Abstract

Short-period fiber Bragg gratings with weakly tilted grating planes generate multiple strong resonances in transmission. Our experimental results show that the wavelength separation between selected resonances allows the measurement of the refractive index of the medium surrounding the fiber for values between 1.25 and 1.44 with an accuracy approaching 1×10−4. The sensor element is 10 mm long and made from standard single-mode telecommunication grade optical fiber by ultraviolet light irradiation through a phase mask.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  5. A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, "Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1495-1497 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, "Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765-770 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Caucheteur and P. Megret, "Demodulation technique for weakly tilted fiber Bragg grating refractometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2703-2705 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Chen, L. Xiong, A. Jafari, and J. Albert, "Differential sensitivity characteristics of tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors," in Fiber Optic Sensor Technology and Applications IV, M. A. Marcus, B. Culshaw, and J. P. Dakin, eds., Proc. SPIE 6004, 600413 (2005).
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  13. Technical specifications for fused silica (Technical products division, Advanced Products Department, Corning Inc. MP-21-4, Corning, N.Y. 14831).
  14. C. Chen and J. Albert, "Strain-optic coefficients of the individual cladding modes of a single mode fiber: theory and experiment," Electron. Lett. 43, 21-22 (2006).
  15. K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).
  17. Optigrating, from the Optiwave Corporation (Ottawa, Canada).
  18. High resolution swept laser interrogator, Model Si720, from Micron Optics, Inc., Atlanta, Ga.
  19. C. Chen, C. Caucheteur, P. Megret, and J. Albert, "Sensitivity of tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors with different cladding thicknesses," in 18th Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS-18), (2006), paper TuE31.
  20. A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, and A. Cutolo, "Cladding mode reorganization in high-refractive index-coated long-period gratings: effects on the refractive-index sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 30, 2536-2538 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Yang, L. Yang, C. Xu, C. Xu, W. Huang, and Y. Li, "Long-period grating refractive index sensor with a modified cladding structure for large operational range and high sensitivity," Appl. Opt. 45, 6142-6147 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]

2006 (4)

2005 (5)

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, and A. Cutolo, "Cladding mode reorganization in high-refractive index-coated long-period gratings: effects on the refractive-index sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 30, 2536-2538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, "Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1495-1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Caucheteur and P. Megret, "Demodulation technique for weakly tilted fiber Bragg grating refractometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2703-2705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, L. Xiong, A. Jafari, and J. Albert, "Differential sensitivity characteristics of tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors," in Fiber Optic Sensor Technology and Applications IV, M. A. Marcus, B. Culshaw, and J. P. Dakin, eds., Proc. SPIE 6004, 600413 (2005).

2003 (1)

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, "Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765-770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1993 (2)

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).

Albert, J.

C. Chen and J. Albert, "Strain-optic coefficients of the individual cladding modes of a single mode fiber: theory and experiment," Electron. Lett. 43, 21-22 (2006).

C. Chen, L. Xiong, A. Jafari, and J. Albert, "Differential sensitivity characteristics of tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors," in Fiber Optic Sensor Technology and Applications IV, M. A. Marcus, B. Culshaw, and J. P. Dakin, eds., Proc. SPIE 6004, 600413 (2005).

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, C. Caucheteur, P. Megret, and J. Albert, "Sensitivity of tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors with different cladding thicknesses," in 18th Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS-18), (2006), paper TuE31.

Allsop, T.

Ashwell, G. J.

Atkins, R. M.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).

Bathia, V.

Bennion, I.

Bilodeau, F.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Campopiano, S.

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, "Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1495-1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, and A. Cutolo, "Cladding mode reorganization in high-refractive index-coated long-period gratings: effects on the refractive-index sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 30, 2536-2538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Caucheteur, C.

C. Caucheteur and P. Megret, "Demodulation technique for weakly tilted fiber Bragg grating refractometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2703-2705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, C. Caucheteur, P. Megret, and J. Albert, "Sensitivity of tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors with different cladding thicknesses," in 18th Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS-18), (2006), paper TuE31.

Chen, C.

C. Chen and J. Albert, "Strain-optic coefficients of the individual cladding modes of a single mode fiber: theory and experiment," Electron. Lett. 43, 21-22 (2006).

C. Chen, L. Xiong, A. Jafari, and J. Albert, "Differential sensitivity characteristics of tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors," in Fiber Optic Sensor Technology and Applications IV, M. A. Marcus, B. Culshaw, and J. P. Dakin, eds., Proc. SPIE 6004, 600413 (2005).

C. Chen, C. Caucheteur, P. Megret, and J. Albert, "Sensitivity of tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors with different cladding thicknesses," in 18th Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS-18), (2006), paper TuE31.

Chryssis, A. N.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Contessa, L.

Cusano, A.

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, "Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1495-1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, and A. Cutolo, "Cladding mode reorganization in high-refractive index-coated long-period gratings: effects on the refractive-index sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 30, 2536-2538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cutolo, A.

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, "Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1495-1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, and A. Cutolo, "Cladding mode reorganization in high-refractive index-coated long-period gratings: effects on the refractive-index sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 30, 2536-2538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dagenais, M.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Demokan, M. S.

Erdogan, T.

Ferdinand, P.

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, "Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765-770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Floreani, F.

Giordano, M.

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, "Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1495-1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

Iadicicco, A.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, and A. Cutolo, "Cladding mode reorganization in high-refractive index-coated long-period gratings: effects on the refractive-index sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 30, 2536-2538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, "Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1495-1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jafari, A.

C. Chen, L. Xiong, A. Jafari, and J. Albert, "Differential sensitivity characteristics of tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors," in Fiber Optic Sensor Technology and Applications IV, M. A. Marcus, B. Culshaw, and J. P. Dakin, eds., Proc. SPIE 6004, 600413 (2005).

James, S. W.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Rees, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, "Optical fiber long-period gratings with Langmuir-Blodgett thin-film overlays," Opt. Lett. 27, 686-688 (2002).

Jedrzejewski, K. P.

Jin, W.

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Laffont, G.

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, "Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765-770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. B.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. M.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. J.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).

Li, Y.

Malo, B.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Marques, P. V. S.

Megret, P.

C. Caucheteur and P. Megret, "Demodulation technique for weakly tilted fiber Bragg grating refractometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2703-2705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, C. Caucheteur, P. Megret, and J. Albert, "Sensitivity of tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors with different cladding thicknesses," in 18th Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS-18), (2006), paper TuE31.

Mizrahi, V.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).

Niemczyk, T. M.

T. M. Niemczyk, "Refractive index measurement," in Physical Methods in Modern Chemical Analysis, T. Kuwana, ed. (Academic, 1980), Vol. 2, pp. 337-400.

Patrick, H. J.

Pilla, P.

Reed, W. A.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).

Rees, N. D.

Romero, R.

Saini, S. S.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Rees, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, "Optical fiber long-period gratings with Langmuir-Blodgett thin-film overlays," Opt. Lett. 27, 686-688 (2002).

Webb, D. J.

Xiong, L.

C. Chen, L. Xiong, A. Jafari, and J. Albert, "Differential sensitivity characteristics of tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors," in Fiber Optic Sensor Technology and Applications IV, M. A. Marcus, B. Culshaw, and J. P. Dakin, eds., Proc. SPIE 6004, 600413 (2005).

Xu, C.

Yang, J.

Yang, L.

Yang, X.

Zhao, C.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).

C. Chen and J. Albert, "Strain-optic coefficients of the individual cladding modes of a single mode fiber: theory and experiment," Electron. Lett. 43, 21-22 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

C. Caucheteur and P. Megret, "Demodulation technique for weakly tilted fiber Bragg grating refractometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2703-2705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, "Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1495-1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, "Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765-770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. Chen, L. Xiong, A. Jafari, and J. Albert, "Differential sensitivity characteristics of tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors," in Fiber Optic Sensor Technology and Applications IV, M. A. Marcus, B. Culshaw, and J. P. Dakin, eds., Proc. SPIE 6004, 600413 (2005).

Other (5)

T. M. Niemczyk, "Refractive index measurement," in Physical Methods in Modern Chemical Analysis, T. Kuwana, ed. (Academic, 1980), Vol. 2, pp. 337-400.

Technical specifications for fused silica (Technical products division, Advanced Products Department, Corning Inc. MP-21-4, Corning, N.Y. 14831).

Optigrating, from the Optiwave Corporation (Ottawa, Canada).

High resolution swept laser interrogator, Model Si720, from Micron Optics, Inc., Atlanta, Ga.

C. Chen, C. Caucheteur, P. Megret, and J. Albert, "Sensitivity of tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors with different cladding thicknesses," in 18th Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS-18), (2006), paper TuE31.

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