts," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
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P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, L. Lange, G. Roberts, J. Cafmeyer, I. Rajta, W. Maenhaut, B. N. Holben, P. Artaxo, and J. Lelieveld, "Saharan dust in Brazil and Suriname during the large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA)--Cooperative LBA Regional Experiment (CLAIRE) in March 1998," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14919-14934 (2001).
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Z. Han, H. Ueda, K. Matsuda, R. Zhang, K. Arao, Y. Kanai, and H. Hasome, "Modal study on particle size segregation and deposition during Asian dust events in March 2002," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
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Y. S. Kim, Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, D. Trochkin, A. Matsuki, M. Yamada, B. Chen, D. Zhang, M. Nagatani, and H. Nakata, "Dust particles in the free atmosphere over desert areas on the Asian continent: Measurements from summer 2001 to summer 2002 with balloonborne optical particle counter and lidar, Dunhuang, China," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
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C. P. Wake and P. A. Mayewski, "Modern eolian dust deposition in central Asia," Tellus 46B, 220-233 (1994).

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S. Solomon, S. Borrmann, R. R. Garcia, R. Portmann, L. Thomason, L. R. Poole, D. Winker, and M. P. McCormick, "Heterogeneous chlorine chemistry in the tropopause region," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21411-21429 (1997).
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P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, and K. M. Skeens, "A 6-year climatology of cloud occurrence frequency from SAGE II observations (1985-1990)," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 29407-29429 (1996).
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P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, and K. M. Skeens, "A 6-year climatology of cloud occurrence frequency from SAGE II observations (1985-1991)," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 29407-29429 (1996).
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G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, and K. S. Skeens, "Multi-year stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characteristics," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13875-13899 (1995).
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P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, and K. M. Skeens, "Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements," Atmos. Res. 34, 53-83 (1994).
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G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, M. P. McCormick, and K. M. Skeens, "A model for the separation of cloud and aerosol in SAGE II occultation data," J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725-20735 (1993).
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G. S. Kent and M. P. McCormick, "Separation of cloud and aerosol in two-wavelength satellite occultation data," Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 428-431 (1991).
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W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, and P. Provost, "SAGE II inversion algorithm," J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339-8351 (1989).
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J. L. Mergenthaler, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, and G. A. Ely, "Cryogenic limb array etalon spectrometer observations of tropical cirrus," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 22183-22194 (1999).
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A. Minikin, A. Petzold, J. Strom, R. Krejci, M. Seifert, P. van Velthoven, H. Schlager, and U. Schumann, "Aircraft observations of the upper tropospheric fine particle aerosol in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres at mid-latitudes," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, doi: (2003).
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P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, B. A. Wielicki, T. Wong, R. D. Cess, M. Zhang, L. B. Vann, and G. S. Kent, "Characteristics of the 1997/1998 El Nino cloud distributions," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, B. A. Wielicki, T. Wong, and B. Vann, "Satellite observations of long-term changes in tropical cloud and outgoing longwave radiation from 1985 to 1998," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, doi: (2002).
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P.-H. Wang, R. E. Veiga, L. B. Vann, P. Minnis, and G. S. Kent, "A further study of the method for estimation of SAGE II opaque cloud occurrence," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12603-12513 (2001).
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P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, and K. M. Skeens, "A 6-year climatology of cloud occurrence frequency from SAGE II observations (1985-1990)," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 29407-29429 (1996).
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P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, and K. M. Skeens, "A 6-year climatology of cloud occurrence frequency from SAGE II observations (1985-1991)," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 29407-29429 (1996).
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Z. Han, D. C. Montague, and J. R. Snider, "Airborne measurements of aerosol extinction in the lower and middle troposphere over Wyoming, USA," Atmos. Environ. 37, 789-802 (2003).
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Nagatani, M.

Y. S. Kim, Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, D. Trochkin, A. Matsuki, M. Yamada, B. Chen, D. Zhang, M. Nagatani, and H. Nakata, "Dust particles in the free atmosphere over desert areas on the Asian continent: Measurements from summer 2001 to summer 2002 with balloonborne optical particle counter and lidar, Dunhuang, China," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
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Nagatani, T.

Y. S. Kim, Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, D. Trochkin, A. Matsuki, M. Yamada, B. Chen, D. Zhang, M. Nagatani, and H. Nakata, "Dust particles in the free atmosphere over desert areas on the Asian continent: Measurements from summer 2001 to summer 2002 with balloonborne optical particle counter and lidar, Dunhuang, China," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
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Nakata, H.

Y. S. Kim, Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, D. Trochkin, A. Matsuki, M. Yamada, B. Chen, D. Zhang, M. Nagatani, and H. Nakata, "Dust particles in the free atmosphere over desert areas on the Asian continent: Measurements from summer 2001 to summer 2002 with balloonborne optical particle counter and lidar, Dunhuang, China," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
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Neuber, R.

Y. Yamanouchi, R. Treffeisen, A. Herber, M. Shiobara, S. Yamagata, K. Hara, K. Sato, M. Yabuki, Y. Tomikawa, A. Rinke, R. Neuber, R. Schumachter, M. Kriews, J. Strom, O. Schrems, and H. Gernandt, "Arctic study of tropospheric aerosol and radiation (ASTAR) 2000: Arctic haze case study," Tellus 57B, 141-152 (2005).

Noone, K. J.

D. R. Collins, H. H. Jonsson, J. H. Seinfeld, R. C. Flagan, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, P. B. Russell, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, L. M. Russell, and J. P. Putaud, "In situ aerosol-size distributions and clear-column radiative closure during ACE-2," Tellus 52B, 498-525 (2000).

Offermann, D.

R. Spang, G. Eidmann, M. Riese, D. Offermann, P. Preusse, L. Pfister, and P.-H. Wang, "CRISTA observations of cirrus clouds around the tropopause," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
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Osborn, M. T.

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, M. P. McCormick, and K. M. Skeens, "A model for the separation of cloud and aerosol in SAGE II occultation data," J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725-20735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ostrom, E.

D. R. Collins, H. H. Jonsson, J. H. Seinfeld, R. C. Flagan, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, P. B. Russell, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, L. M. Russell, and J. P. Putaud, "In situ aerosol-size distributions and clear-column radiative closure during ACE-2," Tellus 52B, 498-525 (2000).

Pago, L.

F. Parungo, R. Schnell, A. Yoshinago, L. Pago, Y. Kim, C. Zhu, J. Harriss, B. Bodhaine, M. Zhou, Z. Chen, F. Qian, X. Li, D. Yang, X. Fang, P. Yan, X. Yu, and K. Park, "Asian duststorms and their effects on radiation and climate: Part III," STC Technical Report 3111 (Science and Technology Corporation, 1996).

Park, K.

F. Parungo, R. Schnell, A. Yoshinago, L. Pago, Y. Kim, C. Zhu, J. Harriss, B. Bodhaine, M. Zhou, Z. Chen, F. Qian, X. Li, D. Yang, X. Fang, P. Yan, X. Yu, and K. Park, "Asian duststorms and their effects on radiation and climate: Part III," STC Technical Report 3111 (Science and Technology Corporation, 1996).

Parungo, F.

F. Parungo, R. Schnell, A. Yoshinago, L. Pago, Y. Kim, C. Zhu, J. Harriss, B. Bodhaine, M. Zhou, Z. Chen, F. Qian, X. Li, D. Yang, X. Fang, P. Yan, X. Yu, and K. Park, "Asian duststorms and their effects on radiation and climate: Part III," STC Technical Report 3111 (Science and Technology Corporation, 1996).

Patterson, E. M.

D. A. Gillette, E. M. Patterson, J. M. Prospero, and M. L. Jackson, "Soil aerosols," in Aerosol Effects on Climate, S. G. Jennings, ed. (U. Arizona Press, 1993).

Petzold, A.

A. Minikin, A. Petzold, J. Strom, R. Krejci, M. Seifert, P. van Velthoven, H. Schlager, and U. Schumann, "Aircraft observations of the upper tropospheric fine particle aerosol in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres at mid-latitudes," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, doi: (2003).
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Pfister, L.

R. Spang, G. Eidmann, M. Riese, D. Offermann, P. Preusse, L. Pfister, and P.-H. Wang, "CRISTA observations of cirrus clouds around the tropopause," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
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Poole, L. R.

L. R. Poole, C. R. Trepte, V. L. Harvey, G. C. Toon, and R. L. Van Valkenburg, "SAGE III observations of Arctic polar stratospheric clouds--December 2002," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, doi: (2003).
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S. Solomon, S. Borrmann, R. R. Garcia, R. Portmann, L. Thomason, L. R. Poole, D. Winker, and M. P. McCormick, "Heterogeneous chlorine chemistry in the tropopause region," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21411-21429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, and K. M. Skeens, "Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements," Atmos. Res. 34, 53-83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Portmann, R.

S. Solomon, S. Borrmann, R. R. Garcia, R. Portmann, L. Thomason, L. R. Poole, D. Winker, and M. P. McCormick, "Heterogeneous chlorine chemistry in the tropopause region," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21411-21429 (1997).
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Preusse, P.

R. Spang, G. Eidmann, M. Riese, D. Offermann, P. Preusse, L. Pfister, and P.-H. Wang, "CRISTA observations of cirrus clouds around the tropopause," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prospero, J. M.

D. A. Gillette, E. M. Patterson, J. M. Prospero, and M. L. Jackson, "Soil aerosols," in Aerosol Effects on Climate, S. G. Jennings, ed. (U. Arizona Press, 1993).

Provost, P.

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, and P. Provost, "SAGE II inversion algorithm," J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339-8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pueschel, R. F.

R. F. Pueschel, J. M. Livingstone, G. V. Ferry, and T. E. DeFelice, "Aerosol abundances and optical characteristics in the Pacific basin free troposphere," Atmos. Environ. 28, 951-960 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Putaud, J. P.

D. R. Collins, H. H. Jonsson, J. H. Seinfeld, R. C. Flagan, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, P. B. Russell, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, L. M. Russell, and J. P. Putaud, "In situ aerosol-size distributions and clear-column radiative closure during ACE-2," Tellus 52B, 498-525 (2000).

Qian, F.

F. Parungo, R. Schnell, A. Yoshinago, L. Pago, Y. Kim, C. Zhu, J. Harriss, B. Bodhaine, M. Zhou, Z. Chen, F. Qian, X. Li, D. Yang, X. Fang, P. Yan, X. Yu, and K. Park, "Asian duststorms and their effects on radiation and climate: Part III," STC Technical Report 3111 (Science and Technology Corporation, 1996).

Rajta, I.

P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, L. Lange, G. Roberts, J. Cafmeyer, I. Rajta, W. Maenhaut, B. N. Holben, P. Artaxo, and J. Lelieveld, "Saharan dust in Brazil and Suriname during the large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA)--Cooperative LBA Regional Experiment (CLAIRE) in March 1998," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14919-14934 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Riese, M.

R. Spang, G. Eidmann, M. Riese, D. Offermann, P. Preusse, L. Pfister, and P.-H. Wang, "CRISTA observations of cirrus clouds around the tropopause," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rind, D.

P.-H. Wang, D. Rind, C. R. Trepte, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, and K. M. Skeens, "An empirical model study of the tropospheric meridional circulation based on SAGE II observations," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13801-13818 (1998).
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X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, and D. Rind, "Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds, 2. Locating cloud tops," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1137-1148 (1995).
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X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, and D. Rind, "Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds, 1. Global and zonal mean cloud amounts," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1121-1136 (1995).
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Rinke, A.

Y. Yamanouchi, R. Treffeisen, A. Herber, M. Shiobara, S. Yamagata, K. Hara, K. Sato, M. Yabuki, Y. Tomikawa, A. Rinke, R. Neuber, R. Schumachter, M. Kriews, J. Strom, O. Schrems, and H. Gernandt, "Arctic study of tropospheric aerosol and radiation (ASTAR) 2000: Arctic haze case study," Tellus 57B, 141-152 (2005).

Roberts, G.

P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, L. Lange, G. Roberts, J. Cafmeyer, I. Rajta, W. Maenhaut, B. N. Holben, P. Artaxo, and J. Lelieveld, "Saharan dust in Brazil and Suriname during the large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA)--Cooperative LBA Regional Experiment (CLAIRE) in March 1998," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14919-14934 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Roche, A. E.

J. L. Mergenthaler, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, and G. A. Ely, "Cryogenic limb array etalon spectrometer observations of tropical cirrus," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 22183-22194 (1999).
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Rosen, J. M.

T. Deshler, M. E. Hervig, D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, and J. B. Liley, "Thirty years of in situ stratospheric aerosol size distribution measurements from Laramie, Wyoming (41 °N), using balloonborne instruments," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
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Rossow, W. B.

X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, and D. Rind, "Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds, 2. Locating cloud tops," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1137-1148 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, and D. Rind, "Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds, 1. Global and zonal mean cloud amounts," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1121-1136 (1995).
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Rozier, W. R.

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, and W. R. Rozier, "Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 °N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility," Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435-1438 (1993).
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Russell, L. M.

D. R. Collins, H. H. Jonsson, J. H. Seinfeld, R. C. Flagan, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, P. B. Russell, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, L. M. Russell, and J. P. Putaud, "In situ aerosol-size distributions and clear-column radiative closure during ACE-2," Tellus 52B, 498-525 (2000).

Russell, P. B.

D. R. Collins, H. H. Jonsson, J. H. Seinfeld, R. C. Flagan, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, P. B. Russell, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, L. M. Russell, and J. P. Putaud, "In situ aerosol-size distributions and clear-column radiative closure during ACE-2," Tellus 52B, 498-525 (2000).

Sato, K.

Y. Yamanouchi, R. Treffeisen, A. Herber, M. Shiobara, S. Yamagata, K. Hara, K. Sato, M. Yabuki, Y. Tomikawa, A. Rinke, R. Neuber, R. Schumachter, M. Kriews, J. Strom, O. Schrems, and H. Gernandt, "Arctic study of tropospheric aerosol and radiation (ASTAR) 2000: Arctic haze case study," Tellus 57B, 141-152 (2005).

Schlager, H.

A. Minikin, A. Petzold, J. Strom, R. Krejci, M. Seifert, P. van Velthoven, H. Schlager, and U. Schumann, "Aircraft observations of the upper tropospheric fine particle aerosol in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres at mid-latitudes," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, B.

D. R. Collins, H. H. Jonsson, J. H. Seinfeld, R. C. Flagan, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, P. B. Russell, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, L. M. Russell, and J. P. Putaud, "In situ aerosol-size distributions and clear-column radiative closure during ACE-2," Tellus 52B, 498-525 (2000).

Schnell, R.

F. Parungo, R. Schnell, A. Yoshinago, L. Pago, Y. Kim, C. Zhu, J. Harriss, B. Bodhaine, M. Zhou, Z. Chen, F. Qian, X. Li, D. Yang, X. Fang, P. Yan, X. Yu, and K. Park, "Asian duststorms and their effects on radiation and climate: Part III," STC Technical Report 3111 (Science and Technology Corporation, 1996).

Schrems, O.

Y. Yamanouchi, R. Treffeisen, A. Herber, M. Shiobara, S. Yamagata, K. Hara, K. Sato, M. Yabuki, Y. Tomikawa, A. Rinke, R. Neuber, R. Schumachter, M. Kriews, J. Strom, O. Schrems, and H. Gernandt, "Arctic study of tropospheric aerosol and radiation (ASTAR) 2000: Arctic haze case study," Tellus 57B, 141-152 (2005).

Schumachter, R.

Y. Yamanouchi, R. Treffeisen, A. Herber, M. Shiobara, S. Yamagata, K. Hara, K. Sato, M. Yabuki, Y. Tomikawa, A. Rinke, R. Neuber, R. Schumachter, M. Kriews, J. Strom, O. Schrems, and H. Gernandt, "Arctic study of tropospheric aerosol and radiation (ASTAR) 2000: Arctic haze case study," Tellus 57B, 141-152 (2005).

Schumann, U.

A. Minikin, A. Petzold, J. Strom, R. Krejci, M. Seifert, P. van Velthoven, H. Schlager, and U. Schumann, "Aircraft observations of the upper tropospheric fine particle aerosol in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres at mid-latitudes," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, M.

A. Minikin, A. Petzold, J. Strom, R. Krejci, M. Seifert, P. van Velthoven, H. Schlager, and U. Schumann, "Aircraft observations of the upper tropospheric fine particle aerosol in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres at mid-latitudes," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Seinfeld, J. H.

D. R. Collins, H. H. Jonsson, J. H. Seinfeld, R. C. Flagan, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, P. B. Russell, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, L. M. Russell, and J. P. Putaud, "In situ aerosol-size distributions and clear-column radiative closure during ACE-2," Tellus 52B, 498-525 (2000).

Shi, G.-Y.

Y. S. Kim, Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, D. Trochkin, A. Matsuki, M. Yamada, B. Chen, D. Zhang, M. Nagatani, and H. Nakata, "Dust particles in the free atmosphere over desert areas on the Asian continent: Measurements from summer 2001 to summer 2002 with balloonborne optical particle counter and lidar, Dunhuang, China," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, T.

Y. S. Kim, Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, D. Trochkin, A. Matsuki, M. Yamada, B. Chen, D. Zhang, M. Nagatani, and H. Nakata, "Dust particles in the free atmosphere over desert areas on the Asian continent: Measurements from summer 2001 to summer 2002 with balloonborne optical particle counter and lidar, Dunhuang, China," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shiobara, M.

Y. Yamanouchi, R. Treffeisen, A. Herber, M. Shiobara, S. Yamagata, K. Hara, K. Sato, M. Yabuki, Y. Tomikawa, A. Rinke, R. Neuber, R. Schumachter, M. Kriews, J. Strom, O. Schrems, and H. Gernandt, "Arctic study of tropospheric aerosol and radiation (ASTAR) 2000: Arctic haze case study," Tellus 57B, 141-152 (2005).

Skeens, K. M.

G. S. Kent, C. R. Trepte, K. M. Skeens, and D. M. Winker, "LITE and SAGE II measurements of aerosols in the southern-hemisphere upper troposphere," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 111-119 (1998).

P.-H. Wang, D. Rind, C. R. Trepte, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, and K. M. Skeens, "An empirical model study of the tropospheric meridional circulation based on SAGE II observations," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13801-13818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, C. R. Trepte, K. M. Skeens, and P.-H. Wang, "Long-term SAGE I and SAGE II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol extinction," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28863-28874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, and K. M. Skeens, "Discrimination of cloud and aerosol in the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III occultation data," Appl. Opt. 33, 8639-8649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, P.-H. Wang, and K. M. Skeens, "Simulation of SAGE II cloud measurements using airborne lidar data," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21795-21807 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, and K. M. Skeens, "A 6-year climatology of cloud occurrence frequency from SAGE II observations (1985-1991)," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 29407-29429 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, and K. M. Skeens, "A 6-year climatology of cloud occurrence frequency from SAGE II observations (1985-1990)," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 29407-29429 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, and K. M. Skeens, "Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements," Atmos. Res. 34, 53-83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, M. P. McCormick, and K. M. Skeens, "A model for the separation of cloud and aerosol in SAGE II occultation data," J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725-20735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Skeens, K. S.

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, and K. S. Skeens, "Multi-year stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characteristics," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13875-13899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Snider, J. R.

Z. Han, D. C. Montague, and J. R. Snider, "Airborne measurements of aerosol extinction in the lower and middle troposphere over Wyoming, USA," Atmos. Environ. 37, 789-802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, S.

S. Solomon, S. Borrmann, R. R. Garcia, R. Portmann, L. Thomason, L. R. Poole, D. Winker, and M. P. McCormick, "Heterogeneous chlorine chemistry in the tropopause region," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21411-21429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spang, R.

R. Spang, G. Eidmann, M. Riese, D. Offermann, P. Preusse, L. Pfister, and P.-H. Wang, "CRISTA observations of cirrus clouds around the tropopause," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Strom, J.

Y. Yamanouchi, R. Treffeisen, A. Herber, M. Shiobara, S. Yamagata, K. Hara, K. Sato, M. Yabuki, Y. Tomikawa, A. Rinke, R. Neuber, R. Schumachter, M. Kriews, J. Strom, O. Schrems, and H. Gernandt, "Arctic study of tropospheric aerosol and radiation (ASTAR) 2000: Arctic haze case study," Tellus 57B, 141-152 (2005).

A. Minikin, A. Petzold, J. Strom, R. Krejci, M. Seifert, P. van Velthoven, H. Schlager, and U. Schumann, "Aircraft observations of the upper tropospheric fine particle aerosol in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres at mid-latitudes," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Williams, M. de Reus, R. Krejci, H. Fischer, and J. Strom, "Application of the variability-size relationship to atmospheric aerosol studies: estimating aerosol lifetimes and ages," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2, 133-145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

J. Sun, M. Zhang, and T. Lui, "Spatial and temporal characteristics of dust storms in China and its surrounding regions, 1960-1999: relations to source area and climate," J. Geophys. 106, 10325-10333 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taha, G.

L. W. Thomason and G. Taha, "SAGE III aerosol extinction measurements: initial results," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thomason, L.

S. Solomon, S. Borrmann, R. R. Garcia, R. Portmann, L. Thomason, L. R. Poole, D. Winker, and M. P. McCormick, "Heterogeneous chlorine chemistry in the tropopause region," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21411-21429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thomason, L. W.

L. W. Thomason and G. Taha, "SAGE III aerosol extinction measurements: initial results," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tomikawa, Y.

Y. Yamanouchi, R. Treffeisen, A. Herber, M. Shiobara, S. Yamagata, K. Hara, K. Sato, M. Yabuki, Y. Tomikawa, A. Rinke, R. Neuber, R. Schumachter, M. Kriews, J. Strom, O. Schrems, and H. Gernandt, "Arctic study of tropospheric aerosol and radiation (ASTAR) 2000: Arctic haze case study," Tellus 57B, 141-152 (2005).

Toon, G. C.

L. R. Poole, C. R. Trepte, V. L. Harvey, G. C. Toon, and R. L. Van Valkenburg, "SAGE III observations of Arctic polar stratospheric clouds--December 2002," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Treffeisen, R.

Y. Yamanouchi, R. Treffeisen, A. Herber, M. Shiobara, S. Yamagata, K. Hara, K. Sato, M. Yabuki, Y. Tomikawa, A. Rinke, R. Neuber, R. Schumachter, M. Kriews, J. Strom, O. Schrems, and H. Gernandt, "Arctic study of tropospheric aerosol and radiation (ASTAR) 2000: Arctic haze case study," Tellus 57B, 141-152 (2005).

Trepte, C. R.

L. R. Poole, C. R. Trepte, V. L. Harvey, G. C. Toon, and R. L. Van Valkenburg, "SAGE III observations of Arctic polar stratospheric clouds--December 2002," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, C. R. Trepte, P.-H. Wang, and P. L. Lucker, "Problems in separating aerosol and cloud in the stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment (SAGE) II data set under conditions of lofted dust: application to the Asian deserts," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, C. R. Trepte, K. M. Skeens, and P.-H. Wang, "Long-term SAGE I and SAGE II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol extinction," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28863-28874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, D. Rind, C. R. Trepte, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, and K. M. Skeens, "An empirical model study of the tropospheric meridional circulation based on SAGE II observations," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13801-13818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, C. R. Trepte, K. M. Skeens, and D. M. Winker, "LITE and SAGE II measurements of aerosols in the southern-hemisphere upper troposphere," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 111-119 (1998).

Trochkin, D.

Y. S. Kim, Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, D. Trochkin, A. Matsuki, M. Yamada, B. Chen, D. Zhang, M. Nagatani, and H. Nakata, "Dust particles in the free atmosphere over desert areas on the Asian continent: Measurements from summer 2001 to summer 2002 with balloonborne optical particle counter and lidar, Dunhuang, China," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, H.

Z. Han, H. Ueda, K. Matsuda, R. Zhang, K. Arao, Y. Kanai, and H. Hasome, "Modal study on particle size segregation and deposition during Asian dust events in March 2002," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Valkenburg, R. L.

L. R. Poole, C. R. Trepte, V. L. Harvey, G. C. Toon, and R. L. Van Valkenburg, "SAGE III observations of Arctic polar stratospheric clouds--December 2002," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

van Velthoven, P.

A. Minikin, A. Petzold, J. Strom, R. Krejci, M. Seifert, P. van Velthoven, H. Schlager, and U. Schumann, "Aircraft observations of the upper tropospheric fine particle aerosol in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres at mid-latitudes," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vann, B.

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, B. A. Wielicki, T. Wong, and B. Vann, "Satellite observations of long-term changes in tropical cloud and outgoing longwave radiation from 1985 to 1998," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vann, L. B.

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, B. A. Wielicki, T. Wong, R. D. Cess, M. Zhang, L. B. Vann, and G. S. Kent, "Characteristics of the 1997/1998 El Nino cloud distributions," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).

P.-H. Wang, R. E. Veiga, L. B. Vann, P. Minnis, and G. S. Kent, "A further study of the method for estimation of SAGE II opaque cloud occurrence," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12603-12513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, M. A.

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, P.-H. Wang, and K. M. Skeens, "Simulation of SAGE II cloud measurements using airborne lidar data," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21795-21807 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Veiga, R. E.

P.-H. Wang, R. E. Veiga, L. B. Vann, P. Minnis, and G. S. Kent, "A further study of the method for estimation of SAGE II opaque cloud occurrence," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12603-12513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wake, C. P.

C. P. Wake and P. A. Mayewski, "Modern eolian dust deposition in central Asia," Tellus 46B, 220-233 (1994).

Wang, P.-H.

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, B. A. Wielicki, T. Wong, R. D. Cess, M. Zhang, L. B. Vann, and G. S. Kent, "Characteristics of the 1997/1998 El Nino cloud distributions," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).

G. S. Kent, C. R. Trepte, P.-H. Wang, and P. L. Lucker, "Problems in separating aerosol and cloud in the stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment (SAGE) II data set under conditions of lofted dust: application to the Asian deserts," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Bregman, P.-H. Wang, and J. Lelieveld, "Chemical ozone loss on subvisible ice clouds, calculated with a three-dimensional chemistry-transport model," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, B. A. Wielicki, T. Wong, and B. Vann, "Satellite observations of long-term changes in tropical cloud and outgoing longwave radiation from 1985 to 1998," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Spang, G. Eidmann, M. Riese, D. Offermann, P. Preusse, L. Pfister, and P.-H. Wang, "CRISTA observations of cirrus clouds around the tropopause," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, R. E. Veiga, L. B. Vann, P. Minnis, and G. S. Kent, "A further study of the method for estimation of SAGE II opaque cloud occurrence," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12603-12513 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, P.-H. Wang, and B. A. Wielicki, "Cloud structure anomalies over the tropical Pacific during the 1997/98 El Nino," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4547-4550 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Wylie and P.-H. Wang, "Comparison of SAGE-II and HIRS colocated cloud height measurements," Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3373-3375 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, D. Rind, C. R. Trepte, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, and K. M. Skeens, "An empirical model study of the tropospheric meridional circulation based on SAGE II observations," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13801-13818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, C. R. Trepte, K. M. Skeens, and P.-H. Wang, "Long-term SAGE I and SAGE II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol extinction," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28863-28874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, and K. M. Skeens, "Discrimination of cloud and aerosol in the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III occultation data," Appl. Opt. 33, 8639-8649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Wylie and P.-H. Wang, "Comparison of cloud frequency data from the high-resolution infrared radiometer sounder and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 29893-29900 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, P.-H. Wang, and K. M. Skeens, "Simulation of SAGE II cloud measurements using airborne lidar data," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21795-21807 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, and K. M. Skeens, "A 6-year climatology of cloud occurrence frequency from SAGE II observations (1985-1990)," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 29407-29429 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, and K. M. Skeens, "A 6-year climatology of cloud occurrence frequency from SAGE II observations (1985-1991)," J. Geophys. Res. 101, 29407-29429 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, and K. S. Skeens, "Multi-year stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characteristics," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13875-13899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, and K. M. Skeens, "Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements," Atmos. Res. 34, 53-83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wielicki, B. A.

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, B. A. Wielicki, T. Wong, R. D. Cess, M. Zhang, L. B. Vann, and G. S. Kent, "Characteristics of the 1997/1998 El Nino cloud distributions," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, B. A. Wielicki, T. Wong, and B. Vann, "Satellite observations of long-term changes in tropical cloud and outgoing longwave radiation from 1985 to 1998," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, P.-H. Wang, and B. A. Wielicki, "Cloud structure anomalies over the tropical Pacific during the 1997/98 El Nino," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4547-4550 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J.

J. Williams, M. de Reus, R. Krejci, H. Fischer, and J. Strom, "Application of the variability-size relationship to atmospheric aerosol studies: estimating aerosol lifetimes and ages," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2, 133-145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Winker, D.

S. Solomon, S. Borrmann, R. R. Garcia, R. Portmann, L. Thomason, L. R. Poole, D. Winker, and M. P. McCormick, "Heterogeneous chlorine chemistry in the tropopause region," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21411-21429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Winker, D. M.

G. S. Kent, C. R. Trepte, K. M. Skeens, and D. M. Winker, "LITE and SAGE II measurements of aerosols in the southern-hemisphere upper troposphere," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 111-119 (1998).

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, P.-H. Wang, and K. M. Skeens, "Simulation of SAGE II cloud measurements using airborne lidar data," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21795-21807 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, M. P. McCormick, and K. M. Skeens, "A model for the separation of cloud and aerosol in SAGE II occultation data," J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725-20735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wong, T.

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, B. A. Wielicki, T. Wong, R. D. Cess, M. Zhang, L. B. Vann, and G. S. Kent, "Characteristics of the 1997/1998 El Nino cloud distributions," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, B. A. Wielicki, T. Wong, and B. Vann, "Satellite observations of long-term changes in tropical cloud and outgoing longwave radiation from 1985 to 1998," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wylie, D. P.

D. P. Wylie and P.-H. Wang, "Comparison of SAGE-II and HIRS colocated cloud height measurements," Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3373-3375 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Wylie and P.-H. Wang, "Comparison of cloud frequency data from the high-resolution infrared radiometer sounder and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 29893-29900 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yabuki, M.

Y. Yamanouchi, R. Treffeisen, A. Herber, M. Shiobara, S. Yamagata, K. Hara, K. Sato, M. Yabuki, Y. Tomikawa, A. Rinke, R. Neuber, R. Schumachter, M. Kriews, J. Strom, O. Schrems, and H. Gernandt, "Arctic study of tropospheric aerosol and radiation (ASTAR) 2000: Arctic haze case study," Tellus 57B, 141-152 (2005).

Yamada, M.

Y. S. Kim, Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, D. Trochkin, A. Matsuki, M. Yamada, B. Chen, D. Zhang, M. Nagatani, and H. Nakata, "Dust particles in the free atmosphere over desert areas on the Asian continent: Measurements from summer 2001 to summer 2002 with balloonborne optical particle counter and lidar, Dunhuang, China," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamagata, S.

Y. Yamanouchi, R. Treffeisen, A. Herber, M. Shiobara, S. Yamagata, K. Hara, K. Sato, M. Yabuki, Y. Tomikawa, A. Rinke, R. Neuber, R. Schumachter, M. Kriews, J. Strom, O. Schrems, and H. Gernandt, "Arctic study of tropospheric aerosol and radiation (ASTAR) 2000: Arctic haze case study," Tellus 57B, 141-152 (2005).

Yamanouchi, Y.

Y. Yamanouchi, R. Treffeisen, A. Herber, M. Shiobara, S. Yamagata, K. Hara, K. Sato, M. Yabuki, Y. Tomikawa, A. Rinke, R. Neuber, R. Schumachter, M. Kriews, J. Strom, O. Schrems, and H. Gernandt, "Arctic study of tropospheric aerosol and radiation (ASTAR) 2000: Arctic haze case study," Tellus 57B, 141-152 (2005).

Yan, P.

F. Parungo, R. Schnell, A. Yoshinago, L. Pago, Y. Kim, C. Zhu, J. Harriss, B. Bodhaine, M. Zhou, Z. Chen, F. Qian, X. Li, D. Yang, X. Fang, P. Yan, X. Yu, and K. Park, "Asian duststorms and their effects on radiation and climate: Part III," STC Technical Report 3111 (Science and Technology Corporation, 1996).

Yang, D.

F. Parungo, R. Schnell, A. Yoshinago, L. Pago, Y. Kim, C. Zhu, J. Harriss, B. Bodhaine, M. Zhou, Z. Chen, F. Qian, X. Li, D. Yang, X. Fang, P. Yan, X. Yu, and K. Park, "Asian duststorms and their effects on radiation and climate: Part III," STC Technical Report 3111 (Science and Technology Corporation, 1996).

Yoshinago, A.

F. Parungo, R. Schnell, A. Yoshinago, L. Pago, Y. Kim, C. Zhu, J. Harriss, B. Bodhaine, M. Zhou, Z. Chen, F. Qian, X. Li, D. Yang, X. Fang, P. Yan, X. Yu, and K. Park, "Asian duststorms and their effects on radiation and climate: Part III," STC Technical Report 3111 (Science and Technology Corporation, 1996).

Yu, X.

F. Parungo, R. Schnell, A. Yoshinago, L. Pago, Y. Kim, C. Zhu, J. Harriss, B. Bodhaine, M. Zhou, Z. Chen, F. Qian, X. Li, D. Yang, X. Fang, P. Yan, X. Yu, and K. Park, "Asian duststorms and their effects on radiation and climate: Part III," STC Technical Report 3111 (Science and Technology Corporation, 1996).

Yue, G. K.

P.-H. Wang, D. Rind, C. R. Trepte, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, and K. M. Skeens, "An empirical model study of the tropospheric meridional circulation based on SAGE II observations," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13801-13818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, and K. M. Skeens, "Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements," Atmos. Res. 34, 53-83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, U. O. Farrukh, and A. Deepak, "Modelling atmospheric aerosol backscatter at CO2 wavelengths. 1: Aerosol properties, modeling techniques, and associated problems," Appl. Opt. 22, 1655-1665 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, D.

Y. S. Kim, Y. Iwasaka, G.-Y. Shi, T. Nagatani, T. Shibata, D. Trochkin, A. Matsuki, M. Yamada, B. Chen, D. Zhang, M. Nagatani, and H. Nakata, "Dust particles in the free atmosphere over desert areas on the Asian continent: Measurements from summer 2001 to summer 2002 with balloonborne optical particle counter and lidar, Dunhuang, China," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M.

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, B. A. Wielicki, T. Wong, R. D. Cess, M. Zhang, L. B. Vann, and G. S. Kent, "Characteristics of the 1997/1998 El Nino cloud distributions," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).

J. Sun, M. Zhang, and T. Lui, "Spatial and temporal characteristics of dust storms in China and its surrounding regions, 1960-1999: relations to source area and climate," J. Geophys. 106, 10325-10333 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M. H.

R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, P.-H. Wang, and B. A. Wielicki, "Cloud structure anomalies over the tropical Pacific during the 1997/98 El Nino," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4547-4550 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

Z. Han, H. Ueda, K. Matsuda, R. Zhang, K. Arao, Y. Kanai, and H. Hasome, "Modal study on particle size segregation and deposition during Asian dust events in March 2002," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, M.

F. Parungo, R. Schnell, A. Yoshinago, L. Pago, Y. Kim, C. Zhu, J. Harriss, B. Bodhaine, M. Zhou, Z. Chen, F. Qian, X. Li, D. Yang, X. Fang, P. Yan, X. Yu, and K. Park, "Asian duststorms and their effects on radiation and climate: Part III," STC Technical Report 3111 (Science and Technology Corporation, 1996).

Zhu, C.

F. Parungo, R. Schnell, A. Yoshinago, L. Pago, Y. Kim, C. Zhu, J. Harriss, B. Bodhaine, M. Zhou, Z. Chen, F. Qian, X. Li, D. Yang, X. Fang, P. Yan, X. Yu, and K. Park, "Asian duststorms and their effects on radiation and climate: Part III," STC Technical Report 3111 (Science and Technology Corporation, 1996).

Zhuang, J.

J. Kline, B. Huebert, S. Howell, B. Blomquist, J. Zhuang, T. Bertram, and J. Carrillo, "Aerosol composition and size versus altitude measured from the C-130 during ACE-Asia," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, and K. M. Skeens, "Discrimination of cloud and aerosol in the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III occultation data," Appl. Opt. 33, 8639-8649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, U. O. Farrukh, and A. Deepak, "Modelling atmospheric aerosol backscatter at CO2 wavelengths. 1: Aerosol properties, modeling techniques, and associated problems," Appl. Opt. 22, 1655-1665 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. Williams, M. de Reus, R. Krejci, H. Fischer, and J. Strom, "Application of the variability-size relationship to atmospheric aerosol studies: estimating aerosol lifetimes and ages," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2, 133-145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Environ. (2)

Z. Han, D. C. Montague, and J. R. Snider, "Airborne measurements of aerosol extinction in the lower and middle troposphere over Wyoming, USA," Atmos. Environ. 37, 789-802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, J. M. Livingstone, G. V. Ferry, and T. E. DeFelice, "Aerosol abundances and optical characteristics in the Pacific basin free troposphere," Atmos. Environ. 28, 951-960 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Res. (1)

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, and K. M. Skeens, "Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements," Atmos. Res. 34, 53-83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (8)

R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, P.-H. Wang, and B. A. Wielicki, "Cloud structure anomalies over the tropical Pacific during the 1997/98 El Nino," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4547-4550 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Wylie and P.-H. Wang, "Comparison of SAGE-II and HIRS colocated cloud height measurements," Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3373-3375 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason and G. Taha, "SAGE III aerosol extinction measurements: initial results," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent and M. P. McCormick, "Separation of cloud and aerosol in two-wavelength satellite occultation data," Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 428-431 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, B. A. Wielicki, T. Wong, and B. Vann, "Satellite observations of long-term changes in tropical cloud and outgoing longwave radiation from 1985 to 1998," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, and W. R. Rozier, "Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 °N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility," Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435-1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Poole, C. R. Trepte, V. L. Harvey, G. C. Toon, and R. L. Van Valkenburg, "SAGE III observations of Arctic polar stratospheric clouds--December 2002," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Minikin, A. Petzold, J. Strom, R. Krejci, M. Seifert, P. van Velthoven, H. Schlager, and U. Schumann, "Aircraft observations of the upper tropospheric fine particle aerosol in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres at mid-latitudes," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

J. E. Hansen and J. W. Hovenier, "Interpretation of the polarization of Venus," J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1137-1160 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. (1)

J. Sun, M. Zhang, and T. Lui, "Spatial and temporal characteristics of dust storms in China and its surrounding regions, 1960-1999: relations to source area and climate," J. Geophys. 106, 10325-10333 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (27)

Z. Han, H. Ueda, K. Matsuda, R. Zhang, K. Arao, Y. Kanai, and H. Hasome, "Modal study on particle size segregation and deposition during Asian dust events in March 2002," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, C. R. Trepte, K. M. Skeens, and D. M. Winker, "LITE and SAGE II measurements of aerosols in the southern-hemisphere upper troposphere," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 111-119 (1998).

G. S. Kent, C. R. Trepte, K. M. Skeens, and P.-H. Wang, "Long-term SAGE I and SAGE II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol extinction," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28863-28874 (1998).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mean monthly latitude of SAGE III sunrise and sunset measurements from March 2002 to December 2005. There are no data for July and August 2005 and data for September 2005 are for the latter part of the month only.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical SAGE III aerosol extinction profiles at 525, 1020, and 1550  nm . (a) Cloud-free profile, Southern Hemisphere, data taken on 3 December 2003 at latitude 39.6 °S and longitude 142.3 °W. (b) Profiles showing tropospheric cloud, Northern Hemisphere, data taken on 1 May 2003 at latitude 57.2 °N and longitude 143.2 °W. Note the very large error bars beneath the cloud.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scatterplots of the 525/1020  nm and the 1020/1550  nm extinction ratios for in situ measured size distributions obtained during nonvolcanic atmospheric conditions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Smaller filled circles correspond to cloud-free aerosol; crosses correspond to aerosol plus varying amounts of simulated cloud. The larger solid dot at (1.0,1.0) represents cloud. Panels (a) and (b) show the same nonvolcanic aerosol and cloud data but are drawn to different scales. Data are taken from Kent et al. (Ref. [27]). The shaded area was used in the originally proposed SAGE III algorithm to determine the presence of cloud.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Density plots of the wavelength extinction ratio data points in the Southern Hemisphere for December 2002. All data points obtained during this month at altitudes between 6 km and the tropopause are included. The quantity plotted is the percentage of the total data occurring within each pixel in the diagram. Also shown are extinction ratios calculated using Mie theory and based on a comprehensive series of balloonborne measurements of aerosol size distributions made at Mildura, Australia (34°S) (Ref. [30]). (a)(i) Rectangle shows the cloud detection area in the originally proposed algorithm, (a)(ii) this area in the revised algorithm. (b) Integrated data density in the region of the cloud detection area for the December 2002 sunrise data and fitted Gaussian curves, (i) horizontal integration, (ii) vertical integration. (c) Data density plots for Northern Hemisphere data in June 2002. The same data are shown to different scales in (i) and (ii).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Modeled aerosol extinction ratios for (i) unimodal and (ii) bimodal lognormal size distributions of varying mode radii. In (i) five common aerosol compositions have been used, the width of the lognormal distributions has been set to 2.0, and the refractive indices have been taken from Kent et al. (Ref. [31]). The mode radii in micrometers are shown adjacent to the data points; the values in parentheses are the effective radii (Ref. [32]). Data points for different compositions but the same mode radii are joined by thin black lines. (ii) Extinction ratios similarly calculated for bimodal mixtures in which the composition of the smaller aerosol particles has been taken to be sulfuric acid (mode radius 0.316 μm) and that of the larger particles to be dust. The green dots show the extinction ratios for particle mixtures. Points in these mixtures where the ratio of the number of particles in the small particle mode to that in the large particle mode has a constant fixed value are connected by the red lines. (b) Extinction ratios calculated from in situ aerosol size distribution measurements. (i) Balloonborne, tropospheric (see Table 2 for detailed information); (ii) airborne, tropospheric (see Table 3 for detailed information); (iii) balloonborne at times of volcanic contamination, upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric (see Table 2 for detailed information). (c) Figure showing the areas used in the revised cloud detection algorithm; see Section 3 for detailed information.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Examples of histograms of the tropospheric cloud and aerosol 1020  nm extinction distributions derived from data processed using the revised SAGE III algorithm. The data are for July 2003 and include all data points between 6 km altitude and the tropopause. (i) Sunrise (Southern Hemisphere), (ii) sunset (Northern Hemisphere). Note the strong hemispheric asymmetry in median aerosol extinction and that the cloud and aerosol histograms are plotted to different scales. (b) Aerosol and cloud histograms for July 2003 at 2 km altitude intervals from 6 to 12 km. (i) Sunrise, (ii) sunset (see Table 8 for further information about these histograms).

Tables (8)

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Table 1 Surface Measurements of Atmospheric Dust: Equivalent Large Particle Mode Radius [d N d (log R )]

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Table 2 Balloonborne Optical Particle Counter Measurements Used for Calculation of the Aerosol Extinction Ratios a

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Table 3 Northern Hemisphere Airborne in Situ Aerosol Size Distribution Measurements Used for Calculation of the Aerosol Extinction Ratios a

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Table 4 Reference Publications for the SAGE III Cloud Data Product

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Table 5 Comparison of the Results of the Application of the SAGE II and SAGE III Cloud Algorithms to Northern Hemisphere Tropospheric Data for November 2003 a

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Table 6 Agreement Between the Results of the SAGE II and SAGE III Cloud Algorithms and the Relative Number of Cases Handled by Each Algorithm a

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Table 7 Comparison of the Results of the Application of the SAGE II and SAGE III Cloud Algorithms to Northern Hemisphere Data a

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Table 8 Statistics for the July 2003 Aerosol and Cloud Histograms Shown in Figure 6(b)

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