Abstract

We present a computational method to increase the effective NA of a holographic microscopy system operating in air. Our optical system employs a reflection Mach–Zender architecture and computational reconstruction of the full complex (phase and amplitude) wavefront. Based on fundamental diffraction principles, different angles of incident illumination result in different diffracted orders of the object wave being imaged. We record, store, and computationally recombine these object waves to expand the spatial frequency response. Experimental results demonstrate an improvement in the effective NA of our system from 0.59 to 0.78.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Inouè and K. Spring, Video Microscopy, 2nd ed. (Plenum, 1997), pp. 32-37.
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2004

P. Bingham, K. Tobin, G. Hanson, and J. Simpson, "Spatial heterodyne interferometry techniques and applications in semiconductor wafer manufacturing," in Proceedings of Optical Interferometry XII,Proc. SPIE 5531, 289-298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Schulze, M. Hunt, M. Mayo, E. Voelkl, J. Hickson, W. Usry, R. Smith, R. Bryant, and C. Thomas, Jr., "Semiconductor wafer defect detection using digital holography," in Process and Materials Characterization and Diagnostics in IC Manufacturing II,Proc. SPIE 5041, 183-193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

1994

1982

1967

J. Goodman and R. Lawrence, "Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 77-79 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bahm, T. M.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baylor, L. R.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bingham, P.

P. Bingham, K. Tobin, G. Hanson, and J. Simpson, "Spatial heterodyne interferometry techniques and applications in semiconductor wafer manufacturing," in Proceedings of Optical Interferometry XII,Proc. SPIE 5531, 289-298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bingham, P. R.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, R.

M. Schulze, M. Hunt, M. Mayo, E. Voelkl, J. Hickson, W. Usry, R. Smith, R. Bryant, and C. Thomas, Jr., "Semiconductor wafer defect detection using digital holography," in Process and Materials Characterization and Diagnostics in IC Manufacturing II,Proc. SPIE 5041, 183-193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Burns, S. W.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chidley, M.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cuche, E.

Dai, L.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Delahanty, R. J.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Depeursinge, C.

Doti, C. J.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

El-Khashab, A.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, R. L.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, J. M.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goddard, J. S.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J.

J. Goodman and R. Lawrence, "Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 77-79 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

Hanson, G.

P. Bingham, K. Tobin, G. Hanson, and J. Simpson, "Spatial heterodyne interferometry techniques and applications in semiconductor wafer manufacturing," in Proceedings of Optical Interferometry XII,Proc. SPIE 5531, 289-298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, G. R.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hickson, J.

M. Schulze, M. Hunt, M. Mayo, E. Voelkl, J. Hickson, W. Usry, R. Smith, R. Bryant, and C. Thomas, Jr., "Semiconductor wafer defect detection using digital holography," in Process and Materials Characterization and Diagnostics in IC Manufacturing II,Proc. SPIE 5041, 183-193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hickson, J. D.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, M.

M. Schulze, M. Hunt, M. Mayo, E. Voelkl, J. Hickson, W. Usry, R. Smith, R. Bryant, and C. Thomas, Jr., "Semiconductor wafer defect detection using digital holography," in Process and Materials Characterization and Diagnostics in IC Manufacturing II,Proc. SPIE 5041, 183-193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, M. A.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hylton, K. W.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ina, H.

Inouè, S.

S. Inouè and K. Spring, Video Microscopy, 2nd ed. (Plenum, 1997), pp. 32-37.

John, G. C.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jones, M. L.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jones, P. G.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, S.

Lawrence, R.

J. Goodman and R. Lawrence, "Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 77-79 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Macdonald, K. R.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marquet, P.

Mayo, M.

M. Schulze, M. Hunt, M. Mayo, E. Voelkl, J. Hickson, W. Usry, R. Smith, R. Bryant, and C. Thomas, Jr., "Semiconductor wafer defect detection using digital holography," in Process and Materials Characterization and Diagnostics in IC Manufacturing II,Proc. SPIE 5041, 183-193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mayo, M. W.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McMackin, I.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oppenheim, A.

A. Oppenheim and R. Schafer, Discrete-Time Signal Processing (Prentice-Hall, 1989).

Owen, R. W.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Patek, D. R.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Price, J. H.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, D. A.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, L. J.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, R.

A. Oppenheim and R. Schafer, Discrete-Time Signal Processing (Prentice-Hall, 1989).

Scheidt, T. R.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schnars, U.

Schulze, M.

M. Schulze, M. Hunt, M. Mayo, E. Voelkl, J. Hickson, W. Usry, R. Smith, R. Bryant, and C. Thomas, Jr., "Semiconductor wafer defect detection using digital holography," in Process and Materials Characterization and Diagnostics in IC Manufacturing II,Proc. SPIE 5041, 183-193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schulze, M. A.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schumaker, P. D.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shen, B.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J.

P. Bingham, K. Tobin, G. Hanson, and J. Simpson, "Spatial heterodyne interferometry techniques and applications in semiconductor wafer manufacturing," in Proceedings of Optical Interferometry XII,Proc. SPIE 5531, 289-298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R.

M. Schulze, M. Hunt, M. Mayo, E. Voelkl, J. Hickson, W. Usry, R. Smith, R. Bryant, and C. Thomas, Jr., "Semiconductor wafer defect detection using digital holography," in Process and Materials Characterization and Diagnostics in IC Manufacturing II,Proc. SPIE 5041, 183-193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. G.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spring, K.

S. Inouè and K. Spring, Video Microscopy, 2nd ed. (Plenum, 1997), pp. 32-37.

Su, A. N.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, M.

Thomas, C.

M. Schulze, M. Hunt, M. Mayo, E. Voelkl, J. Hickson, W. Usry, R. Smith, R. Bryant, and C. Thomas, Jr., "Semiconductor wafer defect detection using digital holography," in Process and Materials Characterization and Diagnostics in IC Manufacturing II,Proc. SPIE 5041, 183-193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tobin, K.

P. Bingham, K. Tobin, G. Hanson, and J. Simpson, "Spatial heterodyne interferometry techniques and applications in semiconductor wafer manufacturing," in Proceedings of Optical Interferometry XII,Proc. SPIE 5531, 289-298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tobin, K. W.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Usry, W.

M. Schulze, M. Hunt, M. Mayo, E. Voelkl, J. Hickson, W. Usry, R. Smith, R. Bryant, and C. Thomas, Jr., "Semiconductor wafer defect detection using digital holography," in Process and Materials Characterization and Diagnostics in IC Manufacturing II,Proc. SPIE 5041, 183-193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Usry, W. R.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Voelkl, E.

M. Schulze, M. Hunt, M. Mayo, E. Voelkl, J. Hickson, W. Usry, R. Smith, R. Bryant, and C. Thomas, Jr., "Semiconductor wafer defect detection using digital holography," in Process and Materials Characterization and Diagnostics in IC Manufacturing II,Proc. SPIE 5041, 183-193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weber, K. S.

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Goodman and R. Lawrence, "Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 77-79 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Proc. SPIE

C. Thomas Jr., T. M. Bahm, L. R. Baylor, P. R. Bingham, S. W. Burns, M. Chidley, L. Dai, R. J. Delahanty, C. J. Doti, A. El-Khashab, R. L. Fisher, J. M. Gilbert, J. S. Goddard, Jr., G. R. Hanson, J. D. Hickson, M. A. Hunt, K. W. Hylton, G. C. John, M. L. Jones, K. R. Macdonald, M. W. Mayo, I. McMackin, D. R. Patek, J. H. Price, D. A. Rasmussen, L. J. Schaefer, T. R. Scheidt, M. A. Schulze, P. D. Schumaker, B. Shen, R. G. Smith, A. N. Su, K. W. Tobin, Jr., W. R. Usry, E. Voelkl, K. S. Weber, P. G. Jones, and R. W. Owen, "Direct to digital holography for semiconductor wafer defect detection and review," in Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics,Proc. SPIE 4692, 180-194 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Schulze, M. Hunt, M. Mayo, E. Voelkl, J. Hickson, W. Usry, R. Smith, R. Bryant, and C. Thomas, Jr., "Semiconductor wafer defect detection using digital holography," in Process and Materials Characterization and Diagnostics in IC Manufacturing II,Proc. SPIE 5041, 183-193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Bingham, K. Tobin, G. Hanson, and J. Simpson, "Spatial heterodyne interferometry techniques and applications in semiconductor wafer manufacturing," in Proceedings of Optical Interferometry XII,Proc. SPIE 5531, 289-298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Inouè and K. Spring, Video Microscopy, 2nd ed. (Plenum, 1997), pp. 32-37.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

A. Oppenheim and R. Schafer, Discrete-Time Signal Processing (Prentice-Hall, 1989).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relationship between NA, resolution, diffracted orders, and oblique illumination. The acceptance cone of half-angle θ is indicated by the dashed lines. Illumination and zero-order diffraction are indicated with double lines, while the first diffracted orders are indicated with solid single lines. (a) Illumination is normally incident upon the specimen, and both the + 1 and 1 diffracted orders are outside the acceptance cone. (b) Oblique illumination causes the + 1 diffracted order to fall within the acceptance cone.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simplified schematic of digital holography system used in our experiments. Note that the beam expander is mounted on a bidirectional motorized stage.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Small region (21.6 μm × 21.6 μm) of an example hologram image. Note the fringe pattern, aligned diagonally from the top left to the bottom right that is a result of interference between the object and reference waves.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Log-magnitude FFT of an example hologram. The center corresponds to the autocorrelation term while the upper-right and lower-left sidebands result from the fringe pattern. The object wave is reconstructed from just one of the sidebands.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Recalling the system schematic in Fig. 2, the motorized stage can be used to move the beam expander to achieve and accurately control oblique illumination.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Log-magnitude sideband FFTs of a test object under different oblique illuminations (normal illumination is shown in the center). All images are centered on the carrier frequency (the bright spot in each square image center). Data were acquired from a sample with a grating-like pattern beyond the optical resolution of the system. Note the appearance of the first diffracted order bright spots in the oblique-illumination examples. (See Section 4 for details.)

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Shaded region represents the common frequency content for g k ( x ) and g 0 ( x ) used when estimating fringe contrast and phase offset. In the Fourier domain this region is defined by the product W 0 ( u ) W k ( u ) .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Reconstructed phase of semiconductor test wafer from a single hologram using normal illumination. Though the defect in the center is detectable, there is no evidence of the beyond-resolution 680   nm repeated pattern. The x and y scales are in micrometers, grayscale and height are in radians, where 2 π corresponds to λ = 532   nm .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Reconstructed phase of semiconductor test wafer using (vertical) oblique illumination. Note that horizontal component of the 680 nm pattern is now apparent owing to the principles discussed in Subsection 2.A. The x and y scales are in micrometers, grayscale and height are in radians, where 2 π corresponds to λ = 532   nm .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Log-magnitude of computationally combined FFTs, computed using the method described in Section 3. Note the presence of the positive and negative first diffracted orders in both the horizontal and vertical directions.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Phase of semiconductor test wafer computed from computationally combining five reconstructed object waves (one normally illuminated and four obliquely illuminated) as described in Section 3. Note that the 680 nm pattern can be resolved in both the horizontal and vertical directions. The x and y scales are in micrometers, grayscale and height are in radians, where 2 π corresponds to λ = 532   nm .

Equations (33)

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sin   ϕ M + sin   ϕ i = M λ d ,
d min = λ / NA .
I CCD ( x ) = 1 + | a ( x ) | 2 + 2 a ( x ) cos [ 2 π c T x + ϕ ( x ) ] ,
f ( x ) = a ( x ) e j ϕ ( x ) .
f ˜ ( x ) = μ a ( x ) cos [ 2 π c T x + γ + ϕ ( x ) ] * w ˜ ( x ) ,
w ˜ ( x ) = w ( x ) e j 2 π c T x
h k ( x ) = μ k a ( x + Δ x k ) cos [ 2 π c k T x + γ k + ϕ ( x + Δ x k ) ] * w ˜ k ( x ) ,
w ˜ k ( x ) = [ w k ( x ) ] e j 2 π c k T x = [ w ( x ) e j 2 π q k T x ] e j 2 π c k T x .
g k ( x ) = μ k e j γ k e j 2 π Δ c k T x [ a ( x + Δ x k ) e j ϕ ( x + Δ x k ) ] w k ( x ) e j 2 π Δ c k T x
= μ k e j γ k e j 2 π Δ c k T x [ f ( x + Δ x k ) ] w k ( x ) e j 2 π Δ c k T x ,
G k ( u ) = μ k e j γ k e j 2 π Δ c k T Δ x k e j 2 π u T Δ x k F ( u Δ c k ) W k ( u Δ c k ) .
g k ( x ) = μ k e j γ k f ( x ) w k ( x ) ,
G k ( u ) = μ k e j γ k F ( u ) W k ( u ) ,
g k , 0 ( x ) = 1 { G k ( u ) W 0 ( u ) } = 1 { μ k e j γ k F ( u ) W k ( u ) W 0 ( u ) } = μ k e j γ k f ( x ) w k ( x ) w 0 ( x ) ,
g 0 , k ( x ) = 1 { G 0 ( u ) W k ( u ) } = 1 { μ 0 e j γ 0 F ( u ) W 0 ( u ) W k ( u ) } = μ 0 e j γ 0 f ( x ) w 0 ( x ) w k ( x ) ,
χ k ( x ) = g k , 0 ( x ) g 0 , k ( x ) μ k e j γ k μ 0 e j γ 0 .
χ ^ k = ε x { χ k ( x ) } ,
| χ ^ k | μ k μ 0 ,
χ ^ k | χ ^ k | e j γ k e j γ 0 .
( χ ^ k ) 1 g k ( x ) μ 0 e j γ 0 f ( x ) w k ( x ) ,
( χ ^ k ) 1 G k ( u ) μ 0 e j γ 0 F ( u ) W k ( u ) .
g k ( x ) f ( x ) w k ( x ) ,
G k ( u ) F ( u ) W k ( u ) ,
G k = W k F + N k ,
β = arg   min β ε { | F F ^ | 2 } ,
F ^ = k = 0 N β k G k .
ε { N l N k * } = { σ N 2 0 if   l = k if   l k ,
β = ( M ( W ) + σ N 2 σ F 2   I ) 1 W ,
K = σ N 2 σ F 2
β k = W k ( k = 0 N W k 2 ) + K ,
F ^ ( u ) = k = 0 N β k ( u ) G k ( u ) ,
β k ( u ) = W k ( u ) ( k = 0 N W k 2 ( u ) ) + K ( u ) .
NA e 0.782 ( 532   nm / 680   nm )

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