Abstract

Wereportapplication of a near-real-time method to determine layer thickness on electroplated coin blanks. The method was developed on a simple laser-induced-breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) arrangement by monitoring relative emission-line intensities from key probe elements via successive laser ablation shots. This is a unique LIBS application where no other current spectroscopic method (inductively coupled plasma or x-ray fluorescence) can be applied effectively. Method development is discussed, and results with precalibrated coins are presented.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Sattmann, I. Monch, H. Krause, R. Noll, S. Couris, A. Hatziapostolou, A. Mavromanolakis, C. Fotakis, E. Larrauri, and R. Miguel, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for polymer identification," Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 456-461 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Stepputat and R. Noll, "On-line detection of heavy metals and brominated flame retardants in technical polymers with laser-induced breakdown spectrometry," Appl. Opt. 42, 6210-6220 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Palanco and J. Laserna, "Full automation of a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer for quality assessment in the steel industry with sample handling, surface preparation and quantitative analysis capabilities," J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 15, 1321-1327 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. R. Anderson, C. W. McLeod, T. English, and A. T. Smith, "Depth profile studies using laser-induced plasma emission spectrometry," Appl. Spectrosc. 49, 691-701 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Vadillo and J. J. Laserna, "Depth-resolved analysis of multilayered samples by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry," J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 12, 859-862 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. St.-Onge and M. Sabsabi, "Towards quantitative depth-profile analysis using laser-induced plasma spectroscopy: investigation of galvannealed coatings on steel," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 55, 299-308 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Tornari, V. Zafiropulos, A. Bonarou, N. A. Vainos, and C. Fotakis, "Modern technology in artwork conservation: a laser-based approach for process control and evaluation," Opt. Laser Eng. 34, 309-326 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Margetic, M. Bolshov, A. Stockhaus, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenröder, "Depth profiling of multilayer samples using femtosecond laser ablation," J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 16, 616-621 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. D. Mowery, R. Sing, J. Kirsch, A. Razaghi, S. Bechard, and R. A. Reed, "Rapid at-line analysis of coating thickness and uniformity on tablets using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy," J. Pharmaceut. Biomed. 28, 935-943 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. G. Papazoglou, V. Papadakis, and D. Anglos, "In situ interferometric depth and topography monitoring in LIBS elemental profiling of multilayer structures," J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 19, 483-488 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Pouli, K. Melessanaki, A. Giakoumaki, V. Argyropoulos, and D. Anglos, "Measuring the thickness of protective coatings on historic metal objects using nanosecond and femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy depth," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 60, 1163-1171 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, L. Masotti, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, C. Vallebona, and A. Zanini, "Archaeometric analysis of ancient copper artifacts by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique," Microchim. Acta 152, 105-111 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Balzer, St. Hölters, V. Sturm, and R. Noll, "Systematic line selection for online coating thickness measurements of galvanized sheet steel using LIBS," Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 234-239 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. N. Kallithrakas-Kontos, A. A. Katsanos, and J. Touratsoglou, "Trace element analysis of Alexander the Great's silver tetradrachms minted in Macedonia," Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B 171, 342-349 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Asimellis, A. Giannoudakos, and M. Kompitsas, "Accurate wavelength calibration in the near-infrared for multielement analysis without the need of reference spectra," Appl. Opt. 45, 8855-8862 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. I. Bassiotis, A. Diamantopoulou, A. Giannoudakos, F. Roubani-Kalantzopoulou, and M. Kompitsas, "Effects of experimental parameters in quantitative analysis of steel alloy by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 56, 671-683 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. Margetic, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenröder, "Application of femtosecond laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometry to in-depth multilayer analysis," Analyt. Chem. 75, 3435-3439 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Hidalgo, D. Iriarte, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, "Effect of laser-induced crater depth in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy emission features," Appl. Spectrosc. 59, 853-860 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

H. Balzer, St. Hölters, V. Sturm, and R. Noll, "Systematic line selection for online coating thickness measurements of galvanized sheet steel using LIBS," Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 234-239 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Asimellis, A. Giannoudakos, and M. Kompitsas, "Accurate wavelength calibration in the near-infrared for multielement analysis without the need of reference spectra," Appl. Opt. 45, 8855-8862 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

P. Pouli, K. Melessanaki, A. Giakoumaki, V. Argyropoulos, and D. Anglos, "Measuring the thickness of protective coatings on historic metal objects using nanosecond and femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy depth," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 60, 1163-1171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, L. Masotti, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, C. Vallebona, and A. Zanini, "Archaeometric analysis of ancient copper artifacts by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique," Microchim. Acta 152, 105-111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Hidalgo, D. Iriarte, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, "Effect of laser-induced crater depth in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy emission features," Appl. Spectrosc. 59, 853-860 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

D. G. Papazoglou, V. Papadakis, and D. Anglos, "In situ interferometric depth and topography monitoring in LIBS elemental profiling of multilayer structures," J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 19, 483-488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

V. Margetic, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenröder, "Application of femtosecond laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometry to in-depth multilayer analysis," Analyt. Chem. 75, 3435-3439 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Stepputat and R. Noll, "On-line detection of heavy metals and brominated flame retardants in technical polymers with laser-induced breakdown spectrometry," Appl. Opt. 42, 6210-6220 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. D. Mowery, R. Sing, J. Kirsch, A. Razaghi, S. Bechard, and R. A. Reed, "Rapid at-line analysis of coating thickness and uniformity on tablets using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy," J. Pharmaceut. Biomed. 28, 935-943 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

V. Margetic, M. Bolshov, A. Stockhaus, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenröder, "Depth profiling of multilayer samples using femtosecond laser ablation," J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 16, 616-621 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Bassiotis, A. Diamantopoulou, A. Giannoudakos, F. Roubani-Kalantzopoulou, and M. Kompitsas, "Effects of experimental parameters in quantitative analysis of steel alloy by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 56, 671-683 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

N. Kallithrakas-Kontos, A. A. Katsanos, and J. Touratsoglou, "Trace element analysis of Alexander the Great's silver tetradrachms minted in Macedonia," Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B 171, 342-349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. St.-Onge and M. Sabsabi, "Towards quantitative depth-profile analysis using laser-induced plasma spectroscopy: investigation of galvannealed coatings on steel," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 55, 299-308 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Tornari, V. Zafiropulos, A. Bonarou, N. A. Vainos, and C. Fotakis, "Modern technology in artwork conservation: a laser-based approach for process control and evaluation," Opt. Laser Eng. 34, 309-326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Palanco and J. Laserna, "Full automation of a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer for quality assessment in the steel industry with sample handling, surface preparation and quantitative analysis capabilities," J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 15, 1321-1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

J. M. Vadillo and J. J. Laserna, "Depth-resolved analysis of multilayered samples by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry," J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 12, 859-862 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Anderson, D. R.

Anglos, D.

P. Pouli, K. Melessanaki, A. Giakoumaki, V. Argyropoulos, and D. Anglos, "Measuring the thickness of protective coatings on historic metal objects using nanosecond and femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy depth," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 60, 1163-1171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Papazoglou, V. Papadakis, and D. Anglos, "In situ interferometric depth and topography monitoring in LIBS elemental profiling of multilayer structures," J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 19, 483-488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Argyropoulos, V.

P. Pouli, K. Melessanaki, A. Giakoumaki, V. Argyropoulos, and D. Anglos, "Measuring the thickness of protective coatings on historic metal objects using nanosecond and femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy depth," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 60, 1163-1171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Asimellis, G.

Balzer, H.

H. Balzer, St. Hölters, V. Sturm, and R. Noll, "Systematic line selection for online coating thickness measurements of galvanized sheet steel using LIBS," Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 234-239 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bassiotis, I.

I. Bassiotis, A. Diamantopoulou, A. Giannoudakos, F. Roubani-Kalantzopoulou, and M. Kompitsas, "Effects of experimental parameters in quantitative analysis of steel alloy by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 56, 671-683 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bechard, S.

M. D. Mowery, R. Sing, J. Kirsch, A. Razaghi, S. Bechard, and R. A. Reed, "Rapid at-line analysis of coating thickness and uniformity on tablets using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy," J. Pharmaceut. Biomed. 28, 935-943 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bolshov, M.

V. Margetic, M. Bolshov, A. Stockhaus, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenröder, "Depth profiling of multilayer samples using femtosecond laser ablation," J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 16, 616-621 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bonarou, A.

V. Tornari, V. Zafiropulos, A. Bonarou, N. A. Vainos, and C. Fotakis, "Modern technology in artwork conservation: a laser-based approach for process control and evaluation," Opt. Laser Eng. 34, 309-326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Corsi, M.

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Hidalgo, D. Iriarte, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, "Effect of laser-induced crater depth in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy emission features," Appl. Spectrosc. 59, 853-860 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, L. Masotti, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, C. Vallebona, and A. Zanini, "Archaeometric analysis of ancient copper artifacts by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique," Microchim. Acta 152, 105-111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Couris, S.

Cristoforetti, G.

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, L. Masotti, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, C. Vallebona, and A. Zanini, "Archaeometric analysis of ancient copper artifacts by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique," Microchim. Acta 152, 105-111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Hidalgo, D. Iriarte, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, "Effect of laser-induced crater depth in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy emission features," Appl. Spectrosc. 59, 853-860 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diamantopoulou, A.

I. Bassiotis, A. Diamantopoulou, A. Giannoudakos, F. Roubani-Kalantzopoulou, and M. Kompitsas, "Effects of experimental parameters in quantitative analysis of steel alloy by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 56, 671-683 (2001).
[CrossRef]

English, T.

Fotakis, C.

V. Tornari, V. Zafiropulos, A. Bonarou, N. A. Vainos, and C. Fotakis, "Modern technology in artwork conservation: a laser-based approach for process control and evaluation," Opt. Laser Eng. 34, 309-326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Sattmann, I. Monch, H. Krause, R. Noll, S. Couris, A. Hatziapostolou, A. Mavromanolakis, C. Fotakis, E. Larrauri, and R. Miguel, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for polymer identification," Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 456-461 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Giakoumaki, A.

P. Pouli, K. Melessanaki, A. Giakoumaki, V. Argyropoulos, and D. Anglos, "Measuring the thickness of protective coatings on historic metal objects using nanosecond and femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy depth," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 60, 1163-1171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giannoudakos, A.

G. Asimellis, A. Giannoudakos, and M. Kompitsas, "Accurate wavelength calibration in the near-infrared for multielement analysis without the need of reference spectra," Appl. Opt. 45, 8855-8862 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Bassiotis, A. Diamantopoulou, A. Giannoudakos, F. Roubani-Kalantzopoulou, and M. Kompitsas, "Effects of experimental parameters in quantitative analysis of steel alloy by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 56, 671-683 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Giuffrida, M.

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, L. Masotti, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, C. Vallebona, and A. Zanini, "Archaeometric analysis of ancient copper artifacts by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique," Microchim. Acta 152, 105-111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hatziapostolou, A.

Hergenröder, R.

V. Margetic, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenröder, "Application of femtosecond laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometry to in-depth multilayer analysis," Analyt. Chem. 75, 3435-3439 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Margetic, M. Bolshov, A. Stockhaus, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenröder, "Depth profiling of multilayer samples using femtosecond laser ablation," J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 16, 616-621 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hidalgo, M.

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, L. Masotti, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, C. Vallebona, and A. Zanini, "Archaeometric analysis of ancient copper artifacts by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique," Microchim. Acta 152, 105-111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Hidalgo, D. Iriarte, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, "Effect of laser-induced crater depth in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy emission features," Appl. Spectrosc. 59, 853-860 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hölters, St.

H. Balzer, St. Hölters, V. Sturm, and R. Noll, "Systematic line selection for online coating thickness measurements of galvanized sheet steel using LIBS," Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 234-239 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iriarte, D.

Kallithrakas-Kontos, N.

N. Kallithrakas-Kontos, A. A. Katsanos, and J. Touratsoglou, "Trace element analysis of Alexander the Great's silver tetradrachms minted in Macedonia," Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B 171, 342-349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Katsanos, A. A.

N. Kallithrakas-Kontos, A. A. Katsanos, and J. Touratsoglou, "Trace element analysis of Alexander the Great's silver tetradrachms minted in Macedonia," Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B 171, 342-349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kirsch, J.

M. D. Mowery, R. Sing, J. Kirsch, A. Razaghi, S. Bechard, and R. A. Reed, "Rapid at-line analysis of coating thickness and uniformity on tablets using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy," J. Pharmaceut. Biomed. 28, 935-943 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kompitsas, M.

G. Asimellis, A. Giannoudakos, and M. Kompitsas, "Accurate wavelength calibration in the near-infrared for multielement analysis without the need of reference spectra," Appl. Opt. 45, 8855-8862 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Bassiotis, A. Diamantopoulou, A. Giannoudakos, F. Roubani-Kalantzopoulou, and M. Kompitsas, "Effects of experimental parameters in quantitative analysis of steel alloy by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 56, 671-683 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krause, H.

Larrauri, E.

Laserna, J.

S. Palanco and J. Laserna, "Full automation of a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer for quality assessment in the steel industry with sample handling, surface preparation and quantitative analysis capabilities," J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 15, 1321-1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laserna, J. J.

J. M. Vadillo and J. J. Laserna, "Depth-resolved analysis of multilayered samples by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry," J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 12, 859-862 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Legnaioli, S.

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Hidalgo, D. Iriarte, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, "Effect of laser-induced crater depth in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy emission features," Appl. Spectrosc. 59, 853-860 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, L. Masotti, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, C. Vallebona, and A. Zanini, "Archaeometric analysis of ancient copper artifacts by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique," Microchim. Acta 152, 105-111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Margetic, V.

V. Margetic, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenröder, "Application of femtosecond laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometry to in-depth multilayer analysis," Analyt. Chem. 75, 3435-3439 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Margetic, M. Bolshov, A. Stockhaus, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenröder, "Depth profiling of multilayer samples using femtosecond laser ablation," J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 16, 616-621 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Masotti, L.

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, L. Masotti, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, C. Vallebona, and A. Zanini, "Archaeometric analysis of ancient copper artifacts by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique," Microchim. Acta 152, 105-111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mavromanolakis, A.

McLeod, C. W.

Melessanaki, K.

P. Pouli, K. Melessanaki, A. Giakoumaki, V. Argyropoulos, and D. Anglos, "Measuring the thickness of protective coatings on historic metal objects using nanosecond and femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy depth," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 60, 1163-1171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miguel, R.

Monch, I.

Mowery, M. D.

M. D. Mowery, R. Sing, J. Kirsch, A. Razaghi, S. Bechard, and R. A. Reed, "Rapid at-line analysis of coating thickness and uniformity on tablets using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy," J. Pharmaceut. Biomed. 28, 935-943 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Niemax, K.

V. Margetic, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenröder, "Application of femtosecond laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometry to in-depth multilayer analysis," Analyt. Chem. 75, 3435-3439 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Margetic, M. Bolshov, A. Stockhaus, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenröder, "Depth profiling of multilayer samples using femtosecond laser ablation," J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 16, 616-621 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Noll, R.

Palanco, S.

S. Palanco and J. Laserna, "Full automation of a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer for quality assessment in the steel industry with sample handling, surface preparation and quantitative analysis capabilities," J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 15, 1321-1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Palleschi, V.

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Hidalgo, D. Iriarte, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, "Effect of laser-induced crater depth in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy emission features," Appl. Spectrosc. 59, 853-860 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, L. Masotti, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, C. Vallebona, and A. Zanini, "Archaeometric analysis of ancient copper artifacts by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique," Microchim. Acta 152, 105-111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Papadakis, V.

D. G. Papazoglou, V. Papadakis, and D. Anglos, "In situ interferometric depth and topography monitoring in LIBS elemental profiling of multilayer structures," J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 19, 483-488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Papazoglou, D. G.

D. G. Papazoglou, V. Papadakis, and D. Anglos, "In situ interferometric depth and topography monitoring in LIBS elemental profiling of multilayer structures," J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 19, 483-488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pouli, P.

P. Pouli, K. Melessanaki, A. Giakoumaki, V. Argyropoulos, and D. Anglos, "Measuring the thickness of protective coatings on historic metal objects using nanosecond and femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy depth," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 60, 1163-1171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Razaghi, A.

M. D. Mowery, R. Sing, J. Kirsch, A. Razaghi, S. Bechard, and R. A. Reed, "Rapid at-line analysis of coating thickness and uniformity on tablets using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy," J. Pharmaceut. Biomed. 28, 935-943 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reed, R. A.

M. D. Mowery, R. Sing, J. Kirsch, A. Razaghi, S. Bechard, and R. A. Reed, "Rapid at-line analysis of coating thickness and uniformity on tablets using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy," J. Pharmaceut. Biomed. 28, 935-943 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roubani-Kalantzopoulou, F.

I. Bassiotis, A. Diamantopoulou, A. Giannoudakos, F. Roubani-Kalantzopoulou, and M. Kompitsas, "Effects of experimental parameters in quantitative analysis of steel alloy by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 56, 671-683 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sabsabi, M.

L. St.-Onge and M. Sabsabi, "Towards quantitative depth-profile analysis using laser-induced plasma spectroscopy: investigation of galvannealed coatings on steel," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 55, 299-308 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Salvetti, A.

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Hidalgo, D. Iriarte, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, "Effect of laser-induced crater depth in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy emission features," Appl. Spectrosc. 59, 853-860 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, L. Masotti, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, C. Vallebona, and A. Zanini, "Archaeometric analysis of ancient copper artifacts by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique," Microchim. Acta 152, 105-111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sattmann, R.

Sing, R.

M. D. Mowery, R. Sing, J. Kirsch, A. Razaghi, S. Bechard, and R. A. Reed, "Rapid at-line analysis of coating thickness and uniformity on tablets using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy," J. Pharmaceut. Biomed. 28, 935-943 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. T.

St.-Onge, L.

L. St.-Onge and M. Sabsabi, "Towards quantitative depth-profile analysis using laser-induced plasma spectroscopy: investigation of galvannealed coatings on steel," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 55, 299-308 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stepputat, M.

Stockhaus, A.

V. Margetic, M. Bolshov, A. Stockhaus, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenröder, "Depth profiling of multilayer samples using femtosecond laser ablation," J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 16, 616-621 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, V.

H. Balzer, St. Hölters, V. Sturm, and R. Noll, "Systematic line selection for online coating thickness measurements of galvanized sheet steel using LIBS," Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 234-239 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tognoni, E.

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Hidalgo, D. Iriarte, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, and E. Tognoni, "Effect of laser-induced crater depth in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy emission features," Appl. Spectrosc. 59, 853-860 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, L. Masotti, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, C. Vallebona, and A. Zanini, "Archaeometric analysis of ancient copper artifacts by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique," Microchim. Acta 152, 105-111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tornari, V.

V. Tornari, V. Zafiropulos, A. Bonarou, N. A. Vainos, and C. Fotakis, "Modern technology in artwork conservation: a laser-based approach for process control and evaluation," Opt. Laser Eng. 34, 309-326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Touratsoglou, J.

N. Kallithrakas-Kontos, A. A. Katsanos, and J. Touratsoglou, "Trace element analysis of Alexander the Great's silver tetradrachms minted in Macedonia," Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B 171, 342-349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vadillo, J. M.

J. M. Vadillo and J. J. Laserna, "Depth-resolved analysis of multilayered samples by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry," J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 12, 859-862 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vainos, N. A.

V. Tornari, V. Zafiropulos, A. Bonarou, N. A. Vainos, and C. Fotakis, "Modern technology in artwork conservation: a laser-based approach for process control and evaluation," Opt. Laser Eng. 34, 309-326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vallebona, C.

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, L. Masotti, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, C. Vallebona, and A. Zanini, "Archaeometric analysis of ancient copper artifacts by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique," Microchim. Acta 152, 105-111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zafiropulos, V.

V. Tornari, V. Zafiropulos, A. Bonarou, N. A. Vainos, and C. Fotakis, "Modern technology in artwork conservation: a laser-based approach for process control and evaluation," Opt. Laser Eng. 34, 309-326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zanini, A.

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, L. Masotti, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, C. Vallebona, and A. Zanini, "Archaeometric analysis of ancient copper artifacts by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique," Microchim. Acta 152, 105-111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

H. Balzer, St. Hölters, V. Sturm, and R. Noll, "Systematic line selection for online coating thickness measurements of galvanized sheet steel using LIBS," Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 234-239 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Analyt. Chem. (1)

V. Margetic, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenröder, "Application of femtosecond laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometry to in-depth multilayer analysis," Analyt. Chem. 75, 3435-3439 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Spectrosc. (3)

J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. (4)

S. Palanco and J. Laserna, "Full automation of a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer for quality assessment in the steel industry with sample handling, surface preparation and quantitative analysis capabilities," J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 15, 1321-1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Vadillo and J. J. Laserna, "Depth-resolved analysis of multilayered samples by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry," J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 12, 859-862 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Margetic, M. Bolshov, A. Stockhaus, K. Niemax, and R. Hergenröder, "Depth profiling of multilayer samples using femtosecond laser ablation," J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 16, 616-621 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Papazoglou, V. Papadakis, and D. Anglos, "In situ interferometric depth and topography monitoring in LIBS elemental profiling of multilayer structures," J. Anal. At. Spectrosc. 19, 483-488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Pharmaceut. Biomed. (1)

M. D. Mowery, R. Sing, J. Kirsch, A. Razaghi, S. Bechard, and R. A. Reed, "Rapid at-line analysis of coating thickness and uniformity on tablets using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy," J. Pharmaceut. Biomed. 28, 935-943 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Microchim. Acta (1)

M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, L. Masotti, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, C. Vallebona, and A. Zanini, "Archaeometric analysis of ancient copper artifacts by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique," Microchim. Acta 152, 105-111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B (1)

N. Kallithrakas-Kontos, A. A. Katsanos, and J. Touratsoglou, "Trace element analysis of Alexander the Great's silver tetradrachms minted in Macedonia," Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B 171, 342-349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Eng. (1)

V. Tornari, V. Zafiropulos, A. Bonarou, N. A. Vainos, and C. Fotakis, "Modern technology in artwork conservation: a laser-based approach for process control and evaluation," Opt. Laser Eng. 34, 309-326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta (3)

P. Pouli, K. Melessanaki, A. Giakoumaki, V. Argyropoulos, and D. Anglos, "Measuring the thickness of protective coatings on historic metal objects using nanosecond and femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy depth," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 60, 1163-1171 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. St.-Onge and M. Sabsabi, "Towards quantitative depth-profile analysis using laser-induced plasma spectroscopy: investigation of galvannealed coatings on steel," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 55, 299-308 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Bassiotis, A. Diamantopoulou, A. Giannoudakos, F. Roubani-Kalantzopoulou, and M. Kompitsas, "Effects of experimental parameters in quantitative analysis of steel alloy by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy," Spectrochim. Acta , Part B 56, 671-683 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic of the LIBS experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Schematic of electroplated layers to be examined.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Selected probe emission lines obtained with a single spectral window. These are the Cu 324 .7   nm , Cu 327 .4   nm , Cu 330.8   nm , Ni 338 .1   nm , Ni 342.4   nm , Ni 352 .9   nm , and Fe 358 .1   nm lines.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Evolution of the relative line intensities (appearing as photon counts) of three selected peaks (Cu 324 .7   nm , Ni 338 .1   nm , and Fe 358 .1   nm ) for increasing shot sequence.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Cu (top) and Ni (bottom) craters formed from a 40   mW Nd:YAG fundamental. The craters are about 1   mm 2 wide.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Consistency of the Fe 358.1   nm spectral line intensity for eight different spots along a semicircle, having constant radius ( 3   mm ) from the coin center.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Consistency of the Ni 338.1   nm spectral line intensity for eight different spots along a semicircle, having constant radius ( 3   mm ) from the coin center.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Consistency of the Cu 324.7   nm spectral line intensity for eight different spots along a semicircle, having constant radius ( 3   mm ) from the coin center.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) (a) Cu∕Ni line intensity ratio and (b) derivative. Zero crossing indicates transition from Cu to Ni.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Seven-point interface A (Ni-Cu) calibration curve.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Nine-point interface B (Cu-Ni) calibration curve.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Seven-point interface C calibration curve.

Tables (6)

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Table 1 Layer Transition Identification Results Based on Meeting a Specific Threshold Above the Cu 324.7 nm Baseline

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Table 2 Layer Transition Identification Results Based on Meeting a Specific Threshold Above the Fe Baseline

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Table 3 Known Thickness Data (in μm) of Standard Coins Used in Calibration

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Table 4 Unknown Coins Layer Interface A: Calculations and Comparison with Known Thickness

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Table 5 Unknown Coins Layer Interface B: Calculations and Comparison with Known Thickness

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Table 6 Unknown Coins Layer Interface C: Calculations and Comparison with Known Thickness

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