Abstract

An infrared laser spectrometer based on difference-frequency generation in LiIO3 is described. The spectrometer has a frequency uncertainty of less than 1 MHz and a signal-to-noise ratio between 3000:1 and 10,000:1. These properties allow the spectrometer to be used for studies of the non-Lorentzian and non-Voigt character of absorption line shapes in atmospheric trace gases.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Demeio, S. Green, and L. Monchick, "Effects of velocity changing collisions on line shapes of HF in Ar," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 9160-9166 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Wehr, A. Vitcu, R. Ciurylo, F. Thibault, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, "Spectral line shape of the P(2) transition in CO-Ar: uncorrelated ab initio calculation," Phys. Rev. A 66, 062502 (2002).
  3. R. Wehr, R. Ciurylo, A. Vitcu, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, and F. Thibault, "Dicke-narrowed spectral line shapes of CO in Ar: experimental results and a revised interpretation," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 235, 54-68 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Wehr, A. Vitcu, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, and F. Thibault, "Collisional line shifting and broadening in the fundamental P-branch of CO in Ar between 214 K and 324 K," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 235, 69-76 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. W. Forsman, P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, "A high-resolution Raman gain spectrometer for spectral line shape studies," Can. J. Phys. 69, 558-563 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Duggan, P. M. Sinclair, M. P. Le Flohic, J. W. Forsman, R. Berman, A. D. May, and J. R. Drummond, "Testing the validity of the optical diffusion coefficient: line-shape measurements of CO perturbed by N2," Phys. Rev. A 48, 2077-2083 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, R. Berman, A. D. May, and J. R. Drummond, "Line broadening, shifting, and mixing in the fundamental band of CO perturbed by N2 at 301 K," J. Mol. Specrosc. 181, 41-47 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Vitcu, R. Ciurylo, R. Wehr, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, "High-resolution tunable mid-infrared spectrometer based on difference-frequency generation in AgGaS2," Appl. Opt. 43, 4965-4971 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Berman, "Direct measurements of line mixing, line broadening, and translational line shape in the v1 + v2 Q-branch of pure CO2," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Toronto, 1998).
  10. P. M. Sinclair, "C. W. Raman gain spectroscopy: development of a high resolution spectrometer and the study of diatomic sodium," Master's thesis (University of Toronto, 1988).
  11. J. W. Forsman, "Measurements with high resolution Raman gain spectroscopy of deviations from the soft-collision model for translational motion," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Toronto, 1992).
  12. R. Wehr, "Dicke-narrowed spectral lines in carbon monoxide buffered by argon," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Toronto, 2005).

2006 (2)

R. Wehr, R. Ciurylo, A. Vitcu, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, and F. Thibault, "Dicke-narrowed spectral line shapes of CO in Ar: experimental results and a revised interpretation," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 235, 54-68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Wehr, A. Vitcu, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, and F. Thibault, "Collisional line shifting and broadening in the fundamental P-branch of CO in Ar between 214 K and 324 K," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 235, 69-76 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1997 (1)

P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, R. Berman, A. D. May, and J. R. Drummond, "Line broadening, shifting, and mixing in the fundamental band of CO perturbed by N2 at 301 K," J. Mol. Specrosc. 181, 41-47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. Demeio, S. Green, and L. Monchick, "Effects of velocity changing collisions on line shapes of HF in Ar," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 9160-9166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. Duggan, P. M. Sinclair, M. P. Le Flohic, J. W. Forsman, R. Berman, A. D. May, and J. R. Drummond, "Testing the validity of the optical diffusion coefficient: line-shape measurements of CO perturbed by N2," Phys. Rev. A 48, 2077-2083 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

J. W. Forsman, P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, "A high-resolution Raman gain spectrometer for spectral line shape studies," Can. J. Phys. 69, 558-563 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Berman, R.

P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, R. Berman, A. D. May, and J. R. Drummond, "Line broadening, shifting, and mixing in the fundamental band of CO perturbed by N2 at 301 K," J. Mol. Specrosc. 181, 41-47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Duggan, P. M. Sinclair, M. P. Le Flohic, J. W. Forsman, R. Berman, A. D. May, and J. R. Drummond, "Testing the validity of the optical diffusion coefficient: line-shape measurements of CO perturbed by N2," Phys. Rev. A 48, 2077-2083 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Berman, "Direct measurements of line mixing, line broadening, and translational line shape in the v1 + v2 Q-branch of pure CO2," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Toronto, 1998).

Ciurylo, R.

R. Wehr, R. Ciurylo, A. Vitcu, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, and F. Thibault, "Dicke-narrowed spectral line shapes of CO in Ar: experimental results and a revised interpretation," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 235, 54-68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Vitcu, R. Ciurylo, R. Wehr, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, "High-resolution tunable mid-infrared spectrometer based on difference-frequency generation in AgGaS2," Appl. Opt. 43, 4965-4971 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wehr, A. Vitcu, R. Ciurylo, F. Thibault, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, "Spectral line shape of the P(2) transition in CO-Ar: uncorrelated ab initio calculation," Phys. Rev. A 66, 062502 (2002).

Demeio, L.

L. Demeio, S. Green, and L. Monchick, "Effects of velocity changing collisions on line shapes of HF in Ar," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 9160-9166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Drummond, J. R.

R. Wehr, R. Ciurylo, A. Vitcu, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, and F. Thibault, "Dicke-narrowed spectral line shapes of CO in Ar: experimental results and a revised interpretation," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 235, 54-68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Wehr, A. Vitcu, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, and F. Thibault, "Collisional line shifting and broadening in the fundamental P-branch of CO in Ar between 214 K and 324 K," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 235, 69-76 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Vitcu, R. Ciurylo, R. Wehr, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, "High-resolution tunable mid-infrared spectrometer based on difference-frequency generation in AgGaS2," Appl. Opt. 43, 4965-4971 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, R. Berman, A. D. May, and J. R. Drummond, "Line broadening, shifting, and mixing in the fundamental band of CO perturbed by N2 at 301 K," J. Mol. Specrosc. 181, 41-47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Duggan, P. M. Sinclair, M. P. Le Flohic, J. W. Forsman, R. Berman, A. D. May, and J. R. Drummond, "Testing the validity of the optical diffusion coefficient: line-shape measurements of CO perturbed by N2," Phys. Rev. A 48, 2077-2083 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Forsman, P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, "A high-resolution Raman gain spectrometer for spectral line shape studies," Can. J. Phys. 69, 558-563 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Wehr, A. Vitcu, R. Ciurylo, F. Thibault, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, "Spectral line shape of the P(2) transition in CO-Ar: uncorrelated ab initio calculation," Phys. Rev. A 66, 062502 (2002).

Duggan, P.

P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, R. Berman, A. D. May, and J. R. Drummond, "Line broadening, shifting, and mixing in the fundamental band of CO perturbed by N2 at 301 K," J. Mol. Specrosc. 181, 41-47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Duggan, P. M. Sinclair, M. P. Le Flohic, J. W. Forsman, R. Berman, A. D. May, and J. R. Drummond, "Testing the validity of the optical diffusion coefficient: line-shape measurements of CO perturbed by N2," Phys. Rev. A 48, 2077-2083 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Forsman, P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, "A high-resolution Raman gain spectrometer for spectral line shape studies," Can. J. Phys. 69, 558-563 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Forsman, J. W.

P. Duggan, P. M. Sinclair, M. P. Le Flohic, J. W. Forsman, R. Berman, A. D. May, and J. R. Drummond, "Testing the validity of the optical diffusion coefficient: line-shape measurements of CO perturbed by N2," Phys. Rev. A 48, 2077-2083 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Forsman, P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, "A high-resolution Raman gain spectrometer for spectral line shape studies," Can. J. Phys. 69, 558-563 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Forsman, "Measurements with high resolution Raman gain spectroscopy of deviations from the soft-collision model for translational motion," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Toronto, 1992).

Green, S.

L. Demeio, S. Green, and L. Monchick, "Effects of velocity changing collisions on line shapes of HF in Ar," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 9160-9166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Le Flohic, M. P.

P. Duggan, P. M. Sinclair, M. P. Le Flohic, J. W. Forsman, R. Berman, A. D. May, and J. R. Drummond, "Testing the validity of the optical diffusion coefficient: line-shape measurements of CO perturbed by N2," Phys. Rev. A 48, 2077-2083 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

May, A. D.

R. Wehr, A. Vitcu, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, and F. Thibault, "Collisional line shifting and broadening in the fundamental P-branch of CO in Ar between 214 K and 324 K," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 235, 69-76 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Wehr, R. Ciurylo, A. Vitcu, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, and F. Thibault, "Dicke-narrowed spectral line shapes of CO in Ar: experimental results and a revised interpretation," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 235, 54-68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Vitcu, R. Ciurylo, R. Wehr, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, "High-resolution tunable mid-infrared spectrometer based on difference-frequency generation in AgGaS2," Appl. Opt. 43, 4965-4971 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, R. Berman, A. D. May, and J. R. Drummond, "Line broadening, shifting, and mixing in the fundamental band of CO perturbed by N2 at 301 K," J. Mol. Specrosc. 181, 41-47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Duggan, P. M. Sinclair, M. P. Le Flohic, J. W. Forsman, R. Berman, A. D. May, and J. R. Drummond, "Testing the validity of the optical diffusion coefficient: line-shape measurements of CO perturbed by N2," Phys. Rev. A 48, 2077-2083 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Forsman, P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, "A high-resolution Raman gain spectrometer for spectral line shape studies," Can. J. Phys. 69, 558-563 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Wehr, A. Vitcu, R. Ciurylo, F. Thibault, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, "Spectral line shape of the P(2) transition in CO-Ar: uncorrelated ab initio calculation," Phys. Rev. A 66, 062502 (2002).

Monchick, L.

L. Demeio, S. Green, and L. Monchick, "Effects of velocity changing collisions on line shapes of HF in Ar," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 9160-9166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, P. M.

P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, R. Berman, A. D. May, and J. R. Drummond, "Line broadening, shifting, and mixing in the fundamental band of CO perturbed by N2 at 301 K," J. Mol. Specrosc. 181, 41-47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Duggan, P. M. Sinclair, M. P. Le Flohic, J. W. Forsman, R. Berman, A. D. May, and J. R. Drummond, "Testing the validity of the optical diffusion coefficient: line-shape measurements of CO perturbed by N2," Phys. Rev. A 48, 2077-2083 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Forsman, P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, "A high-resolution Raman gain spectrometer for spectral line shape studies," Can. J. Phys. 69, 558-563 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Sinclair, "C. W. Raman gain spectroscopy: development of a high resolution spectrometer and the study of diatomic sodium," Master's thesis (University of Toronto, 1988).

Thibault, F.

R. Wehr, A. Vitcu, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, and F. Thibault, "Collisional line shifting and broadening in the fundamental P-branch of CO in Ar between 214 K and 324 K," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 235, 69-76 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Wehr, R. Ciurylo, A. Vitcu, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, and F. Thibault, "Dicke-narrowed spectral line shapes of CO in Ar: experimental results and a revised interpretation," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 235, 54-68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Wehr, A. Vitcu, R. Ciurylo, F. Thibault, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, "Spectral line shape of the P(2) transition in CO-Ar: uncorrelated ab initio calculation," Phys. Rev. A 66, 062502 (2002).

Vitcu, A.

R. Wehr, R. Ciurylo, A. Vitcu, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, and F. Thibault, "Dicke-narrowed spectral line shapes of CO in Ar: experimental results and a revised interpretation," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 235, 54-68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Wehr, A. Vitcu, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, and F. Thibault, "Collisional line shifting and broadening in the fundamental P-branch of CO in Ar between 214 K and 324 K," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 235, 69-76 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Vitcu, R. Ciurylo, R. Wehr, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, "High-resolution tunable mid-infrared spectrometer based on difference-frequency generation in AgGaS2," Appl. Opt. 43, 4965-4971 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wehr, A. Vitcu, R. Ciurylo, F. Thibault, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, "Spectral line shape of the P(2) transition in CO-Ar: uncorrelated ab initio calculation," Phys. Rev. A 66, 062502 (2002).

Wehr, R.

R. Wehr, A. Vitcu, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, and F. Thibault, "Collisional line shifting and broadening in the fundamental P-branch of CO in Ar between 214 K and 324 K," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 235, 69-76 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Wehr, R. Ciurylo, A. Vitcu, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, and F. Thibault, "Dicke-narrowed spectral line shapes of CO in Ar: experimental results and a revised interpretation," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 235, 54-68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Vitcu, R. Ciurylo, R. Wehr, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, "High-resolution tunable mid-infrared spectrometer based on difference-frequency generation in AgGaS2," Appl. Opt. 43, 4965-4971 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wehr, "Dicke-narrowed spectral lines in carbon monoxide buffered by argon," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Toronto, 2005).

R. Wehr, A. Vitcu, R. Ciurylo, F. Thibault, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, "Spectral line shape of the P(2) transition in CO-Ar: uncorrelated ab initio calculation," Phys. Rev. A 66, 062502 (2002).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Can. J. Phys. (1)

J. W. Forsman, P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, "A high-resolution Raman gain spectrometer for spectral line shape studies," Can. J. Phys. 69, 558-563 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

L. Demeio, S. Green, and L. Monchick, "Effects of velocity changing collisions on line shapes of HF in Ar," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 9160-9166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Specrosc. (1)

P. M. Sinclair, P. Duggan, R. Berman, A. D. May, and J. R. Drummond, "Line broadening, shifting, and mixing in the fundamental band of CO perturbed by N2 at 301 K," J. Mol. Specrosc. 181, 41-47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (2)

R. Wehr, R. Ciurylo, A. Vitcu, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, and F. Thibault, "Dicke-narrowed spectral line shapes of CO in Ar: experimental results and a revised interpretation," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 235, 54-68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Wehr, A. Vitcu, J. R. Drummond, A. D. May, and F. Thibault, "Collisional line shifting and broadening in the fundamental P-branch of CO in Ar between 214 K and 324 K," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 235, 69-76 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

P. Duggan, P. M. Sinclair, M. P. Le Flohic, J. W. Forsman, R. Berman, A. D. May, and J. R. Drummond, "Testing the validity of the optical diffusion coefficient: line-shape measurements of CO perturbed by N2," Phys. Rev. A 48, 2077-2083 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

R. Wehr, A. Vitcu, R. Ciurylo, F. Thibault, J. R. Drummond, and A. D. May, "Spectral line shape of the P(2) transition in CO-Ar: uncorrelated ab initio calculation," Phys. Rev. A 66, 062502 (2002).

R. Berman, "Direct measurements of line mixing, line broadening, and translational line shape in the v1 + v2 Q-branch of pure CO2," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Toronto, 1998).

P. M. Sinclair, "C. W. Raman gain spectroscopy: development of a high resolution spectrometer and the study of diatomic sodium," Master's thesis (University of Toronto, 1988).

J. W. Forsman, "Measurements with high resolution Raman gain spectroscopy of deviations from the soft-collision model for translational motion," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Toronto, 1992).

R. Wehr, "Dicke-narrowed spectral lines in carbon monoxide buffered by argon," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Toronto, 2005).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic side view of the LiIO 3 crystal and beam geometries. Adapted from Ref. 9.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

View from above of the spectrometer's optical table. Approximately to scale, with the exception of the enlarged optics and the distorted photodiode arrangement in the upper left corner.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured spectrum of the P(2) line near room temperature and 0.05 atm, along with residuals (i.e., measured minus modeled spectra) in cases: (a) with one buffer per (15 MHz) step everywhere, and (b) with four buffers per (15 MHz) step in the core zone and one buffer per (60 MHz) step elsewhere. Note the expanded vertical scale in the residual plots. The arbitrary absorption units are the same for all plots and are chosen such that the peak absorption is normalized to 1. Taken from Ref. 12.

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