Abstract

A methodology forprocessing images of diesel sprays under different experimental situations is presented. The new approach has been developed for cases where the background does not follow a Gaussian distribution but a positive bias appears. In such cases, the lognormal and the gamma probability density functions have been considered for the background digital level distributions. Two different algorithms have been compared with the standard log- likelihood ratio test (LRT): a threshold defined from the cumulative probability density function of the background shows a sensitive improvement, but the best results are obtained with modified versions of the LRT algorithm adapted to non-Gaussian cases.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. V. Pastor, E. Encabo, and S. Ruiz, "New modelling approach for fast online in sprays," SAE technical paper 2000-01-0287 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2000).
  2. L. Allocca, F. E. Corcione, and M. Costa, "Numerical and experimental analysis of multiple injection diesel sprays," SAE technical paper 2004-01-1879 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2004).
  3. S. Sazhin, C. Crua, D. Kennaird, and M. Heikal, "The initial stage of fuel spray penetration," Fuel 82, 875-885 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Aneja and J. Abraham, "How far does the liquid penetrate in a diesel engine: computed results vs measurement," Combust. Sci. Technol. 138, 233-255 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. E. Dec, "A conceptual model of DI diesel combustion based on laser-sheet imaging," SAE technical paper 970873 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1997).
  6. V. Bermúdez, J. M. García, J. E. Juliá, and S. Martínez, "Engine with optically accessible cylinder head: a research tool injection and combustion processes," SAE technical paper 2003-01-1110 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2003).
  7. J. E. Dec and C. Espey, "Chemiluminescence imaging of autoingnition in a DI diesel engine," SAE technical paper 982685 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1998).
  8. B. Higgins and D. Siebers, "Measurement of the flame lift-off location on DI diesel sprays using OH chemiluminescence," SAE technical paper 2001-01-0918 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2001).
  9. A. Larsson, "Optical studies in a DI diesel engine," SAE technical paper 1999-01-3650 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1999).
  10. L. M. Pickett and D. L. Siebers, "Soot in diesel fuel lets: effects of ambient temperature, ambient density, and injection pressure," Combust. Flame 138, 114-135 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Zhao and N. Ladomatos, Engine Combustion Instrumentation and Diagnostics (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. V. Pastor, J. J. López, J. E. Juliá, and J. V. Benajes, "Planar laser-induced fluorescence fuel concentration measurement in isothermal diesel sprays," Opt. Express 10, 309-323 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  13. M. A. Beeck and W. Hentschel, "Laser metrology--a diagnostic tool in automotive development process," Opt. Lasers Eng. 34, 1001-120 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. V. Pastor, R. Payri, J. J. López, and J. E. Juliá, "Effect of injector nozzle geometry of diesel engines on the macroscopic spray characteristics by means of optical techniques," in Proceedings of Fuel injection Systems Conference (IMechE, 2003), C610/014/2003.
  15. A. Cronhjort and F. Wåhlin, "Segmentation algorithm for diesel spray image analysis," Appl. Opt. 43, 5971-5980 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Shao, Y. Yan, G. Greeves, and S. Smith, "Quantitative characterization of diesel sprays using digital imaging techniques," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1110-1116 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Seneschal, B. Maurin, J. C. Champoussin, and C. Ducottet, "A fully automatic system for the morphology characterization of high pressure diesel sprays," SAE technical paper 2004-01-0025 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2004).
  18. B. Maunoury, T. Duverger, K. Mokaddem, and F. Lacacs, "Phenomenological analysis of injection, auto-ignition, and combustion in small DI diesel engines," SAE technical paper 2002-01-1161 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2002).
  19. B. S. Higgins, C. J. Muller, and D. L. Siebers, "Measurements of fuel effects on liquid-phase penetration in DI sprays," SAE technical paper 1999-01-0519 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1999).
  20. D. L. Siebers, "Liquid-phase fuel penetration in diesel engines," SAE technical paper 980809 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1998).
  21. J. V. Pastor, J. Arrègle, and A. Palomares, "Diesel spray image segmentation with a likelihood ratio test," Appl. Opt. 40, 2876-2885 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F. Payri, J. V. Pastor, A. Palomares, and J. E. Juliá, "Optimal feature extraction for segmentation of diesel spray images," Appl. Opt. 43, 2102-2111 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. C. Devaux, P. Gouton, and F. Truchetet, "Karhunen-Loève transform applied to region-based segmentation of colour aerial images," Opt. Eng. 40, 1302-1308 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. F. Payri, V. Bermúdez, R. Payri, and J. Salvador, "The influence of cavitation on the internal flow and the spray characteristics in diesel injection nozzles," Fuel 83, 419-431 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. M. Desantes, R. Payri, F. J. Salvador, and V. Soare, "Study of the influence of geometrical and injection parameters on diesel sprays characteristics in isothermal conditions," SAE technical paper 2005-01-0913 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2005).
  26. R. Lukac, K. N. Plataniotis, and D. Hatzinakos, "Color image zooming on the Bayer pattern," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 15, 1475-1492 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, and D. G. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2001).
  28. K. Fukunaga, Introduction to Statistical Pattern Recognition, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1990).
  29. R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, 2002).

2005

R. Lukac, K. N. Plataniotis, and D. Hatzinakos, "Color image zooming on the Bayer pattern," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 15, 1475-1492 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

L. M. Pickett and D. L. Siebers, "Soot in diesel fuel lets: effects of ambient temperature, ambient density, and injection pressure," Combust. Flame 138, 114-135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Payri, V. Bermúdez, R. Payri, and J. Salvador, "The influence of cavitation on the internal flow and the spray characteristics in diesel injection nozzles," Fuel 83, 419-431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Payri, J. V. Pastor, A. Palomares, and J. E. Juliá, "Optimal feature extraction for segmentation of diesel spray images," Appl. Opt. 43, 2102-2111 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cronhjort and F. Wåhlin, "Segmentation algorithm for diesel spray image analysis," Appl. Opt. 43, 5971-5980 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

S. Sazhin, C. Crua, D. Kennaird, and M. Heikal, "The initial stage of fuel spray penetration," Fuel 82, 875-885 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Shao, Y. Yan, G. Greeves, and S. Smith, "Quantitative characterization of diesel sprays using digital imaging techniques," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1110-1116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

J. C. Devaux, P. Gouton, and F. Truchetet, "Karhunen-Loève transform applied to region-based segmentation of colour aerial images," Opt. Eng. 40, 1302-1308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Pastor, J. Arrègle, and A. Palomares, "Diesel spray image segmentation with a likelihood ratio test," Appl. Opt. 40, 2876-2885 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. A. Beeck and W. Hentschel, "Laser metrology--a diagnostic tool in automotive development process," Opt. Lasers Eng. 34, 1001-120 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. Aneja and J. Abraham, "How far does the liquid penetrate in a diesel engine: computed results vs measurement," Combust. Sci. Technol. 138, 233-255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, J.

R. Aneja and J. Abraham, "How far does the liquid penetrate in a diesel engine: computed results vs measurement," Combust. Sci. Technol. 138, 233-255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Allocca, L.

L. Allocca, F. E. Corcione, and M. Costa, "Numerical and experimental analysis of multiple injection diesel sprays," SAE technical paper 2004-01-1879 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2004).

Aneja, R.

R. Aneja and J. Abraham, "How far does the liquid penetrate in a diesel engine: computed results vs measurement," Combust. Sci. Technol. 138, 233-255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arrègle, J.

Beeck, M. A.

M. A. Beeck and W. Hentschel, "Laser metrology--a diagnostic tool in automotive development process," Opt. Lasers Eng. 34, 1001-120 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Benajes, J. V.

Bermúdez, V.

F. Payri, V. Bermúdez, R. Payri, and J. Salvador, "The influence of cavitation on the internal flow and the spray characteristics in diesel injection nozzles," Fuel 83, 419-431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Bermúdez, J. M. García, J. E. Juliá, and S. Martínez, "Engine with optically accessible cylinder head: a research tool injection and combustion processes," SAE technical paper 2003-01-1110 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2003).

Champoussin, J. C.

J. Seneschal, B. Maurin, J. C. Champoussin, and C. Ducottet, "A fully automatic system for the morphology characterization of high pressure diesel sprays," SAE technical paper 2004-01-0025 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2004).

Corcione, F. E.

L. Allocca, F. E. Corcione, and M. Costa, "Numerical and experimental analysis of multiple injection diesel sprays," SAE technical paper 2004-01-1879 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2004).

Costa, M.

L. Allocca, F. E. Corcione, and M. Costa, "Numerical and experimental analysis of multiple injection diesel sprays," SAE technical paper 2004-01-1879 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2004).

Cronhjort, A.

Crua, C.

S. Sazhin, C. Crua, D. Kennaird, and M. Heikal, "The initial stage of fuel spray penetration," Fuel 82, 875-885 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dec, J. E.

J. E. Dec, "A conceptual model of DI diesel combustion based on laser-sheet imaging," SAE technical paper 970873 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1997).

J. E. Dec and C. Espey, "Chemiluminescence imaging of autoingnition in a DI diesel engine," SAE technical paper 982685 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1998).

Desantes, J. M.

J. M. Desantes, R. Payri, F. J. Salvador, and V. Soare, "Study of the influence of geometrical and injection parameters on diesel sprays characteristics in isothermal conditions," SAE technical paper 2005-01-0913 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2005).

Devaux, J. C.

J. C. Devaux, P. Gouton, and F. Truchetet, "Karhunen-Loève transform applied to region-based segmentation of colour aerial images," Opt. Eng. 40, 1302-1308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ducottet, C.

J. Seneschal, B. Maurin, J. C. Champoussin, and C. Ducottet, "A fully automatic system for the morphology characterization of high pressure diesel sprays," SAE technical paper 2004-01-0025 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2004).

Duda, R. O.

R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, and D. G. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2001).

Duverger, T.

B. Maunoury, T. Duverger, K. Mokaddem, and F. Lacacs, "Phenomenological analysis of injection, auto-ignition, and combustion in small DI diesel engines," SAE technical paper 2002-01-1161 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2002).

Encabo, E.

J. V. Pastor, E. Encabo, and S. Ruiz, "New modelling approach for fast online in sprays," SAE technical paper 2000-01-0287 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2000).

Espey, C.

J. E. Dec and C. Espey, "Chemiluminescence imaging of autoingnition in a DI diesel engine," SAE technical paper 982685 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1998).

Fukunaga, K.

K. Fukunaga, Introduction to Statistical Pattern Recognition, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1990).

García, J. M.

V. Bermúdez, J. M. García, J. E. Juliá, and S. Martínez, "Engine with optically accessible cylinder head: a research tool injection and combustion processes," SAE technical paper 2003-01-1110 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2003).

Gonzalez, R. C.

R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, 2002).

Gouton, P.

J. C. Devaux, P. Gouton, and F. Truchetet, "Karhunen-Loève transform applied to region-based segmentation of colour aerial images," Opt. Eng. 40, 1302-1308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Greeves, G.

J. Shao, Y. Yan, G. Greeves, and S. Smith, "Quantitative characterization of diesel sprays using digital imaging techniques," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1110-1116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hart, P. E.

R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, and D. G. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2001).

Hatzinakos, D.

R. Lukac, K. N. Plataniotis, and D. Hatzinakos, "Color image zooming on the Bayer pattern," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 15, 1475-1492 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heikal, M.

S. Sazhin, C. Crua, D. Kennaird, and M. Heikal, "The initial stage of fuel spray penetration," Fuel 82, 875-885 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, W.

M. A. Beeck and W. Hentschel, "Laser metrology--a diagnostic tool in automotive development process," Opt. Lasers Eng. 34, 1001-120 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Higgins, B.

B. Higgins and D. Siebers, "Measurement of the flame lift-off location on DI diesel sprays using OH chemiluminescence," SAE technical paper 2001-01-0918 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2001).

Higgins, B. S.

B. S. Higgins, C. J. Muller, and D. L. Siebers, "Measurements of fuel effects on liquid-phase penetration in DI sprays," SAE technical paper 1999-01-0519 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1999).

Juliá, J. E.

F. Payri, J. V. Pastor, A. Palomares, and J. E. Juliá, "Optimal feature extraction for segmentation of diesel spray images," Appl. Opt. 43, 2102-2111 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. V. Pastor, J. J. López, J. E. Juliá, and J. V. Benajes, "Planar laser-induced fluorescence fuel concentration measurement in isothermal diesel sprays," Opt. Express 10, 309-323 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. V. Pastor, R. Payri, J. J. López, and J. E. Juliá, "Effect of injector nozzle geometry of diesel engines on the macroscopic spray characteristics by means of optical techniques," in Proceedings of Fuel injection Systems Conference (IMechE, 2003), C610/014/2003.

V. Bermúdez, J. M. García, J. E. Juliá, and S. Martínez, "Engine with optically accessible cylinder head: a research tool injection and combustion processes," SAE technical paper 2003-01-1110 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2003).

Kennaird, D.

S. Sazhin, C. Crua, D. Kennaird, and M. Heikal, "The initial stage of fuel spray penetration," Fuel 82, 875-885 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lacacs, F.

B. Maunoury, T. Duverger, K. Mokaddem, and F. Lacacs, "Phenomenological analysis of injection, auto-ignition, and combustion in small DI diesel engines," SAE technical paper 2002-01-1161 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2002).

Ladomatos, N.

H. Zhao and N. Ladomatos, Engine Combustion Instrumentation and Diagnostics (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, A.

A. Larsson, "Optical studies in a DI diesel engine," SAE technical paper 1999-01-3650 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1999).

López, J. J.

J. V. Pastor, J. J. López, J. E. Juliá, and J. V. Benajes, "Planar laser-induced fluorescence fuel concentration measurement in isothermal diesel sprays," Opt. Express 10, 309-323 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. V. Pastor, R. Payri, J. J. López, and J. E. Juliá, "Effect of injector nozzle geometry of diesel engines on the macroscopic spray characteristics by means of optical techniques," in Proceedings of Fuel injection Systems Conference (IMechE, 2003), C610/014/2003.

Lukac, R.

R. Lukac, K. N. Plataniotis, and D. Hatzinakos, "Color image zooming on the Bayer pattern," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 15, 1475-1492 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martínez, S.

V. Bermúdez, J. M. García, J. E. Juliá, and S. Martínez, "Engine with optically accessible cylinder head: a research tool injection and combustion processes," SAE technical paper 2003-01-1110 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2003).

Maunoury, B.

B. Maunoury, T. Duverger, K. Mokaddem, and F. Lacacs, "Phenomenological analysis of injection, auto-ignition, and combustion in small DI diesel engines," SAE technical paper 2002-01-1161 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2002).

Maurin, B.

J. Seneschal, B. Maurin, J. C. Champoussin, and C. Ducottet, "A fully automatic system for the morphology characterization of high pressure diesel sprays," SAE technical paper 2004-01-0025 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2004).

Mokaddem, K.

B. Maunoury, T. Duverger, K. Mokaddem, and F. Lacacs, "Phenomenological analysis of injection, auto-ignition, and combustion in small DI diesel engines," SAE technical paper 2002-01-1161 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2002).

Muller, C. J.

B. S. Higgins, C. J. Muller, and D. L. Siebers, "Measurements of fuel effects on liquid-phase penetration in DI sprays," SAE technical paper 1999-01-0519 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1999).

Palomares, A.

Pastor, J. V.

F. Payri, J. V. Pastor, A. Palomares, and J. E. Juliá, "Optimal feature extraction for segmentation of diesel spray images," Appl. Opt. 43, 2102-2111 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. V. Pastor, J. J. López, J. E. Juliá, and J. V. Benajes, "Planar laser-induced fluorescence fuel concentration measurement in isothermal diesel sprays," Opt. Express 10, 309-323 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. V. Pastor, J. Arrègle, and A. Palomares, "Diesel spray image segmentation with a likelihood ratio test," Appl. Opt. 40, 2876-2885 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Pastor, R. Payri, J. J. López, and J. E. Juliá, "Effect of injector nozzle geometry of diesel engines on the macroscopic spray characteristics by means of optical techniques," in Proceedings of Fuel injection Systems Conference (IMechE, 2003), C610/014/2003.

J. V. Pastor, E. Encabo, and S. Ruiz, "New modelling approach for fast online in sprays," SAE technical paper 2000-01-0287 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2000).

Payri, F.

F. Payri, V. Bermúdez, R. Payri, and J. Salvador, "The influence of cavitation on the internal flow and the spray characteristics in diesel injection nozzles," Fuel 83, 419-431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Payri, J. V. Pastor, A. Palomares, and J. E. Juliá, "Optimal feature extraction for segmentation of diesel spray images," Appl. Opt. 43, 2102-2111 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Payri, R.

F. Payri, V. Bermúdez, R. Payri, and J. Salvador, "The influence of cavitation on the internal flow and the spray characteristics in diesel injection nozzles," Fuel 83, 419-431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Desantes, R. Payri, F. J. Salvador, and V. Soare, "Study of the influence of geometrical and injection parameters on diesel sprays characteristics in isothermal conditions," SAE technical paper 2005-01-0913 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2005).

J. V. Pastor, R. Payri, J. J. López, and J. E. Juliá, "Effect of injector nozzle geometry of diesel engines on the macroscopic spray characteristics by means of optical techniques," in Proceedings of Fuel injection Systems Conference (IMechE, 2003), C610/014/2003.

Pickett, L. M.

L. M. Pickett and D. L. Siebers, "Soot in diesel fuel lets: effects of ambient temperature, ambient density, and injection pressure," Combust. Flame 138, 114-135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Plataniotis, K. N.

R. Lukac, K. N. Plataniotis, and D. Hatzinakos, "Color image zooming on the Bayer pattern," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 15, 1475-1492 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ruiz, S.

J. V. Pastor, E. Encabo, and S. Ruiz, "New modelling approach for fast online in sprays," SAE technical paper 2000-01-0287 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2000).

Salvador, F. J.

J. M. Desantes, R. Payri, F. J. Salvador, and V. Soare, "Study of the influence of geometrical and injection parameters on diesel sprays characteristics in isothermal conditions," SAE technical paper 2005-01-0913 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2005).

Salvador, J.

F. Payri, V. Bermúdez, R. Payri, and J. Salvador, "The influence of cavitation on the internal flow and the spray characteristics in diesel injection nozzles," Fuel 83, 419-431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sazhin, S.

S. Sazhin, C. Crua, D. Kennaird, and M. Heikal, "The initial stage of fuel spray penetration," Fuel 82, 875-885 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Seneschal, J.

J. Seneschal, B. Maurin, J. C. Champoussin, and C. Ducottet, "A fully automatic system for the morphology characterization of high pressure diesel sprays," SAE technical paper 2004-01-0025 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2004).

Shao, J.

J. Shao, Y. Yan, G. Greeves, and S. Smith, "Quantitative characterization of diesel sprays using digital imaging techniques," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1110-1116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Siebers, D.

B. Higgins and D. Siebers, "Measurement of the flame lift-off location on DI diesel sprays using OH chemiluminescence," SAE technical paper 2001-01-0918 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2001).

Siebers, D. L.

L. M. Pickett and D. L. Siebers, "Soot in diesel fuel lets: effects of ambient temperature, ambient density, and injection pressure," Combust. Flame 138, 114-135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Higgins, C. J. Muller, and D. L. Siebers, "Measurements of fuel effects on liquid-phase penetration in DI sprays," SAE technical paper 1999-01-0519 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1999).

D. L. Siebers, "Liquid-phase fuel penetration in diesel engines," SAE technical paper 980809 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 1998).

Smith, S.

J. Shao, Y. Yan, G. Greeves, and S. Smith, "Quantitative characterization of diesel sprays using digital imaging techniques," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1110-1116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Soare, V.

J. M. Desantes, R. Payri, F. J. Salvador, and V. Soare, "Study of the influence of geometrical and injection parameters on diesel sprays characteristics in isothermal conditions," SAE technical paper 2005-01-0913 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2005).

Stork, D. G.

R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, and D. G. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2001).

Truchetet, F.

J. C. Devaux, P. Gouton, and F. Truchetet, "Karhunen-Loève transform applied to region-based segmentation of colour aerial images," Opt. Eng. 40, 1302-1308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wåhlin, F.

Woods, R. E.

R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, 2002).

Yan, Y.

J. Shao, Y. Yan, G. Greeves, and S. Smith, "Quantitative characterization of diesel sprays using digital imaging techniques," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1110-1116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao and N. Ladomatos, Engine Combustion Instrumentation and Diagnostics (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Combust. Flame

L. M. Pickett and D. L. Siebers, "Soot in diesel fuel lets: effects of ambient temperature, ambient density, and injection pressure," Combust. Flame 138, 114-135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Technol.

R. Aneja and J. Abraham, "How far does the liquid penetrate in a diesel engine: computed results vs measurement," Combust. Sci. Technol. 138, 233-255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fuel

S. Sazhin, C. Crua, D. Kennaird, and M. Heikal, "The initial stage of fuel spray penetration," Fuel 82, 875-885 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Payri, V. Bermúdez, R. Payri, and J. Salvador, "The influence of cavitation on the internal flow and the spray characteristics in diesel injection nozzles," Fuel 83, 419-431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol.

R. Lukac, K. N. Plataniotis, and D. Hatzinakos, "Color image zooming on the Bayer pattern," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 15, 1475-1492 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

J. Shao, Y. Yan, G. Greeves, and S. Smith, "Quantitative characterization of diesel sprays using digital imaging techniques," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1110-1116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

J. C. Devaux, P. Gouton, and F. Truchetet, "Karhunen-Loève transform applied to region-based segmentation of colour aerial images," Opt. Eng. 40, 1302-1308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lasers Eng.

M. A. Beeck and W. Hentschel, "Laser metrology--a diagnostic tool in automotive development process," Opt. Lasers Eng. 34, 1001-120 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. V. Pastor, R. Payri, J. J. López, and J. E. Juliá, "Effect of injector nozzle geometry of diesel engines on the macroscopic spray characteristics by means of optical techniques," in Proceedings of Fuel injection Systems Conference (IMechE, 2003), C610/014/2003.

R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, and D. G. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2001).

K. Fukunaga, Introduction to Statistical Pattern Recognition, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1990).

R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, 2002).

J. M. Desantes, R. Payri, F. J. Salvador, and V. Soare, "Study of the influence of geometrical and injection parameters on diesel sprays characteristics in isothermal conditions," SAE technical paper 2005-01-0913 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2005).

J. Seneschal, B. Maurin, J. C. Champoussin, and C. Ducottet, "A fully automatic system for the morphology characterization of high pressure diesel sprays," SAE technical paper 2004-01-0025 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2004).

B. Maunoury, T. Duverger, K. Mokaddem, and F. Lacacs, "Phenomenological analysis of injection, auto-ignition, and combustion in small DI diesel engines," SAE technical paper 2002-01-1161 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2002).

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[CrossRef]

J. V. Pastor, E. Encabo, and S. Ruiz, "New modelling approach for fast online in sprays," SAE technical paper 2000-01-0287 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2000).

L. Allocca, F. E. Corcione, and M. Costa, "Numerical and experimental analysis of multiple injection diesel sprays," SAE technical paper 2004-01-1879 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2004).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout of the isothermal N 2 injection test rig (top view).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical layout of the hot-spray test rig (lateral view).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Flowchart of theprocessing algorithms. (A) Preprocessing, (B) segmentation, and (C) postsegmentation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Original gray scale image. The patter in the image is attributable to the color filter array (CFA) as shown at the square zone on the top right corner.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Multihole diesel spray image after color reconstruction (image printed in gray scale), (b) image divided in sectors to study single sprays.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Typical histogram of one image sector. Digital levels derived from the green matrix. Below, the histogram has been plotted with the logarithmic scale on the Y axis (counts) to highlight the spray distribution.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Different types of histograms focusing on the background distribution. Corresponding images are shown in Fig. 8. (a) and (b) cases where the image luminosity is controlled by the camera lens, (c) case where the exponential is the only P D F B possible, (d) histogram of liquid sprays injected in reactive environment.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spray images corresponding to the histograms in Fig. 7. Contours obtained with LRT segmentation have been superimposed onto the images. White contour was obtained with the best fitting P D F B , which is the exponential for image (c) or the gamma (other cases). Black contour was obtained by assuming a Gaussian P D F B .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of thresholding methodologies. Temporal evolution of the spray tip penetration and cone angle for a six-hole nozzle at the N 2 test rig. Optical aperture f∕5.6. Each point has been obtained by averaging the measurement of the six sprays and five images per instant. Error bars correspond to standard deviations. Results have been purposely plotted slightly out of phase to enable easier interpretation.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Image at 150   μs ASOI for the test in Fig. 9, (b) contour from 1D LRT segmentation superimposed onto image, (c) contour calculated with T 1 .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Average tip penetration and spray cone angle. Images recorded in N 2 test rig at f∕5.6. Results have been purposely plotted slightly out of phase to enable easier interpretation. Background has been characterized by either a normal or an optimal P D F B .

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Average tip penetration and spray cone angle. Images recorded in N 2 test rig. Results have been purposely plotted slightly out of phase to enable easier interpretation. Images have been segmented with the optimal LRT algorithm. Comparison of images with different luminosity.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 A Priori Threshold and Standard Deviation for Test Cases

Tables Icon

Table 2 1D-LRT Equation for Different PDF B

Tables Icon

Table 3 Statistical Estimation Results for Different Samples of Images

Equations (103)

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3 × 8
1280 × 1024
30   μs
10   μs
± 5   μs
60   mm
( f / # )
f / 8
f / 5.6
N 2
35   mm
( p , q )
p = 0
q = 0
R ( p , q )
G ( p , q )
B ( p , q )
R ( p , q )
G ( p , q )
B ( p , q )
G ( p , q )
( p , q )
P D F Gauss ( x ) = 1 σ 2 π exp [ 1 2 ( x μ σ ) 2 ] .
P D F ln ( x ) = 1 σ x 2 π exp [ 1 2 ( ln ( x ) μ σ ) 2 ] .
Γ ( α )
P D F γ ( x ) = 1 Γ ( α ) θ α x ( α 1 ) exp ( x / θ ) .
α = 1
Γ ( α = 1 ) = 1
P D F exp ( x ) = 1 θ exp ( x / θ ) .
P D F B
P D F B
( μ B , σ B )
μ B
σ B
μ B
P D F B
( α B , θ B )
P D F B
( α B , θ B )
P D F B
P D F B
R 2
P D F B
R 2 = n [ P D F B ( x ) p c ( x ) ] P D F B ( x ) p c ( x ) [ n P D F B ( x ) 2 [ P D F B ( x ) ] 2 ] [ n p c ( x ) 2 [ p c ( x ) ] 2 ] ,
P D F B
P D F B
P D F B
P D F B
2 σ 3 σ
T 1
( σ S σ B )
σ S
σ B
( μ S , σ S )
μ S
σ S
T 1
P D F S
P D F B
T 1
h ( x )
h ( T ) = ln P D F S ( T ) + ln P D F B ( T ) = ln P S P B ,
P D F S ( x )
P D F B ( x )
P S
P B
T 1
T 1
P D F B
P D F S
f / #
P D F B
P D F B
P D F B
P D F B
T 1
P D F B
T 1
150   μs
T 1
T 1
T 1
P D F B
T 1
P D F B
T 1
P D F S
P D F B
P D F B
( T μ B ) 2 2 σ B 2 ( T μ S ) 2 2 σ S 2 + ln ( σ B P S σ S P B ) = 0
( ln ( T ) μ B ) 2 2 σ B 2 ( T μ S ) 2 2 σ S 2 + ln ( T σ B P S σ S P B ) = 0
T θ B ( T μ S ) 2 2 σ S 2 + ln ( Γ ( α B ) θ B α B T ( α B 1 ) σ S 2 π P S P B ) = 0
T θ B ( T μ S ) 2 2 σ S 2 + ln ( θ B σ S 2 π P S P B ) = 0
N 2
P D F B
P D F B
P D F B
N 2
150   μs
T 1
N 2
P D F B
N 2

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