J. Mullins, "The stuff of beams," New Sci. 190, 44-47 (2006).

T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. A. Kemp, and J. A. Kong, "Trapping and binding of an arbitrary number of cylindrical particles in an in-plane electromagnetic field," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2324-2330 (2006).

[CrossRef]

T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. A. Kemp, and J. A. Kong, "Stable optical trapping based on optical binding forces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113903 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. Sun, N. G. Loeb, and Q. Fu, "Finite-difference time domain solution of light scattering and absorption by particles in an absorbing medium," Appl. Opt. 41, 5728-5743 (2002).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. L. Schuler, J.-S. Lee, D. Kasilingam, and G. Nesti, "Surface roughness and slope measurements using polarimetric SAR data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 687-698 (2002).

[CrossRef]

H. Lin and J. Zhu, "Characterization of nanocrystalline silicon films," Proc. SPIE 4700, 354-356 (2002).

A. K. Fung, Z. Li, and K. S. Chen, "An improved IEM model for bistatic scattering from rough surfaces," J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 16, 689-702 (2002).

[CrossRef]

M. Saillard and A. Sentenac, "Rigorous solutions for electromagnetic scattering from rough surfaces," Waves Random Media 11, 103-137 (2001).

[CrossRef]

F. Mattia, "Backscattering properties of multi-scale rough surfaces," J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 13, 493-527 (1999).

[CrossRef]

K. S. Chen, T. D. Wu, and A. K. Fung, "A study of backscattering from multiscale rough surface," J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 12, 961-979 (1998).

[CrossRef]

S. Gomez, K. Hale, J. Burrows, and B. Griffiths, "Measurements of surface defects on optical components," Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 607-616 (1998).

[CrossRef]

C. Y. Hsieh, A. K. Fung, G. Nesti, A. J. Siber, and P. Coppo, "A further study of the IEM surface scattering model," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 901-909 (1997).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang and K. N. Liou, "Finite-difference time domain method for light scattering by small ice crystals in three-dimensional space," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2072-2085 (1996).

[CrossRef]

P. B. Wong, G. L. Tyler, J. E. Baron, E. M. Gurrola, and R. A. Simpson, "A three-wave FDTD approach to surface scattering with applications to remote sensing of geophysical surfaces," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 44, 504-513 (1996).

[CrossRef]

S. D. Gedney, "An anisotropic perfectly matched layer-absorbing medium for the truncation of FDTD lattices," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 44, 1630-1639 (1996).

[CrossRef]

Z. S. Sacks, D. M. Kingsland, R. Lee, and J.-F. Lee, "A perfectly matched anisotropic absorber for use as an absorbing boundary condition," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 1460-1463 (1995).

[CrossRef]

F. D. Hastings, J. B. Schneider, and S. L. Broschat, "A Monte-Carlo FDTD technique for rough surface scattering," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 1183-1191 (1995).

K. Demarest, R. Plumb, and Z. Huang, "FDTD modeling of scatterers in stratified media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 1164-1168 (1995).

[CrossRef]

A. K. Fung, M. R. Shah, and S. Tjuatja, "Numerical simulation of scattering from three-dimensional randomly rough surfaces," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 986-994 (1994).

[CrossRef]

R. J. Luebbers and C. Penney, "Scattering from apertures in infinite ground planes using FDTD," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 42, 731-736 (1994).

[CrossRef]

A. K. Fung, Z. Li, and K. S. Chen, "Backscattering from a randomly rough dielectric surface," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 356-369 (1992).

[CrossRef]

C. H. Chan, S. H. Lou, L. Tsang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic scattering of waves by rough surfaces: a finite-difference time-domain approach," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 4, 355-359 (1991).

[CrossRef]

A. K. Fung and G. W. Pan, "An integral equation method for rough surface scattering," in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Multiple Scattering of Waves in Random Media and Random Surfaces (1986), pp. 701-714.

K. Umashanker and A. Taflove, "A novel method to analyze electromagnetic scattering of complex objects," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. EMC-24, 397-405 (1982).

[CrossRef]

D. E. Merewether, R. Fisher, and F. W. Smith, "On implementing a numeric Huygen's source in a finite difference program to illustrate scattering bodies," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-27, 1829-1833 (1980).

[CrossRef]

K. S. Yee, "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-14, 302-307 (1966).

H. Davies, "The reflection of electromagnetical waves from rough surfaces," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 101, 209-214 (1954).

C. Eckart, "The scattering of sound from the sea surface," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 25, 66-570 (1953).

[CrossRef]

S. O. Rice, "Reflection of electromagnetic waves from slightly rough surfaces," Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 4, 351-378 (1951).

[CrossRef]

L. Tsang, J. A. Kong, K. H. Ding, and C. O. Ao, Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves: Numerical Simulations (Wiley, 2001).

[CrossRef]

P. B. Wong, G. L. Tyler, J. E. Baron, E. M. Gurrola, and R. A. Simpson, "A three-wave FDTD approach to surface scattering with applications to remote sensing of geophysical surfaces," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 44, 504-513 (1996).

[CrossRef]

P. Beckmann and A. Spizzichino, Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, 1963).

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

F. D. Hastings, J. B. Schneider, and S. L. Broschat, "A Monte-Carlo FDTD technique for rough surface scattering," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 1183-1191 (1995).

H. Budiarto and J. Takada, The Electromagnetic Wave Scattering from Building Surfaces for the Mobile Propagation Modeling, ITE Technical Report 25 (ITE, 2001), pp. 7-11.

S. Gomez, K. Hale, J. Burrows, and B. Griffiths, "Measurements of surface defects on optical components," Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 607-616 (1998).

[CrossRef]

C. H. Chan, S. H. Lou, L. Tsang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic scattering of waves by rough surfaces: a finite-difference time-domain approach," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 4, 355-359 (1991).

[CrossRef]

A. K. Fung, Z. Li, and K. S. Chen, "An improved IEM model for bistatic scattering from rough surfaces," J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 16, 689-702 (2002).

[CrossRef]

K. S. Chen, T. D. Wu, and A. K. Fung, "A study of backscattering from multiscale rough surface," J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 12, 961-979 (1998).

[CrossRef]

A. K. Fung, Z. Li, and K. S. Chen, "Backscattering from a randomly rough dielectric surface," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 356-369 (1992).

[CrossRef]

C. Y. Hsieh, A. K. Fung, G. Nesti, A. J. Siber, and P. Coppo, "A further study of the IEM surface scattering model," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 901-909 (1997).

[CrossRef]

H. Davies, "The reflection of electromagnetical waves from rough surfaces," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 101, 209-214 (1954).

K. Demarest, R. Plumb, and Z. Huang, "FDTD modeling of scatterers in stratified media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 1164-1168 (1995).

[CrossRef]

L. Tsang, J. A. Kong, K. H. Ding, and C. O. Ao, Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves: Numerical Simulations (Wiley, 2001).

[CrossRef]

C. Eckart, "The scattering of sound from the sea surface," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 25, 66-570 (1953).

[CrossRef]

P. P. Silvester and R. L. Ferrari, Finite Elements for Electrical Engineers (Cambridge U. Press, 1990).

D. E. Merewether, R. Fisher, and F. W. Smith, "On implementing a numeric Huygen's source in a finite difference program to illustrate scattering bodies," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-27, 1829-1833 (1980).

[CrossRef]

A. K. Fung, Z. Li, and K. S. Chen, "An improved IEM model for bistatic scattering from rough surfaces," J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 16, 689-702 (2002).

[CrossRef]

K. S. Chen, T. D. Wu, and A. K. Fung, "A study of backscattering from multiscale rough surface," J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 12, 961-979 (1998).

[CrossRef]

C. Y. Hsieh, A. K. Fung, G. Nesti, A. J. Siber, and P. Coppo, "A further study of the IEM surface scattering model," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 901-909 (1997).

[CrossRef]

A. K. Fung, M. R. Shah, and S. Tjuatja, "Numerical simulation of scattering from three-dimensional randomly rough surfaces," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 986-994 (1994).

[CrossRef]

A. K. Fung, Z. Li, and K. S. Chen, "Backscattering from a randomly rough dielectric surface," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 356-369 (1992).

[CrossRef]

A. K. Fung and G. W. Pan, "An integral equation method for rough surface scattering," in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Multiple Scattering of Waves in Random Media and Random Surfaces (1986), pp. 701-714.

A. K. Fung, Microwave Scattering and Emission Models and Their Applications (Artech House, 1994).

S. D. Gedney, "An anisotropic perfectly matched layer-absorbing medium for the truncation of FDTD lattices," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 44, 1630-1639 (1996).

[CrossRef]

S. Gomez, K. Hale, J. Burrows, and B. Griffiths, "Measurements of surface defects on optical components," Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 607-616 (1998).

[CrossRef]

S. Gomez, K. Hale, J. Burrows, and B. Griffiths, "Measurements of surface defects on optical components," Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 607-616 (1998).

[CrossRef]

T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. A. Kemp, and J. A. Kong, "Stable optical trapping based on optical binding forces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113903 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. A. Kemp, and J. A. Kong, "Trapping and binding of an arbitrary number of cylindrical particles in an in-plane electromagnetic field," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2324-2330 (2006).

[CrossRef]

P. B. Wong, G. L. Tyler, J. E. Baron, E. M. Gurrola, and R. A. Simpson, "A three-wave FDTD approach to surface scattering with applications to remote sensing of geophysical surfaces," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 44, 504-513 (1996).

[CrossRef]

S. Gomez, K. Hale, J. Burrows, and B. Griffiths, "Measurements of surface defects on optical components," Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 607-616 (1998).

[CrossRef]

F. D. Hastings, J. B. Schneider, and S. L. Broschat, "A Monte-Carlo FDTD technique for rough surface scattering," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 1183-1191 (1995).

C. Y. Hsieh, A. K. Fung, G. Nesti, A. J. Siber, and P. Coppo, "A further study of the IEM surface scattering model," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 901-909 (1997).

[CrossRef]

K. Demarest, R. Plumb, and Z. Huang, "FDTD modeling of scatterers in stratified media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 1164-1168 (1995).

[CrossRef]

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

J. M. Jin, The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics (Wiley, 1993).

D. L. Schuler, J.-S. Lee, D. Kasilingam, and G. Nesti, "Surface roughness and slope measurements using polarimetric SAR data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 687-698 (2002).

[CrossRef]

T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. A. Kemp, and J. A. Kong, "Trapping and binding of an arbitrary number of cylindrical particles in an in-plane electromagnetic field," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2324-2330 (2006).

[CrossRef]

T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. A. Kemp, and J. A. Kong, "Stable optical trapping based on optical binding forces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113903 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Z. S. Sacks, D. M. Kingsland, R. Lee, and J.-F. Lee, "A perfectly matched anisotropic absorber for use as an absorbing boundary condition," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 1460-1463 (1995).

[CrossRef]

T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. A. Kemp, and J. A. Kong, "Trapping and binding of an arbitrary number of cylindrical particles in an in-plane electromagnetic field," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2324-2330 (2006).

[CrossRef]

T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. A. Kemp, and J. A. Kong, "Stable optical trapping based on optical binding forces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113903 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

C. H. Chan, S. H. Lou, L. Tsang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic scattering of waves by rough surfaces: a finite-difference time-domain approach," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 4, 355-359 (1991).

[CrossRef]

L. Tsang, J. A. Kong, K. H. Ding, and C. O. Ao, Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves: Numerical Simulations (Wiley, 2001).

[CrossRef]

K. S. Kunz and R. J. Luebbers, The Finite Difference Time Domain Method for Electromagnetics (CRC Press, 1993).

Z. S. Sacks, D. M. Kingsland, R. Lee, and J.-F. Lee, "A perfectly matched anisotropic absorber for use as an absorbing boundary condition," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 1460-1463 (1995).

[CrossRef]

D. L. Schuler, J.-S. Lee, D. Kasilingam, and G. Nesti, "Surface roughness and slope measurements using polarimetric SAR data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 687-698 (2002).

[CrossRef]

Z. S. Sacks, D. M. Kingsland, R. Lee, and J.-F. Lee, "A perfectly matched anisotropic absorber for use as an absorbing boundary condition," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 1460-1463 (1995).

[CrossRef]

A. K. Fung, Z. Li, and K. S. Chen, "An improved IEM model for bistatic scattering from rough surfaces," J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 16, 689-702 (2002).

[CrossRef]

A. K. Fung, Z. Li, and K. S. Chen, "Backscattering from a randomly rough dielectric surface," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 356-369 (1992).

[CrossRef]

H. Lin and J. Zhu, "Characterization of nanocrystalline silicon films," Proc. SPIE 4700, 354-356 (2002).

C. H. Chan, S. H. Lou, L. Tsang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic scattering of waves by rough surfaces: a finite-difference time-domain approach," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 4, 355-359 (1991).

[CrossRef]

R. J. Luebbers and C. Penney, "Scattering from apertures in infinite ground planes using FDTD," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 42, 731-736 (1994).

[CrossRef]

K. S. Kunz and R. J. Luebbers, The Finite Difference Time Domain Method for Electromagnetics (CRC Press, 1993).

F. Mattia, "Backscattering properties of multi-scale rough surfaces," J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 13, 493-527 (1999).

[CrossRef]

D. E. Merewether, R. Fisher, and F. W. Smith, "On implementing a numeric Huygen's source in a finite difference program to illustrate scattering bodies," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-27, 1829-1833 (1980).

[CrossRef]

J. Mullins, "The stuff of beams," New Sci. 190, 44-47 (2006).

D. L. Schuler, J.-S. Lee, D. Kasilingam, and G. Nesti, "Surface roughness and slope measurements using polarimetric SAR data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 687-698 (2002).

[CrossRef]

C. Y. Hsieh, A. K. Fung, G. Nesti, A. J. Siber, and P. Coppo, "A further study of the IEM surface scattering model," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 901-909 (1997).

[CrossRef]

A. K. Fung and G. W. Pan, "An integral equation method for rough surface scattering," in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Multiple Scattering of Waves in Random Media and Random Surfaces (1986), pp. 701-714.

R. J. Luebbers and C. Penney, "Scattering from apertures in infinite ground planes using FDTD," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 42, 731-736 (1994).

[CrossRef]

K. Demarest, R. Plumb, and Z. Huang, "FDTD modeling of scatterers in stratified media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 1164-1168 (1995).

[CrossRef]

Lord Rayleigh, The Theory of Sound (MacMillan, 1896).

S. O. Rice, "Reflection of electromagnetic waves from slightly rough surfaces," Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 4, 351-378 (1951).

[CrossRef]

S. O. Rice, Reflection of EM from Slightly Rough Surfaces (Interscience, 1963).

Z. S. Sacks, D. M. Kingsland, R. Lee, and J.-F. Lee, "A perfectly matched anisotropic absorber for use as an absorbing boundary condition," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 1460-1463 (1995).

[CrossRef]

M. Saillard and A. Sentenac, "Rigorous solutions for electromagnetic scattering from rough surfaces," Waves Random Media 11, 103-137 (2001).

[CrossRef]

F. D. Hastings, J. B. Schneider, and S. L. Broschat, "A Monte-Carlo FDTD technique for rough surface scattering," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 1183-1191 (1995).

D. L. Schuler, J.-S. Lee, D. Kasilingam, and G. Nesti, "Surface roughness and slope measurements using polarimetric SAR data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 687-698 (2002).

[CrossRef]

M. Saillard and A. Sentenac, "Rigorous solutions for electromagnetic scattering from rough surfaces," Waves Random Media 11, 103-137 (2001).

[CrossRef]

A. K. Fung, M. R. Shah, and S. Tjuatja, "Numerical simulation of scattering from three-dimensional randomly rough surfaces," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 986-994 (1994).

[CrossRef]

C. Y. Hsieh, A. K. Fung, G. Nesti, A. J. Siber, and P. Coppo, "A further study of the IEM surface scattering model," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 901-909 (1997).

[CrossRef]

P. P. Silvester and R. L. Ferrari, Finite Elements for Electrical Engineers (Cambridge U. Press, 1990).

P. B. Wong, G. L. Tyler, J. E. Baron, E. M. Gurrola, and R. A. Simpson, "A three-wave FDTD approach to surface scattering with applications to remote sensing of geophysical surfaces," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 44, 504-513 (1996).

[CrossRef]

D. E. Merewether, R. Fisher, and F. W. Smith, "On implementing a numeric Huygen's source in a finite difference program to illustrate scattering bodies," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-27, 1829-1833 (1980).

[CrossRef]

P. Beckmann and A. Spizzichino, Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, 1963).

K. Umashanker and A. Taflove, "A novel method to analyze electromagnetic scattering of complex objects," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. EMC-24, 397-405 (1982).

[CrossRef]

A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, 1995).

H. Budiarto and J. Takada, The Electromagnetic Wave Scattering from Building Surfaces for the Mobile Propagation Modeling, ITE Technical Report 25 (ITE, 2001), pp. 7-11.

A. K. Fung, M. R. Shah, and S. Tjuatja, "Numerical simulation of scattering from three-dimensional randomly rough surfaces," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 986-994 (1994).

[CrossRef]

C. H. Chan, S. H. Lou, L. Tsang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic scattering of waves by rough surfaces: a finite-difference time-domain approach," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 4, 355-359 (1991).

[CrossRef]

L. Tsang, J. A. Kong, K. H. Ding, and C. O. Ao, Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves: Numerical Simulations (Wiley, 2001).

[CrossRef]

P. B. Wong, G. L. Tyler, J. E. Baron, E. M. Gurrola, and R. A. Simpson, "A three-wave FDTD approach to surface scattering with applications to remote sensing of geophysical surfaces," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 44, 504-513 (1996).

[CrossRef]

K. Umashanker and A. Taflove, "A novel method to analyze electromagnetic scattering of complex objects," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. EMC-24, 397-405 (1982).

[CrossRef]

P. B. Wong, G. L. Tyler, J. E. Baron, E. M. Gurrola, and R. A. Simpson, "A three-wave FDTD approach to surface scattering with applications to remote sensing of geophysical surfaces," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 44, 504-513 (1996).

[CrossRef]

K. S. Chen, T. D. Wu, and A. K. Fung, "A study of backscattering from multiscale rough surface," J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 12, 961-979 (1998).

[CrossRef]

K. S. Yee, "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-14, 302-307 (1966).

H. Lin and J. Zhu, "Characterization of nanocrystalline silicon films," Proc. SPIE 4700, 354-356 (2002).

S. O. Rice, "Reflection of electromagnetic waves from slightly rough surfaces," Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 4, 351-378 (1951).

[CrossRef]

K. S. Yee, "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-14, 302-307 (1966).

F. D. Hastings, J. B. Schneider, and S. L. Broschat, "A Monte-Carlo FDTD technique for rough surface scattering," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 1183-1191 (1995).

R. J. Luebbers and C. Penney, "Scattering from apertures in infinite ground planes using FDTD," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 42, 731-736 (1994).

[CrossRef]

K. Demarest, R. Plumb, and Z. Huang, "FDTD modeling of scatterers in stratified media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 1164-1168 (1995).

[CrossRef]

P. B. Wong, G. L. Tyler, J. E. Baron, E. M. Gurrola, and R. A. Simpson, "A three-wave FDTD approach to surface scattering with applications to remote sensing of geophysical surfaces," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 44, 504-513 (1996).

[CrossRef]

Z. S. Sacks, D. M. Kingsland, R. Lee, and J.-F. Lee, "A perfectly matched anisotropic absorber for use as an absorbing boundary condition," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 1460-1463 (1995).

[CrossRef]

S. D. Gedney, "An anisotropic perfectly matched layer-absorbing medium for the truncation of FDTD lattices," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 44, 1630-1639 (1996).

[CrossRef]

K. Umashanker and A. Taflove, "A novel method to analyze electromagnetic scattering of complex objects," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. EMC-24, 397-405 (1982).

[CrossRef]

A. K. Fung, M. R. Shah, and S. Tjuatja, "Numerical simulation of scattering from three-dimensional randomly rough surfaces," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 986-994 (1994).

[CrossRef]

C. Y. Hsieh, A. K. Fung, G. Nesti, A. J. Siber, and P. Coppo, "A further study of the IEM surface scattering model," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 901-909 (1997).

[CrossRef]

A. K. Fung, Z. Li, and K. S. Chen, "Backscattering from a randomly rough dielectric surface," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 356-369 (1992).

[CrossRef]

D. L. Schuler, J.-S. Lee, D. Kasilingam, and G. Nesti, "Surface roughness and slope measurements using polarimetric SAR data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 687-698 (2002).

[CrossRef]

D. E. Merewether, R. Fisher, and F. W. Smith, "On implementing a numeric Huygen's source in a finite difference program to illustrate scattering bodies," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-27, 1829-1833 (1980).

[CrossRef]

C. Eckart, "The scattering of sound from the sea surface," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 25, 66-570 (1953).

[CrossRef]

A. K. Fung, Z. Li, and K. S. Chen, "An improved IEM model for bistatic scattering from rough surfaces," J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 16, 689-702 (2002).

[CrossRef]

K. S. Chen, T. D. Wu, and A. K. Fung, "A study of backscattering from multiscale rough surface," J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 12, 961-979 (1998).

[CrossRef]

F. Mattia, "Backscattering properties of multi-scale rough surfaces," J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 13, 493-527 (1999).

[CrossRef]

T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. A. Kemp, and J. A. Kong, "Trapping and binding of an arbitrary number of cylindrical particles in an in-plane electromagnetic field," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2324-2330 (2006).

[CrossRef]

F. Moreno, F. Gonzalez, J. M. Saiz, P. J. Valle, and D. L. Jordan, "Experimental study of copolarized light scattering by spherical metallic particles on conducting flat substrates," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 141-149 (1993).

[CrossRef]

P. Yang and K. N. Liou, "Finite-difference time domain method for light scattering by small ice crystals in three-dimensional space," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2072-2085 (1996).

[CrossRef]

S. Gomez, K. Hale, J. Burrows, and B. Griffiths, "Measurements of surface defects on optical components," Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 607-616 (1998).

[CrossRef]

C. H. Chan, S. H. Lou, L. Tsang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic scattering of waves by rough surfaces: a finite-difference time-domain approach," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 4, 355-359 (1991).

[CrossRef]

J. Mullins, "The stuff of beams," New Sci. 190, 44-47 (2006).

T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. A. Kemp, and J. A. Kong, "Stable optical trapping based on optical binding forces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113903 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Saillard and A. Sentenac, "Rigorous solutions for electromagnetic scattering from rough surfaces," Waves Random Media 11, 103-137 (2001).

[CrossRef]

P. P. Silvester and R. L. Ferrari, Finite Elements for Electrical Engineers (Cambridge U. Press, 1990).

J. M. Jin, The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics (Wiley, 1993).

K. S. Kunz and R. J. Luebbers, The Finite Difference Time Domain Method for Electromagnetics (CRC Press, 1993).

A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, 1995).

A. K. Fung, Microwave Scattering and Emission Models and Their Applications (Artech House, 1994).

L. Tsang, J. A. Kong, K. H. Ding, and C. O. Ao, Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves: Numerical Simulations (Wiley, 2001).

[CrossRef]

S. O. Rice, Reflection of EM from Slightly Rough Surfaces (Interscience, 1963).

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