Abstract

We obtain a heterodyne beat signal between an iodine-stabilized He–Ne laser at 633 nm and a low power comb mode of an optical frequency synthesizer with an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) up to 35  dB. This is accomplished by the adoption of a fiber coupler and the reduction of the shot noise induced by adjacent comb modes. SNR is improved more than 15 dB compared with that of conventional methods. We measure the absolute frequency of the He–Ne laser mentioned above directly utilizing the enhanced SNR. A quantitative analysis of SNR and some information on experimental criteria for the correct frequency counting are given.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. J. Quinn, "Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001)," Metrologia 40, 103 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. H. Yoon, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and J.-M. Chartier, "Absolute frequency measurement of the iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser at 633 nm," Appl. Phys. B 72, 221 (2001).
  5. J. Ye, T. H. Yoon, J. L. Hall, A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, and J.-M. Chartier, "Accuracy comparison of absolute optical frequency measurement between harmonic-generation synthesis and frequency-division femtosecond comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3797 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, and R. S. Windeler, "Long-term absolute frequency measurements of 633 nm iodine-stabilized laser standards at NRC and demonstration of high reproducibility of such devices in international frequency measurements," Metrologia 41, 152 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. N. Lea, W. R. C. Rowley, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, P. Gill, J.-M. Chartier, and R. S. Windeler, "Absolute frequency measurements of 633 nm iodine-stabilized helium-neon lasers," Metrologia 40, 84 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, S. Picard, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, "A new method to determine the absolute mode number of a mode-locked femtosecond-laser comb used for absolute optical frequency measurements," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 9, 1066 (2003).
  9. L.-S. Ma, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, J.-M. Chartier, H. Karlsson, E. Prieto, and R. S. Windeler, "The BIPM laser standards at 633 nm and 532 nm simultaneously linked to the SI second using a femtosecond laser in an optical clock configuration," IEEE Trans. Instrument. Meas. 52, 232 (2003).
  10. L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J.-M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, "Direct measurement of the absolute frequency of the international reference laser BIPM4," Metrologia 41, 65 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Vainio, M. Merimaa, and K. Nyholm, "Optical amplifier for femtosecond frequency comb measurements near 633 nm," Appl. Phys. B 81, 1053 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. O. M. S. Taubman and J. L. Hall, "Cancellation of laser dither modulation from optical frequency standards," Opt. Lett. 25, 311 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. W. Fox, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, "Optical frequency measurements with the global positioning system: tests with an iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser," Appl. Opt. 44, 113 (2005).
    [PubMed]
  14. F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, J. Jiang, R. Guo, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, and H. Matsumoto, "Absolute frequency measurement of an acetylene-stabilized laser at 1542 nm," Opt. Lett. 28, 2324 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, "Optical frequency link between an acetylene stabilized laser at 1542 nm and Rb stabilized laser at 778 nm using a two-color mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 183, 181 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers," Opt. Commun. 172, 59 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. H. Kingston, Detection of Optical and Infrared Radiation (Springer, 1978).

2005 (2)

M. Vainio, M. Merimaa, and K. Nyholm, "Optical amplifier for femtosecond frequency comb measurements near 633 nm," Appl. Phys. B 81, 1053 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Fox, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, "Optical frequency measurements with the global positioning system: tests with an iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser," Appl. Opt. 44, 113 (2005).
[PubMed]

2004 (2)

L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J.-M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, "Direct measurement of the absolute frequency of the international reference laser BIPM4," Metrologia 41, 65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, and R. S. Windeler, "Long-term absolute frequency measurements of 633 nm iodine-stabilized laser standards at NRC and demonstration of high reproducibility of such devices in international frequency measurements," Metrologia 41, 152 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (5)

S. N. Lea, W. R. C. Rowley, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, P. Gill, J.-M. Chartier, and R. S. Windeler, "Absolute frequency measurements of 633 nm iodine-stabilized helium-neon lasers," Metrologia 40, 84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, S. Picard, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, "A new method to determine the absolute mode number of a mode-locked femtosecond-laser comb used for absolute optical frequency measurements," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 9, 1066 (2003).

L.-S. Ma, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, J.-M. Chartier, H. Karlsson, E. Prieto, and R. S. Windeler, "The BIPM laser standards at 633 nm and 532 nm simultaneously linked to the SI second using a femtosecond laser in an optical clock configuration," IEEE Trans. Instrument. Meas. 52, 232 (2003).

T. J. Quinn, "Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001)," Metrologia 40, 103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, J. Jiang, R. Guo, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, and H. Matsumoto, "Absolute frequency measurement of an acetylene-stabilized laser at 1542 nm," Opt. Lett. 28, 2324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

T. H. Yoon, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and J.-M. Chartier, "Absolute frequency measurement of the iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser at 633 nm," Appl. Phys. B 72, 221 (2001).

2000 (4)

J. Ye, T. H. Yoon, J. L. Hall, A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, and J.-M. Chartier, "Accuracy comparison of absolute optical frequency measurement between harmonic-generation synthesis and frequency-division femtosecond comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3797 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, "Optical frequency link between an acetylene stabilized laser at 1542 nm and Rb stabilized laser at 778 nm using a two-color mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 183, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. M. S. Taubman and J. L. Hall, "Cancellation of laser dither modulation from optical frequency standards," Opt. Lett. 25, 311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers," Opt. Commun. 172, 59 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, A.

R. W. Fox, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, "Optical frequency measurements with the global positioning system: tests with an iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser," Appl. Opt. 44, 113 (2005).
[PubMed]

Barwood, G. P.

S. N. Lea, W. R. C. Rowley, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, P. Gill, J.-M. Chartier, and R. S. Windeler, "Absolute frequency measurements of 633 nm iodine-stabilized helium-neon lasers," Metrologia 40, 84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, J. E.

A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, and R. S. Windeler, "Long-term absolute frequency measurements of 633 nm iodine-stabilized laser standards at NRC and demonstration of high reproducibility of such devices in international frequency measurements," Metrologia 41, 152 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, T. H. Yoon, J. L. Hall, A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, and J.-M. Chartier, "Accuracy comparison of absolute optical frequency measurement between harmonic-generation synthesis and frequency-division femtosecond comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3797 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chartier, J.-M.

L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J.-M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, "Direct measurement of the absolute frequency of the international reference laser BIPM4," Metrologia 41, 65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Lea, W. R. C. Rowley, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, P. Gill, J.-M. Chartier, and R. S. Windeler, "Absolute frequency measurements of 633 nm iodine-stabilized helium-neon lasers," Metrologia 40, 84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Ma, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, J.-M. Chartier, H. Karlsson, E. Prieto, and R. S. Windeler, "The BIPM laser standards at 633 nm and 532 nm simultaneously linked to the SI second using a femtosecond laser in an optical clock configuration," IEEE Trans. Instrument. Meas. 52, 232 (2003).

T. H. Yoon, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and J.-M. Chartier, "Absolute frequency measurement of the iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser at 633 nm," Appl. Phys. B 72, 221 (2001).

J. Ye, T. H. Yoon, J. L. Hall, A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, and J.-M. Chartier, "Accuracy comparison of absolute optical frequency measurement between harmonic-generation synthesis and frequency-division femtosecond comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3797 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cundiff, S. T.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

R. W. Fox, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, "Optical frequency measurements with the global positioning system: tests with an iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser," Appl. Opt. 44, 113 (2005).
[PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fox, R. W.

R. W. Fox, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, "Optical frequency measurements with the global positioning system: tests with an iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser," Appl. Opt. 44, 113 (2005).
[PubMed]

Gill, P.

S. N. Lea, W. R. C. Rowley, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, P. Gill, J.-M. Chartier, and R. S. Windeler, "Absolute frequency measurements of 633 nm iodine-stabilized helium-neon lasers," Metrologia 40, 84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guo, R.

F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, J. Jiang, R. Guo, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, and H. Matsumoto, "Absolute frequency measurement of an acetylene-stabilized laser at 1542 nm," Opt. Lett. 28, 2324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

T. H. Yoon, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and J.-M. Chartier, "Absolute frequency measurement of the iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser at 633 nm," Appl. Phys. B 72, 221 (2001).

O. M. S. Taubman and J. L. Hall, "Cancellation of laser dither modulation from optical frequency standards," Opt. Lett. 25, 311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye, T. H. Yoon, J. L. Hall, A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, and J.-M. Chartier, "Accuracy comparison of absolute optical frequency measurement between harmonic-generation synthesis and frequency-division femtosecond comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3797 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers," Opt. Commun. 172, 59 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harada, S.

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, "Optical frequency link between an acetylene stabilized laser at 1542 nm and Rb stabilized laser at 778 nm using a two-color mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 183, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

R. W. Fox, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, "Optical frequency measurements with the global positioning system: tests with an iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser," Appl. Opt. 44, 113 (2005).
[PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers," Opt. Commun. 172, 59 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hong, F.-L.

F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, J. Jiang, R. Guo, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, and H. Matsumoto, "Absolute frequency measurement of an acetylene-stabilized laser at 1542 nm," Opt. Lett. 28, 2324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, "Optical frequency link between an acetylene stabilized laser at 1542 nm and Rb stabilized laser at 778 nm using a two-color mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 183, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G.

S. N. Lea, W. R. C. Rowley, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, P. Gill, J.-M. Chartier, and R. S. Windeler, "Absolute frequency measurements of 633 nm iodine-stabilized helium-neon lasers," Metrologia 40, 84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ikegami, T.

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, "Optical frequency link between an acetylene stabilized laser at 1542 nm and Rb stabilized laser at 778 nm using a two-color mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 183, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, H.

F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, J. Jiang, R. Guo, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, and H. Matsumoto, "Absolute frequency measurement of an acetylene-stabilized laser at 1542 nm," Opt. Lett. 28, 2324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, J. Jiang, R. Guo, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, and H. Matsumoto, "Absolute frequency measurement of an acetylene-stabilized laser at 1542 nm," Opt. Lett. 28, 2324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, D. J.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karlsson, H.

L.-S. Ma, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, J.-M. Chartier, H. Karlsson, E. Prieto, and R. S. Windeler, "The BIPM laser standards at 633 nm and 532 nm simultaneously linked to the SI second using a femtosecond laser in an optical clock configuration," IEEE Trans. Instrument. Meas. 52, 232 (2003).

Kingston, R. H.

R. H. Kingston, Detection of Optical and Infrared Radiation (Springer, 1978).

Lea, S. N.

S. N. Lea, W. R. C. Rowley, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, P. Gill, J.-M. Chartier, and R. S. Windeler, "Absolute frequency measurements of 633 nm iodine-stabilized helium-neon lasers," Metrologia 40, 84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.-S.

L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J.-M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, "Direct measurement of the absolute frequency of the international reference laser BIPM4," Metrologia 41, 65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, and R. S. Windeler, "Long-term absolute frequency measurements of 633 nm iodine-stabilized laser standards at NRC and demonstration of high reproducibility of such devices in international frequency measurements," Metrologia 41, 152 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, S. Picard, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, "A new method to determine the absolute mode number of a mode-locked femtosecond-laser comb used for absolute optical frequency measurements," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 9, 1066 (2003).

L.-S. Ma, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, J.-M. Chartier, H. Karlsson, E. Prieto, and R. S. Windeler, "The BIPM laser standards at 633 nm and 532 nm simultaneously linked to the SI second using a femtosecond laser in an optical clock configuration," IEEE Trans. Instrument. Meas. 52, 232 (2003).

Madej, A. A.

A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, and R. S. Windeler, "Long-term absolute frequency measurements of 633 nm iodine-stabilized laser standards at NRC and demonstration of high reproducibility of such devices in international frequency measurements," Metrologia 41, 152 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, T. H. Yoon, J. L. Hall, A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, and J.-M. Chartier, "Accuracy comparison of absolute optical frequency measurement between harmonic-generation synthesis and frequency-division femtosecond comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3797 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Margolis, H. S.

S. N. Lea, W. R. C. Rowley, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, P. Gill, J.-M. Chartier, and R. S. Windeler, "Absolute frequency measurements of 633 nm iodine-stabilized helium-neon lasers," Metrologia 40, 84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marmet, L.

J. Ye, T. H. Yoon, J. L. Hall, A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, and J.-M. Chartier, "Accuracy comparison of absolute optical frequency measurement between harmonic-generation synthesis and frequency-division femtosecond comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3797 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsumoto, H.

F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, J. Jiang, R. Guo, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, and H. Matsumoto, "Absolute frequency measurement of an acetylene-stabilized laser at 1542 nm," Opt. Lett. 28, 2324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, "Optical frequency link between an acetylene stabilized laser at 1542 nm and Rb stabilized laser at 778 nm using a two-color mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 183, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Merimaa, M.

M. Vainio, M. Merimaa, and K. Nyholm, "Optical amplifier for femtosecond frequency comb measurements near 633 nm," Appl. Phys. B 81, 1053 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Minoshima, K.

F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, J. Jiang, R. Guo, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, and H. Matsumoto, "Absolute frequency measurement of an acetylene-stabilized laser at 1542 nm," Opt. Lett. 28, 2324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, "Optical frequency link between an acetylene stabilized laser at 1542 nm and Rb stabilized laser at 778 nm using a two-color mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 183, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, K.

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, "Optical frequency link between an acetylene stabilized laser at 1542 nm and Rb stabilized laser at 778 nm using a two-color mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 183, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nyholm, K.

M. Vainio, M. Merimaa, and K. Nyholm, "Optical amplifier for femtosecond frequency comb measurements near 633 nm," Appl. Phys. B 81, 1053 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Onae, A.

F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, J. Jiang, R. Guo, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, and H. Matsumoto, "Absolute frequency measurement of an acetylene-stabilized laser at 1542 nm," Opt. Lett. 28, 2324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, "Optical frequency link between an acetylene stabilized laser at 1542 nm and Rb stabilized laser at 778 nm using a two-color mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 183, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Picard, S.

L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J.-M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, "Direct measurement of the absolute frequency of the international reference laser BIPM4," Metrologia 41, 65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, S. Picard, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, "A new method to determine the absolute mode number of a mode-locked femtosecond-laser comb used for absolute optical frequency measurements," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 9, 1066 (2003).

L.-S. Ma, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, J.-M. Chartier, H. Karlsson, E. Prieto, and R. S. Windeler, "The BIPM laser standards at 633 nm and 532 nm simultaneously linked to the SI second using a femtosecond laser in an optical clock configuration," IEEE Trans. Instrument. Meas. 52, 232 (2003).

Prieto, E.

L.-S. Ma, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, J.-M. Chartier, H. Karlsson, E. Prieto, and R. S. Windeler, "The BIPM laser standards at 633 nm and 532 nm simultaneously linked to the SI second using a femtosecond laser in an optical clock configuration," IEEE Trans. Instrument. Meas. 52, 232 (2003).

Quinn, T. J.

T. J. Quinn, "Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001)," Metrologia 40, 103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichert, J.

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers," Opt. Commun. 172, 59 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Robertsson, L.

A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, and R. S. Windeler, "Long-term absolute frequency measurements of 633 nm iodine-stabilized laser standards at NRC and demonstration of high reproducibility of such devices in international frequency measurements," Metrologia 41, 152 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J.-M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, "Direct measurement of the absolute frequency of the international reference laser BIPM4," Metrologia 41, 65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, S. Picard, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, "A new method to determine the absolute mode number of a mode-locked femtosecond-laser comb used for absolute optical frequency measurements," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 9, 1066 (2003).

L.-S. Ma, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, J.-M. Chartier, H. Karlsson, E. Prieto, and R. S. Windeler, "The BIPM laser standards at 633 nm and 532 nm simultaneously linked to the SI second using a femtosecond laser in an optical clock configuration," IEEE Trans. Instrument. Meas. 52, 232 (2003).

Rowley, W. R. C.

S. N. Lea, W. R. C. Rowley, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, P. Gill, J.-M. Chartier, and R. S. Windeler, "Absolute frequency measurements of 633 nm iodine-stabilized helium-neon lasers," Metrologia 40, 84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schibli, T. R.

F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, J. Jiang, R. Guo, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, and H. Matsumoto, "Absolute frequency measurement of an acetylene-stabilized laser at 1542 nm," Opt. Lett. 28, 2324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siemsen, K. J.

J. Ye, T. H. Yoon, J. L. Hall, A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, and J.-M. Chartier, "Accuracy comparison of absolute optical frequency measurement between harmonic-generation synthesis and frequency-division femtosecond comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3797 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugiyama, K.

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, "Optical frequency link between an acetylene stabilized laser at 1542 nm and Rb stabilized laser at 778 nm using a two-color mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 183, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Taubman, O. M. S.

O. M. S. Taubman and J. L. Hall, "Cancellation of laser dither modulation from optical frequency standards," Opt. Lett. 25, 311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers," Opt. Commun. 172, 59 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Udem, Th.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vainio, M.

M. Vainio, M. Merimaa, and K. Nyholm, "Optical amplifier for femtosecond frequency comb measurements near 633 nm," Appl. Phys. B 81, 1053 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J.-M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, "Direct measurement of the absolute frequency of the international reference laser BIPM4," Metrologia 41, 65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, and R. S. Windeler, "Long-term absolute frequency measurements of 633 nm iodine-stabilized laser standards at NRC and demonstration of high reproducibility of such devices in international frequency measurements," Metrologia 41, 152 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, S. Picard, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, "A new method to determine the absolute mode number of a mode-locked femtosecond-laser comb used for absolute optical frequency measurements," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 9, 1066 (2003).

S. N. Lea, W. R. C. Rowley, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, P. Gill, J.-M. Chartier, and R. S. Windeler, "Absolute frequency measurements of 633 nm iodine-stabilized helium-neon lasers," Metrologia 40, 84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Ma, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, J.-M. Chartier, H. Karlsson, E. Prieto, and R. S. Windeler, "The BIPM laser standards at 633 nm and 532 nm simultaneously linked to the SI second using a femtosecond laser in an optical clock configuration," IEEE Trans. Instrument. Meas. 52, 232 (2003).

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

T. H. Yoon, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and J.-M. Chartier, "Absolute frequency measurement of the iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser at 633 nm," Appl. Phys. B 72, 221 (2001).

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye, T. H. Yoon, J. L. Hall, A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, and J.-M. Chartier, "Accuracy comparison of absolute optical frequency measurement between harmonic-generation synthesis and frequency-division femtosecond comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3797 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, T. H.

T. H. Yoon, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and J.-M. Chartier, "Absolute frequency measurement of the iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser at 633 nm," Appl. Phys. B 72, 221 (2001).

J. Ye, T. H. Yoon, J. L. Hall, A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, and J.-M. Chartier, "Accuracy comparison of absolute optical frequency measurement between harmonic-generation synthesis and frequency-division femtosecond comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3797 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshida, M.

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, "Optical frequency link between an acetylene stabilized laser at 1542 nm and Rb stabilized laser at 778 nm using a two-color mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 183, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zucco, M.

A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, and R. S. Windeler, "Long-term absolute frequency measurements of 633 nm iodine-stabilized laser standards at NRC and demonstration of high reproducibility of such devices in international frequency measurements," Metrologia 41, 152 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J.-M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, "Direct measurement of the absolute frequency of the international reference laser BIPM4," Metrologia 41, 65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, S. Picard, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, "A new method to determine the absolute mode number of a mode-locked femtosecond-laser comb used for absolute optical frequency measurements," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 9, 1066 (2003).

Appl. Opt. (1)

R. W. Fox, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, "Optical frequency measurements with the global positioning system: tests with an iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser," Appl. Opt. 44, 113 (2005).
[PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

M. Vainio, M. Merimaa, and K. Nyholm, "Optical amplifier for femtosecond frequency comb measurements near 633 nm," Appl. Phys. B 81, 1053 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Yoon, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and J.-M. Chartier, "Absolute frequency measurement of the iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser at 633 nm," Appl. Phys. B 72, 221 (2001).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. (1)

L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, S. Picard, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, "A new method to determine the absolute mode number of a mode-locked femtosecond-laser comb used for absolute optical frequency measurements," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 9, 1066 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Instrument. Meas. (1)

L.-S. Ma, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, J.-M. Chartier, H. Karlsson, E. Prieto, and R. S. Windeler, "The BIPM laser standards at 633 nm and 532 nm simultaneously linked to the SI second using a femtosecond laser in an optical clock configuration," IEEE Trans. Instrument. Meas. 52, 232 (2003).

Metrologia (4)

L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, M. Zucco, J.-M. Chartier, L. Robertsson, and R. S. Windeler, "Direct measurement of the absolute frequency of the international reference laser BIPM4," Metrologia 41, 65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, M. Zucco, and R. S. Windeler, "Long-term absolute frequency measurements of 633 nm iodine-stabilized laser standards at NRC and demonstration of high reproducibility of such devices in international frequency measurements," Metrologia 41, 152 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Lea, W. R. C. Rowley, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, P. Gill, J.-M. Chartier, and R. S. Windeler, "Absolute frequency measurements of 633 nm iodine-stabilized helium-neon lasers," Metrologia 40, 84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Quinn, "Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001)," Metrologia 40, 103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, "Optical frequency link between an acetylene stabilized laser at 1542 nm and Rb stabilized laser at 778 nm using a two-color mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 183, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers," Opt. Commun. 172, 59 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

O. M. S. Taubman and J. L. Hall, "Cancellation of laser dither modulation from optical frequency standards," Opt. Lett. 25, 311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, J. Jiang, R. Guo, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, and H. Matsumoto, "Absolute frequency measurement of an acetylene-stabilized laser at 1542 nm," Opt. Lett. 28, 2324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye, T. H. Yoon, J. L. Hall, A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, and J.-M. Chartier, "Accuracy comparison of absolute optical frequency measurement between harmonic-generation synthesis and frequency-division femtosecond comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3797 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. H. Kingston, Detection of Optical and Infrared Radiation (Springer, 1978).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup. Components shown are isolator (ISO), half-wave plate (HWP), single-mode fiber coupler (SMFC), powermeter (PM), grating (GR), cylindrical lens (CL), and avalanche photodiode (APD).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Diagram illustrating the grating angular dispersion. Refer to the main text for explanation of the meaning of symbols. (b) Angular power distribution of the comb modes entering the detector aperture with a geometrical weighting factor.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured total shot noise as a function of the distance from the grating to the APD. Solid squares: experimental data. Dash-dot curve: theoretical curve of the parallel beam model. Solid curve: theoretical curve of the focusing beam model with F M 2 G 2 C 1 = 71.0   dB . The inset shows the comb spectrum after the SMFC, which was used in estimating the power of a single comb mode at 633 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured SNR of He–Ne heterodyne beat with a comb mode. Solid squares: experimental data. Dash-dot curve: theoretical curve of the parallel beam model. Solid curve: theoretical curve of the focusing beam model with C 1 C 2 / F = 11.9   dB . The inset shows an example of an enhanced SNR.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Allan deviation of the He–Ne / I 2 laser. The inset shows the offset of the measured absolute frequency of the He–Ne / I 2 laser from that recommended by CIPM.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Counter frequency reading as a function of beat SNR. The error bars represent the standard deviation of measured frequency at the gate time of 1 s.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Counter frequency reading as a function of signal power. The error bars represent the standard deviation of measured frequency at the gate time of 1 s.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Signal = 2 ( e η h ν ) 2 P HeNe P comb , n M 2 G 2 R C 1 2 C 2 ,
Noise = 2 e 2 η h ν ( P HeNe + i APD P comb , i ) B F M 2 G 2 R C 1 ,
SNR = η h ν B P HeNe P comb , n P HeNe + i APD P comb , i C 1 C 2 F ,
i APD P comb , i = 1 Δ θ M A P D P c o m b ( θ ) d θ = ( d θ d λ ) 1 1 Δ λ M D L P c o m b , n = a  cos   θ r D L Δ λ M P c o m b , n ,
S N R = η h ν B P H e N e P c o m b , n P H e N e + a  cos   θ r P c o m b , n D L Δ λ M C 1 C 2 F .

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