Abstract

Combined time- and wavelength-division-multiplexing demodulation technique of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor arrays using a tunable pulsed laser is proposed and demonstrated. A tunable fiber laser based on a matched FBG is applied. The wavelengths of the sensing FBGs are obtained by detecting the maximum voltages with a photodiode that avoids the complex demodulationprocess. The advantages of this scheme are simple structure, high signal-to-noise ratio, and the sensing signals obtained by detecting the maximum voltages.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. A. Berkoff and A. D. Kersey, "Fiber Bragg grating array sensor system using a bandpass wavelength division multiplexer and interferometric detection," Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1522-1524 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. S. Weis, A. D. Kersey, and T. A. Berkoff, "A four-element fiber grating sensor array with phase-sensitive detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1469-1472 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, and W. W. Morsey, "Multiplexed fiber Bragg grating strain-sensor system with a fiber Fabry-Perot wavelength filter," Opt. Lett. 18, 1370-1372 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. J. Rao, A. B. L. Ribeiro, D. A. Jackson, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous spatial, time and wavelength division multiplexed in-fiber grating sensing network," Opt. Commun. 125, 53-58 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. He, S. Hu, and Q. Zhao, "Time/wavelength fiber Bragg grating multiplexing sensor array," Acta Opt. Sin. 23, 847-848 (2003).
  7. A. D. Kersey and W. W. Morey, "Multiplexed Bragg grating fiber laser strain sensor system with mode-locked interrogation," Electron. Lett. 29, 112-114 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. B. L. Ribeiro, L. A. Ferreira, and L. L. Santos, "Analysis of the reflective-matched fiber Bragg grating sensing interrogation scheme," Appl. Opt. 36, 934-939 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Guan, Y. Yu, C. Ge, Z. Liu, X. Dong, and H. Tan, "A scheme for demodulation of fiber grating sensors with high resolution," Acta Opt. Sin. 20, 1509-1512 (2000).
  10. P.-C. Peng, H.-Y. Tseng, and S. Chi, "Self-healing fiber grating sensor system using tunable multiport fiber laser scheme for intensity and wavelength division multiplexing," Electron. Lett. 38, 1510-1511 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. He, S. Hu, and Q. Zhao, "Time/wavelength fiber Bragg grating multiplexing sensor array," Acta Opt. Sin. 23, 847-848 (2003).

2002 (1)

P.-C. Peng, H.-Y. Tseng, and S. Chi, "Self-healing fiber grating sensor system using tunable multiport fiber laser scheme for intensity and wavelength division multiplexing," Electron. Lett. 38, 1510-1511 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

B. Guan, Y. Yu, C. Ge, Z. Liu, X. Dong, and H. Tan, "A scheme for demodulation of fiber grating sensors with high resolution," Acta Opt. Sin. 20, 1509-1512 (2000).

1997 (2)

A. B. L. Ribeiro, L. A. Ferreira, and L. L. Santos, "Analysis of the reflective-matched fiber Bragg grating sensing interrogation scheme," Appl. Opt. 36, 934-939 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

T. A. Berkoff and A. D. Kersey, "Fiber Bragg grating array sensor system using a bandpass wavelength division multiplexer and interferometric detection," Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1522-1524 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, A. B. L. Ribeiro, D. A. Jackson, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous spatial, time and wavelength division multiplexed in-fiber grating sensing network," Opt. Commun. 125, 53-58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. S. Weis, A. D. Kersey, and T. A. Berkoff, "A four-element fiber grating sensor array with phase-sensitive detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1469-1472 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, and W. W. Morsey, "Multiplexed fiber Bragg grating strain-sensor system with a fiber Fabry-Perot wavelength filter," Opt. Lett. 18, 1370-1372 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Kersey and W. W. Morey, "Multiplexed Bragg grating fiber laser strain sensor system with mode-locked interrogation," Electron. Lett. 29, 112-114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Askins, C. G.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Y. J. Rao, A. B. L. Ribeiro, D. A. Jackson, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous spatial, time and wavelength division multiplexed in-fiber grating sensing network," Opt. Commun. 125, 53-58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berkoff, T. A.

T. A. Berkoff and A. D. Kersey, "Fiber Bragg grating array sensor system using a bandpass wavelength division multiplexer and interferometric detection," Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1522-1524 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Weis, A. D. Kersey, and T. A. Berkoff, "A four-element fiber grating sensor array with phase-sensitive detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1469-1472 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, and W. W. Morsey, "Multiplexed fiber Bragg grating strain-sensor system with a fiber Fabry-Perot wavelength filter," Opt. Lett. 18, 1370-1372 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chi, S.

P.-C. Peng, H.-Y. Tseng, and S. Chi, "Self-healing fiber grating sensor system using tunable multiport fiber laser scheme for intensity and wavelength division multiplexing," Electron. Lett. 38, 1510-1511 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

B. Guan, Y. Yu, C. Ge, Z. Liu, X. Dong, and H. Tan, "A scheme for demodulation of fiber grating sensors with high resolution," Acta Opt. Sin. 20, 1509-1512 (2000).

Ferreira, L. A.

Friebele, E. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ge, C.

B. Guan, Y. Yu, C. Ge, Z. Liu, X. Dong, and H. Tan, "A scheme for demodulation of fiber grating sensors with high resolution," Acta Opt. Sin. 20, 1509-1512 (2000).

Guan, B.

B. Guan, Y. Yu, C. Ge, Z. Liu, X. Dong, and H. Tan, "A scheme for demodulation of fiber grating sensors with high resolution," Acta Opt. Sin. 20, 1509-1512 (2000).

He, S.

S. He, S. Hu, and Q. Zhao, "Time/wavelength fiber Bragg grating multiplexing sensor array," Acta Opt. Sin. 23, 847-848 (2003).

Hu, S.

S. He, S. Hu, and Q. Zhao, "Time/wavelength fiber Bragg grating multiplexing sensor array," Acta Opt. Sin. 23, 847-848 (2003).

Jackson, D. A.

Y. J. Rao, A. B. L. Ribeiro, D. A. Jackson, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous spatial, time and wavelength division multiplexed in-fiber grating sensing network," Opt. Commun. 125, 53-58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Berkoff and A. D. Kersey, "Fiber Bragg grating array sensor system using a bandpass wavelength division multiplexer and interferometric detection," Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1522-1524 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Weis, A. D. Kersey, and T. A. Berkoff, "A four-element fiber grating sensor array with phase-sensitive detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1469-1472 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, and W. W. Morsey, "Multiplexed fiber Bragg grating strain-sensor system with a fiber Fabry-Perot wavelength filter," Opt. Lett. 18, 1370-1372 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Kersey and W. W. Morey, "Multiplexed Bragg grating fiber laser strain sensor system with mode-locked interrogation," Electron. Lett. 29, 112-114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Koo, K. P.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

LeBlanc, M.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

B. Guan, Y. Yu, C. Ge, Z. Liu, X. Dong, and H. Tan, "A scheme for demodulation of fiber grating sensors with high resolution," Acta Opt. Sin. 20, 1509-1512 (2000).

Morey, W. W.

A. D. Kersey and W. W. Morey, "Multiplexed Bragg grating fiber laser strain sensor system with mode-locked interrogation," Electron. Lett. 29, 112-114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morsey, W. W.

Patrick, H. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peng, P.-C.

P.-C. Peng, H.-Y. Tseng, and S. Chi, "Self-healing fiber grating sensor system using tunable multiport fiber laser scheme for intensity and wavelength division multiplexing," Electron. Lett. 38, 1510-1511 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y. J.

Y. J. Rao, A. B. L. Ribeiro, D. A. Jackson, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous spatial, time and wavelength division multiplexed in-fiber grating sensing network," Opt. Commun. 125, 53-58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, A. B. L.

A. B. L. Ribeiro, L. A. Ferreira, and L. L. Santos, "Analysis of the reflective-matched fiber Bragg grating sensing interrogation scheme," Appl. Opt. 36, 934-939 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, A. B. L. Ribeiro, D. A. Jackson, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous spatial, time and wavelength division multiplexed in-fiber grating sensing network," Opt. Commun. 125, 53-58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Santos, L. L.

Tan, H.

B. Guan, Y. Yu, C. Ge, Z. Liu, X. Dong, and H. Tan, "A scheme for demodulation of fiber grating sensors with high resolution," Acta Opt. Sin. 20, 1509-1512 (2000).

Tseng, H.-Y.

P.-C. Peng, H.-Y. Tseng, and S. Chi, "Self-healing fiber grating sensor system using tunable multiport fiber laser scheme for intensity and wavelength division multiplexing," Electron. Lett. 38, 1510-1511 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weis, R. S.

R. S. Weis, A. D. Kersey, and T. A. Berkoff, "A four-element fiber grating sensor array with phase-sensitive detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1469-1472 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.

B. Guan, Y. Yu, C. Ge, Z. Liu, X. Dong, and H. Tan, "A scheme for demodulation of fiber grating sensors with high resolution," Acta Opt. Sin. 20, 1509-1512 (2000).

Zhang, L.

Y. J. Rao, A. B. L. Ribeiro, D. A. Jackson, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous spatial, time and wavelength division multiplexed in-fiber grating sensing network," Opt. Commun. 125, 53-58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Q.

S. He, S. Hu, and Q. Zhao, "Time/wavelength fiber Bragg grating multiplexing sensor array," Acta Opt. Sin. 23, 847-848 (2003).

Acta Opt. Sin. (2)

S. He, S. Hu, and Q. Zhao, "Time/wavelength fiber Bragg grating multiplexing sensor array," Acta Opt. Sin. 23, 847-848 (2003).

B. Guan, Y. Yu, C. Ge, Z. Liu, X. Dong, and H. Tan, "A scheme for demodulation of fiber grating sensors with high resolution," Acta Opt. Sin. 20, 1509-1512 (2000).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (2)

P.-C. Peng, H.-Y. Tseng, and S. Chi, "Self-healing fiber grating sensor system using tunable multiport fiber laser scheme for intensity and wavelength division multiplexing," Electron. Lett. 38, 1510-1511 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey and W. W. Morey, "Multiplexed Bragg grating fiber laser strain sensor system with mode-locked interrogation," Electron. Lett. 29, 112-114 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. S. Weis, A. D. Kersey, and T. A. Berkoff, "A four-element fiber grating sensor array with phase-sensitive detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1469-1472 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. J. Rao, A. B. L. Ribeiro, D. A. Jackson, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous spatial, time and wavelength division multiplexed in-fiber grating sensing network," Opt. Commun. 125, 53-58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. A. Berkoff and A. D. Kersey, "Fiber Bragg grating array sensor system using a bandpass wavelength division multiplexer and interferometric detection," Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1522-1524 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Structure of the tunable pulsed laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectrum of the tunable fiber laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Structure of the TDM–WDM sensor arrays with FBGs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Input pulse of the tunable pulsed laser.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Pulses of the sensing signals after TDM.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Relationship between steps 1 and 15 and voltages.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Relationship between steps 45 and 65 and voltages.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L ( λ ) = R 1   exp [ 4   ln   2   ( λ λ L ) 2 Δ λ L 2 ] ,
G ( λ ) = R 2   exp [ 4   ln   2   ( λ λ B ) 2 Δ λ B 2 ] ,
I ( λ ) = k 1 L ( λ ) G ( λ ) ,
P = k 1 k 2 P 0 + L ( λ ) G ( λ ) d λ , = k 1 k 2 R 1 R 2 P 0 π 2 ln   2 Δ λ L Δ λ B ( Δ λ L 2 + Δ λ B 2 ) 1 / 2 × exp [ 4   ln   2   ( λ L λ B ) 2 Δ λ L 2 + Δ λ B 2 ] ,
P = C exp [ 4   ln   2   ( λ L λ B ) 2 Δ λ B 2 ] ,

Metrics