Abstract

Spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton can now be derived, under some assumptions, from hyperspectral ocean color measurements and thus become accessible from space. In this study, multilayer perceptrons have been developed to retrieve information on the pigment composition and size structure of phytoplankton from these absorption spectra. The retrieved variables are the main pigment groups (chlorophylls a, b, c, and photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic carotenoids) and the relative contributions of three algal size classes (pico-, nano-, and microphytoplankton) to total chlorophyll a. The networks have been trained, tested, and validated using more than 3700 simultaneous absorption and pigment measurements collected in the world ocean. Among pigment groups, chlorophyll a is the most accurately retrieved (average relative errors of 17% and 16% for the test and validation data subsets, respectively), while the poorest performances are found for chlorophyll b (average relative errors of 51% and 40%). Relative contributions of algal size classes to total chlorophyll a are retrieved with average relative errors of 19% to 33% for the test subset and of 18% to 47% for the validation subset. The performances obtained for the validation data, showing no strong degradation with respect to test data, suggest that these neural networks might be operated with similar performances for a large variety of marine areas.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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A. M. Ciotti and A. Bricaud, "Retrievals of a size parameter for phytoplankton and light absorption by colored detrital matter from water-leaving radiances at SeaWiFS channels in a continental shelf region off Brazil," Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 237-253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

Z. P. Lee and K. L. Carder, "Absorption spectrum of phytoplankton pigments derived from hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance," Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 361-368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Eisner, M. S. Twardowski, and T. J. Cowles, "Resolving phytoplankton photoprotective: photosynthetic carotenoid ratios on fine scales using in situ spectral absorption measurements," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 632-646 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. M. Ciotti, M. R. Lewis, and J. J. Cullen, "Assessment of the relationships between dominant cell size in natural phytoplankton communities and the spectral shape of the absorption coefficient," Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 404-417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, B. B. Manca, A. Luchetta, and J. C. Marty, "Phytoplankton pigment distribution in relation to upper thermocline circulation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during winter," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 19939-19956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7763-7780 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

L. Gross, S. Thiria, R. Frouin, and B. G. Mitchell, "Artificial neural networks for modeling the transfer function between marine reflectance and phytoplankton pigment concentration," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3483-3495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Kirkpatrick, D. F. Millie, M. A. Moline, and O. Schofield, "Optical discrimination of a phytoplankton species in natural mixed populations," Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 467-471 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. Schiller and R. Doerffer, "Neural network for emulation of an inverse model--operational derivation of Case II water properties from MERIS data," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1735-1746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

V. Stuart, V. S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, H. Maass, and B. D. Irwin, "Pigment and species composition of natural phytoplankton populations: effect on the absorption spectra," J. Plankton Res. 20, 187-217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, and B. T. Vinyard, "Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red-tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve," Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240-1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, J. Bustillos-Guzman, C. Cailliau, and J. C. Marty, "Rapid HPLC method for determination of phytoplankton chemotaxinomic pigments: separation of chlorophyll a from divinyl-chlorophyll a, and zeaxanthin from lutein," J. Plankton Res. 18, 2377-2382 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

K. Allali, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and P. Chang, "A new method for measuring spectral absorption coefficients of marine particles," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1526-1532 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Claustre and J. C. Marty, "Specific phytoplankton biomasses and their relation to primary production in the tropical North Atlantic," Deep-Sea Res. , Part I 42, 1475-1493 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler and M. J. Perry, "In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279-13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

G. Johnsen, O. Samset, L. Granskog, and E. Sakshaug, "In vivo absorption characteristics in 10 classes of bloom-forming phytoplankton: taxonomic characteristics and responses to photoadaptation by means of discriminant and HPLC analysis," Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 105, 149-157 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Garver, D. A. Siegel, and B. G. Mitchell, "Variability in near-surface particulate absorption spectra: what can a satellite ocean color imager see?" Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1349-1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

N. Hoepffner and S. Sathyendranath, "Determination of the major groups of phytoplankton pigments from the absorption spectra of total particulate matter," J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22789-22803 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Thiria, C. Mejia, F. Badran, and M. Crepon, "A neural network approach for modelling non-linear transfer functions: Application for wind retrieval from space borne scatterometer data," J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22827-22841 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

A. Bricaud and D. Stramski, "Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and non-algal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562-582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

R. R. Bidigare, J. H. Morrow, and D. A. Kiefer, "Derivative analysis of spectral absorption by photosynthetic pigments in the Western Sargasso sea," J. Mar. Res. 47, 323-341 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985

M. A. Faust and K. H. Norris, "In vivo spectrophotometric analysis of photosynthetic pigments in natural populations of phytoplankton," Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1316-1322 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, and S. Ichimura, "Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea," Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634-642 (1985).

1981

A. Morel and A. Bricaud, "Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium, and application to specific absorption of phytoplankton," Deep-Sea Res. 28, 1375-1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1975

Allali, K.

K. Allali, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and P. Chang, "A new method for measuring spectral absorption coefficients of marine particles," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1526-1532 (1995).
[CrossRef]

André, J. M.

Babin, M.

K. Allali, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and P. Chang, "A new method for measuring spectral absorption coefficients of marine particles," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1526-1532 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Badran, F.

S. Thiria, C. Mejia, F. Badran, and M. Crepon, "A neural network approach for modelling non-linear transfer functions: Application for wind retrieval from space borne scatterometer data," J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22827-22841 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bidigare, R. R.

R. R. Bidigare, J. H. Morrow, and D. A. Kiefer, "Derivative analysis of spectral absorption by photosynthetic pigments in the Western Sargasso sea," J. Mar. Res. 47, 323-341 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, J. H. Morrow, and D. A. Kiefer, "In vivo absorption properties of algal pigments," in Ocean Optics X, Proc. SPIE 1302,290-302 (1990).

Bishop, C. M.

C. M. Bishop, Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition (Clarendon, 1995).

Bricaud, A.

A. M. Ciotti and A. Bricaud, "Retrievals of a size parameter for phytoplankton and light absorption by colored detrital matter from water-leaving radiances at SeaWiFS channels in a continental shelf region off Brazil," Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 237-253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Allali, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and P. Chang, "A new method for measuring spectral absorption coefficients of marine particles," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1526-1532 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud and D. Stramski, "Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and non-algal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562-582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and A. Bricaud, "Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium, and application to specific absorption of phytoplankton," Deep-Sea Res. 28, 1375-1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and K. Oubelkheir, "Natural variability of phytoplanktonic absorption in oceanic waters: influence of the size structure of algal populations," J. Geophys. Res.109, C11010 (2004).

A. Chazottes, A. Bricaud, M. Crépon, and S. Thiria, "Statistical analysis of a database of absorption spectra of phytoplankton and pigment concentrations using self-organizing maps," Appl. Opt. 45, 8102-8115 (2006).

Bustillos-Guzman, J.

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, J. Bustillos-Guzman, C. Cailliau, and J. C. Marty, "Rapid HPLC method for determination of phytoplankton chemotaxinomic pigments: separation of chlorophyll a from divinyl-chlorophyll a, and zeaxanthin from lutein," J. Plankton Res. 18, 2377-2382 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cailliau, C.

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, J. Bustillos-Guzman, C. Cailliau, and J. C. Marty, "Rapid HPLC method for determination of phytoplankton chemotaxinomic pigments: separation of chlorophyll a from divinyl-chlorophyll a, and zeaxanthin from lutein," J. Plankton Res. 18, 2377-2382 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

Z. P. Lee and K. L. Carder, "Absorption spectrum of phytoplankton pigments derived from hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance," Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 361-368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, P.

K. Allali, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and P. Chang, "A new method for measuring spectral absorption coefficients of marine particles," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1526-1532 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chazottes, A.

A. Chazottes, A. Bricaud, M. Crépon, and S. Thiria, "Statistical analysis of a database of absorption spectra of phytoplankton and pigment concentrations using self-organizing maps," Appl. Opt. 45, 8102-8115 (2006).

Ciotti, A. M.

A. M. Ciotti and A. Bricaud, "Retrievals of a size parameter for phytoplankton and light absorption by colored detrital matter from water-leaving radiances at SeaWiFS channels in a continental shelf region off Brazil," Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 237-253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Ciotti, M. R. Lewis, and J. J. Cullen, "Assessment of the relationships between dominant cell size in natural phytoplankton communities and the spectral shape of the absorption coefficient," Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 404-417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, B. B. Manca, A. Luchetta, and J. C. Marty, "Phytoplankton pigment distribution in relation to upper thermocline circulation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during winter," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 19939-19956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, J. Bustillos-Guzman, C. Cailliau, and J. C. Marty, "Rapid HPLC method for determination of phytoplankton chemotaxinomic pigments: separation of chlorophyll a from divinyl-chlorophyll a, and zeaxanthin from lutein," J. Plankton Res. 18, 2377-2382 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Claustre and J. C. Marty, "Specific phytoplankton biomasses and their relation to primary production in the tropical North Atlantic," Deep-Sea Res. , Part I 42, 1475-1493 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and S. Hooker, "Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: an assessment based on surface chlorophyll," J. Geophys. Res.111, C08005 (2006).

A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and K. Oubelkheir, "Natural variability of phytoplanktonic absorption in oceanic waters: influence of the size structure of algal populations," J. Geophys. Res.109, C11010 (2004).

Cowles, T. J.

L. B. Eisner, M. S. Twardowski, and T. J. Cowles, "Resolving phytoplankton photoprotective: photosynthetic carotenoid ratios on fine scales using in situ spectral absorption measurements," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 632-646 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Crepon, M.

S. Thiria, C. Mejia, F. Badran, and M. Crepon, "A neural network approach for modelling non-linear transfer functions: Application for wind retrieval from space borne scatterometer data," J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22827-22841 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Crépon, M.

A. Chazottes, A. Bricaud, M. Crépon, and S. Thiria, "Statistical analysis of a database of absorption spectra of phytoplankton and pigment concentrations using self-organizing maps," Appl. Opt. 45, 8102-8115 (2006).

Cullen, J. J.

A. M. Ciotti, M. R. Lewis, and J. J. Cullen, "Assessment of the relationships between dominant cell size in natural phytoplankton communities and the spectral shape of the absorption coefficient," Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 404-417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Doerffer, R.

H. Schiller and R. Doerffer, "Neural network for emulation of an inverse model--operational derivation of Case II water properties from MERIS data," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1735-1746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dupouy, C.

Eisner, L. B.

L. B. Eisner, M. S. Twardowski, and T. J. Cowles, "Resolving phytoplankton photoprotective: photosynthetic carotenoid ratios on fine scales using in situ spectral absorption measurements," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 632-646 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Faust, M. A.

M. A. Faust and K. H. Norris, "In vivo spectrophotometric analysis of photosynthetic pigments in natural populations of phytoplankton," Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1316-1322 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fell, F.

T. Zhang, F. Fell, Z. Liu, R. Preusker, J. Fischer, and M. He, "Evaluating the performance of artificial neural network techniques for pigment retrieval from ocean color in Case I waters," J. Geophys. Res.108, 3286 (2003).

Fischer, J.

T. Zhang, F. Fell, Z. Liu, R. Preusker, J. Fischer, and M. He, "Evaluating the performance of artificial neural network techniques for pigment retrieval from ocean color in Case I waters," J. Geophys. Res.108, 3286 (2003).

Frouin, R.

L. Gross, R. Frouin, C. Dupouy, J. M. André, and S. Thiria, "Reducing variability that is due to secondary pigments in the retrieval of chlorophyll a concentration from marine reflectance: a case study in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean," Appl. Opt. 43, 4041-4054 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gross, S. Thiria, R. Frouin, and B. G. Mitchell, "Artificial neural networks for modeling the transfer function between marine reflectance and phytoplankton pigment concentration," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3483-3495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Garver, S.

S. Garver, D. A. Siegel, and B. G. Mitchell, "Variability in near-surface particulate absorption spectra: what can a satellite ocean color imager see?" Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1349-1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

Granskog, L.

G. Johnsen, O. Samset, L. Granskog, and E. Sakshaug, "In vivo absorption characteristics in 10 classes of bloom-forming phytoplankton: taxonomic characteristics and responses to photoadaptation by means of discriminant and HPLC analysis," Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 105, 149-157 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gross, L.

L. Gross, R. Frouin, C. Dupouy, J. M. André, and S. Thiria, "Reducing variability that is due to secondary pigments in the retrieval of chlorophyll a concentration from marine reflectance: a case study in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean," Appl. Opt. 43, 4041-4054 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gross, S. Thiria, R. Frouin, and B. G. Mitchell, "Artificial neural networks for modeling the transfer function between marine reflectance and phytoplankton pigment concentration," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3483-3495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

He, M.

T. Zhang, F. Fell, Z. Liu, R. Preusker, J. Fischer, and M. He, "Evaluating the performance of artificial neural network techniques for pigment retrieval from ocean color in Case I waters," J. Geophys. Res.108, 3286 (2003).

Hoepffner, N.

N. Hoepffner and S. Sathyendranath, "Determination of the major groups of phytoplankton pigments from the absorption spectra of total particulate matter," J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22789-22803 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S.

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and S. Hooker, "Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: an assessment based on surface chlorophyll," J. Geophys. Res.111, C08005 (2006).

Ichimura, S.

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, and S. Ichimura, "Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea," Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634-642 (1985).

Irwin, B. D.

V. Stuart, V. S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, H. Maass, and B. D. Irwin, "Pigment and species composition of natural phytoplankton populations: effect on the absorption spectra," J. Plankton Res. 20, 187-217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johnsen, G.

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, and B. T. Vinyard, "Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red-tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve," Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240-1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Johnsen, O. Samset, L. Granskog, and E. Sakshaug, "In vivo absorption characteristics in 10 classes of bloom-forming phytoplankton: taxonomic characteristics and responses to photoadaptation by means of discriminant and HPLC analysis," Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 105, 149-157 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, D. A.

R. R. Bidigare, J. H. Morrow, and D. A. Kiefer, "Derivative analysis of spectral absorption by photosynthetic pigments in the Western Sargasso sea," J. Mar. Res. 47, 323-341 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, J. H. Morrow, and D. A. Kiefer, "In vivo absorption properties of algal pigments," in Ocean Optics X, Proc. SPIE 1302,290-302 (1990).

Kirkpatrick, G.

G. Kirkpatrick, D. F. Millie, M. A. Moline, and O. Schofield, "Optical discrimination of a phytoplankton species in natural mixed populations," Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 467-471 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, G. J.

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, and B. T. Vinyard, "Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red-tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve," Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240-1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kishino, M.

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, and S. Ichimura, "Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea," Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634-642 (1985).

Lee, Z. P.

Z. P. Lee and K. L. Carder, "Absorption spectrum of phytoplankton pigments derived from hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance," Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 361-368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z.-P.

Z.-P. Lee, ed., Remote Sensing of Inherent Optical Properties: Fundamentals, Tests of Algorithms, and Applications, IOCCG Rep. No. 5 (International Ocean Colour Coordinating Group, 2006).
[PubMed]

Lewis, M. R.

A. M. Ciotti, M. R. Lewis, and J. J. Cullen, "Assessment of the relationships between dominant cell size in natural phytoplankton communities and the spectral shape of the absorption coefficient," Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 404-417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

T. Zhang, F. Fell, Z. Liu, R. Preusker, J. Fischer, and M. He, "Evaluating the performance of artificial neural network techniques for pigment retrieval from ocean color in Case I waters," J. Geophys. Res.108, 3286 (2003).

Luchetta, A.

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, B. B. Manca, A. Luchetta, and J. C. Marty, "Phytoplankton pigment distribution in relation to upper thermocline circulation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during winter," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 19939-19956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maass, H.

V. Stuart, V. S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, H. Maass, and B. D. Irwin, "Pigment and species composition of natural phytoplankton populations: effect on the absorption spectra," J. Plankton Res. 20, 187-217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Manca, B. B.

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, B. B. Manca, A. Luchetta, and J. C. Marty, "Phytoplankton pigment distribution in relation to upper thermocline circulation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during winter," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 19939-19956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7763-7780 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marty, J. C.

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, B. B. Manca, A. Luchetta, and J. C. Marty, "Phytoplankton pigment distribution in relation to upper thermocline circulation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during winter," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 19939-19956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, J. Bustillos-Guzman, C. Cailliau, and J. C. Marty, "Rapid HPLC method for determination of phytoplankton chemotaxinomic pigments: separation of chlorophyll a from divinyl-chlorophyll a, and zeaxanthin from lutein," J. Plankton Res. 18, 2377-2382 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Claustre and J. C. Marty, "Specific phytoplankton biomasses and their relation to primary production in the tropical North Atlantic," Deep-Sea Res. , Part I 42, 1475-1493 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McCluney, W. R.

Mejia, C.

S. Thiria, C. Mejia, F. Badran, and M. Crepon, "A neural network approach for modelling non-linear transfer functions: Application for wind retrieval from space borne scatterometer data," J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22827-22841 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Millie, D. F.

G. Kirkpatrick, D. F. Millie, M. A. Moline, and O. Schofield, "Optical discrimination of a phytoplankton species in natural mixed populations," Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 467-471 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, and B. T. Vinyard, "Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red-tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve," Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240-1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

L. Gross, S. Thiria, R. Frouin, and B. G. Mitchell, "Artificial neural networks for modeling the transfer function between marine reflectance and phytoplankton pigment concentration," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3483-3495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Garver, D. A. Siegel, and B. G. Mitchell, "Variability in near-surface particulate absorption spectra: what can a satellite ocean color imager see?" Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1349-1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moline, M. A.

G. Kirkpatrick, D. F. Millie, M. A. Moline, and O. Schofield, "Optical discrimination of a phytoplankton species in natural mixed populations," Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 467-471 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7763-7780 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Allali, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and P. Chang, "A new method for measuring spectral absorption coefficients of marine particles," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1526-1532 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and A. Bricaud, "Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium, and application to specific absorption of phytoplankton," Deep-Sea Res. 28, 1375-1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and S. Hooker, "Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: an assessment based on surface chlorophyll," J. Geophys. Res.111, C08005 (2006).

Morrow, J. H.

R. R. Bidigare, J. H. Morrow, and D. A. Kiefer, "Derivative analysis of spectral absorption by photosynthetic pigments in the Western Sargasso sea," J. Mar. Res. 47, 323-341 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, J. H. Morrow, and D. A. Kiefer, "In vivo absorption properties of algal pigments," in Ocean Optics X, Proc. SPIE 1302,290-302 (1990).

Norris, K. H.

M. A. Faust and K. H. Norris, "In vivo spectrophotometric analysis of photosynthetic pigments in natural populations of phytoplankton," Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1316-1322 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Okami, N.

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, and S. Ichimura, "Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea," Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634-642 (1985).

Ondrusek, M. E.

R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, J. H. Morrow, and D. A. Kiefer, "In vivo absorption properties of algal pigments," in Ocean Optics X, Proc. SPIE 1302,290-302 (1990).

Oubelkheir, K.

A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and K. Oubelkheir, "Natural variability of phytoplanktonic absorption in oceanic waters: influence of the size structure of algal populations," J. Geophys. Res.109, C11010 (2004).

Perry, M. J.

C. S. Roesler and M. J. Perry, "In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279-13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Platt, T.

V. Stuart, V. S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, H. Maass, and B. D. Irwin, "Pigment and species composition of natural phytoplankton populations: effect on the absorption spectra," J. Plankton Res. 20, 187-217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Preusker, R.

T. Zhang, F. Fell, Z. Liu, R. Preusker, J. Fischer, and M. He, "Evaluating the performance of artificial neural network techniques for pigment retrieval from ocean color in Case I waters," J. Geophys. Res.108, 3286 (2003).

Ras, J.

A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and K. Oubelkheir, "Natural variability of phytoplanktonic absorption in oceanic waters: influence of the size structure of algal populations," J. Geophys. Res.109, C11010 (2004).

Roesler, C. S.

C. S. Roesler and M. J. Perry, "In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279-13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sakshaug, E.

G. Johnsen, O. Samset, L. Granskog, and E. Sakshaug, "In vivo absorption characteristics in 10 classes of bloom-forming phytoplankton: taxonomic characteristics and responses to photoadaptation by means of discriminant and HPLC analysis," Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 105, 149-157 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Samset, O.

G. Johnsen, O. Samset, L. Granskog, and E. Sakshaug, "In vivo absorption characteristics in 10 classes of bloom-forming phytoplankton: taxonomic characteristics and responses to photoadaptation by means of discriminant and HPLC analysis," Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 105, 149-157 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

N. Hoepffner and S. Sathyendranath, "Determination of the major groups of phytoplankton pigments from the absorption spectra of total particulate matter," J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22789-22803 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, V. S.

V. Stuart, V. S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, H. Maass, and B. D. Irwin, "Pigment and species composition of natural phytoplankton populations: effect on the absorption spectra," J. Plankton Res. 20, 187-217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, H.

H. Schiller and R. Doerffer, "Neural network for emulation of an inverse model--operational derivation of Case II water properties from MERIS data," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1735-1746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schofield, O.

G. Kirkpatrick, D. F. Millie, M. A. Moline, and O. Schofield, "Optical discrimination of a phytoplankton species in natural mixed populations," Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 467-471 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schofield, O. M.

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, and B. T. Vinyard, "Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red-tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve," Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240-1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

S. Garver, D. A. Siegel, and B. G. Mitchell, "Variability in near-surface particulate absorption spectra: what can a satellite ocean color imager see?" Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1349-1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

A. Bricaud and D. Stramski, "Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and non-algal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562-582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, V.

V. Stuart, V. S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, H. Maass, and B. D. Irwin, "Pigment and species composition of natural phytoplankton populations: effect on the absorption spectra," J. Plankton Res. 20, 187-217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, and S. Ichimura, "Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea," Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634-642 (1985).

Tester, P. A.

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, and B. T. Vinyard, "Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red-tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve," Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240-1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thiria, S.

L. Gross, R. Frouin, C. Dupouy, J. M. André, and S. Thiria, "Reducing variability that is due to secondary pigments in the retrieval of chlorophyll a concentration from marine reflectance: a case study in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean," Appl. Opt. 43, 4041-4054 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gross, S. Thiria, R. Frouin, and B. G. Mitchell, "Artificial neural networks for modeling the transfer function between marine reflectance and phytoplankton pigment concentration," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3483-3495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Thiria, C. Mejia, F. Badran, and M. Crepon, "A neural network approach for modelling non-linear transfer functions: Application for wind retrieval from space borne scatterometer data," J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22827-22841 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Chazottes, A. Bricaud, M. Crépon, and S. Thiria, "Statistical analysis of a database of absorption spectra of phytoplankton and pigment concentrations using self-organizing maps," Appl. Opt. 45, 8102-8115 (2006).

Twardowski, M. S.

L. B. Eisner, M. S. Twardowski, and T. J. Cowles, "Resolving phytoplankton photoprotective: photosynthetic carotenoid ratios on fine scales using in situ spectral absorption measurements," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 632-646 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Uitz, J.

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and S. Hooker, "Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: an assessment based on surface chlorophyll," J. Geophys. Res.111, C08005 (2006).

Vidussi, F.

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, B. B. Manca, A. Luchetta, and J. C. Marty, "Phytoplankton pigment distribution in relation to upper thermocline circulation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during winter," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 19939-19956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, J. Bustillos-Guzman, C. Cailliau, and J. C. Marty, "Rapid HPLC method for determination of phytoplankton chemotaxinomic pigments: separation of chlorophyll a from divinyl-chlorophyll a, and zeaxanthin from lutein," J. Plankton Res. 18, 2377-2382 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vinyard, B. T.

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, and B. T. Vinyard, "Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red-tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve," Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240-1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, T.

T. Zhang, F. Fell, Z. Liu, R. Preusker, J. Fischer, and M. He, "Evaluating the performance of artificial neural network techniques for pigment retrieval from ocean color in Case I waters," J. Geophys. Res.108, 3286 (2003).

Appl. Opt.

Bull. Mar. Sci.

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, and S. Ichimura, "Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea," Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634-642 (1985).

Deep-Sea Res.

H. Claustre and J. C. Marty, "Specific phytoplankton biomasses and their relation to primary production in the tropical North Atlantic," Deep-Sea Res. , Part I 42, 1475-1493 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and A. Bricaud, "Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium, and application to specific absorption of phytoplankton," Deep-Sea Res. 28, 1375-1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens.

H. Schiller and R. Doerffer, "Neural network for emulation of an inverse model--operational derivation of Case II water properties from MERIS data," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1735-1746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

L. Gross, S. Thiria, R. Frouin, and B. G. Mitchell, "Artificial neural networks for modeling the transfer function between marine reflectance and phytoplankton pigment concentration," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3483-3495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, B. B. Manca, A. Luchetta, and J. C. Marty, "Phytoplankton pigment distribution in relation to upper thermocline circulation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during winter," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 19939-19956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Thiria, C. Mejia, F. Badran, and M. Crepon, "A neural network approach for modelling non-linear transfer functions: Application for wind retrieval from space borne scatterometer data," J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22827-22841 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7763-7780 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Hoepffner and S. Sathyendranath, "Determination of the major groups of phytoplankton pigments from the absorption spectra of total particulate matter," J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22789-22803 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler and M. J. Perry, "In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279-13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res.

R. R. Bidigare, J. H. Morrow, and D. A. Kiefer, "Derivative analysis of spectral absorption by photosynthetic pigments in the Western Sargasso sea," J. Mar. Res. 47, 323-341 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Plankton Res.

V. Stuart, V. S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, H. Maass, and B. D. Irwin, "Pigment and species composition of natural phytoplankton populations: effect on the absorption spectra," J. Plankton Res. 20, 187-217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, J. Bustillos-Guzman, C. Cailliau, and J. C. Marty, "Rapid HPLC method for determination of phytoplankton chemotaxinomic pigments: separation of chlorophyll a from divinyl-chlorophyll a, and zeaxanthin from lutein," J. Plankton Res. 18, 2377-2382 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

K. Allali, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and P. Chang, "A new method for measuring spectral absorption coefficients of marine particles," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1526-1532 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Eisner, M. S. Twardowski, and T. J. Cowles, "Resolving phytoplankton photoprotective: photosynthetic carotenoid ratios on fine scales using in situ spectral absorption measurements," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 632-646 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Faust and K. H. Norris, "In vivo spectrophotometric analysis of photosynthetic pigments in natural populations of phytoplankton," Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1316-1322 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Ciotti, M. R. Lewis, and J. J. Cullen, "Assessment of the relationships between dominant cell size in natural phytoplankton communities and the spectral shape of the absorption coefficient," Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 404-417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Millie, O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, P. A. Tester, and B. T. Vinyard, "Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red-tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve," Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 1240-1251 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Kirkpatrick, D. F. Millie, M. A. Moline, and O. Schofield, "Optical discrimination of a phytoplankton species in natural mixed populations," Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 467-471 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud and D. Stramski, "Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and non-algal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562-582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Garver, D. A. Siegel, and B. G. Mitchell, "Variability in near-surface particulate absorption spectra: what can a satellite ocean color imager see?" Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1349-1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods

A. M. Ciotti and A. Bricaud, "Retrievals of a size parameter for phytoplankton and light absorption by colored detrital matter from water-leaving radiances at SeaWiFS channels in a continental shelf region off Brazil," Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 237-253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.

G. Johnsen, O. Samset, L. Granskog, and E. Sakshaug, "In vivo absorption characteristics in 10 classes of bloom-forming phytoplankton: taxonomic characteristics and responses to photoadaptation by means of discriminant and HPLC analysis," Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 105, 149-157 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ.

Z. P. Lee and K. L. Carder, "Absorption spectrum of phytoplankton pigments derived from hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance," Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 361-368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and K. Oubelkheir, "Natural variability of phytoplanktonic absorption in oceanic waters: influence of the size structure of algal populations," J. Geophys. Res.109, C11010 (2004).

R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, J. H. Morrow, and D. A. Kiefer, "In vivo absorption properties of algal pigments," in Ocean Optics X, Proc. SPIE 1302,290-302 (1990).

C. M. Bishop, Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition (Clarendon, 1995).

T. Zhang, F. Fell, Z. Liu, R. Preusker, J. Fischer, and M. He, "Evaluating the performance of artificial neural network techniques for pigment retrieval from ocean color in Case I waters," J. Geophys. Res.108, 3286 (2003).

A. Chazottes, A. Bricaud, M. Crépon, and S. Thiria, "Statistical analysis of a database of absorption spectra of phytoplankton and pigment concentrations using self-organizing maps," Appl. Opt. 45, 8102-8115 (2006).

Z.-P. Lee, ed., Remote Sensing of Inherent Optical Properties: Fundamentals, Tests of Algorithms, and Applications, IOCCG Rep. No. 5 (International Ocean Colour Coordinating Group, 2006).
[PubMed]

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and S. Hooker, "Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: an assessment based on surface chlorophyll," J. Geophys. Res.111, C08005 (2006).

Cited By

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Examples of chlorophyll a—normalized absorption spectra of phytoplankton—for various areas (see Table 1). All spectra have been measured on surface samples (25  m) and correspond to similar chlorophyll a concentrations (0.250.27  mg  m3) . Note the various spectral shapes (resulting from various pigment compositions), and the higher values observed for the POMME cruise, compared to other cruises [resulting from both different pigment composition and a smaller average size of phytoplankton communities. (Ref. [2])].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison between retrieved and measured concentrations for the five pigment groups (from top to bottom) and for the three data subsets (learning, test, and validation subsets, from left to right). Null concentrations of accessory pigments have been set to 10−4 mg m−3 to allow logarithmic transformation. The 1:1 line is shown in each panel.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison between retrieved and measured values of the relative contributions of the three algal size classes (picoplankton, nanoplankton, and microplankton, from top to bottom) to total chlorophyll a, for the three data subsets (learning, test, and validation, from left to right). The term measured means that the relative contribution of the size class is derived from the measured concentrations of some taxonomic pigments (Ref. [29]). Due to the ranges covered by the relative contributions of each size class (0 to 1 by definition), all values are shown in linear scale. The 1:1 line is shown in each panel.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Information Concerning the Cruises Where Absorption and HPLC Data Were Simultaneously Collected a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Performances of the MLPs Developed for Each Pigment Group for the Learning, Test, and Validation Subsets a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Average Relative Errors on Retrieved Values for Each Pigment Group a

Tables Icon

Table 4 Average Relative Errors for Each Pigment Group and for the Various Concentration Intervals a

Tables Icon

Table 5 Performances of the MLPs Developed for Simultaneously Retrieving the Biomass Contributions of the Three Phytoplankton Size Classes for the Learning, Test, and Validation Subsets a

Tables Icon

Table 6 Average Relative Errors between Retrieved and Measured Values a

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

O=f(W2,O×f(W1,2×f(WI,1×I))),
f(x)=a[exp(αx)1]/[exp(αx)+1].
xij=[xijΣ(xj)/N]/σj,
error  (%)=(1/N)(Σ[|CirCie|/|Cie|])×100,

Metrics