Abstract

The NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group's Calibration and Validation (Cal∕Val) team has undertaken an analysis of the mission-long Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) solar calibration time series to assess the long-term degradation of the solar diffuser reflectance over 9 years on orbit. The SeaWiFS diffuser is an aluminum plate coated with YB71 paint. The bidirectional reflectance distribution function of the diffuser was not fully characterized before launch, so the Cal∕Val team has implemented a regression of the solar incidence angles and the drift in the node of the satellite's orbit against the diffuser time series to correct for solar incidence angle effects. An exponential function with a time constant of 200 days yields the best fit to the diffuser time series. The decrease in diffuser reflectance over the mission is wavelength dependent, ranging from 9% in the blue (412  nm) to 5% in the red and near infrared (670865  nm). The Cal∕Val team has developed a methodology for computing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for SeaWiFS on orbit from the diffuser time series corrected for both the varying solar incidence angles and the diffuser reflectance degradation. A sensor noise model is used to compare on-orbit SNRs computed for radiances reflected from the diffuser with prelaunch SNRs measured at typical radiances specified for the instrument. To within the uncertainties in the measurements, the SNRs for SeaWiFS have not changed over the mission. The on-orbit performance of the SeaWiFS solar diffuser should offer insight into the long-term on-orbit performance of solar diffusers on other instruments, such as the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer [currently flying on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites], the Visible and Infrared Radiometer Suite [scheduled to fly on the NASA National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) and NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellites] and the Advanced Baseline Imager [scheduled to fly on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geostationary Environmental Operational Satellite Series R (GOES-R) satellites].

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, and R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992), Vol. 3.
  2. R. A. Barnes and R. E. Eplee, "The SeaWiFS solar diffuser," in SeaWiFS Calibration Topics, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1996), Vol. 39, pp. 54-61.
  3. R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, "Changes in the radiometric stability of SeaWiFS determined from lunar and solar-based measurements," Appl. Opt. 38, 4649-4664 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, and T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), Vol. 23.
  5. R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, "Calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Direct techniques," Appl. Opt. 40, 6682-6700 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. E. Eplee, Jr., R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, "SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit," in Earth Observing Systems IX, W. L. Barnes and J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE 5542, 1-13 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. E. Eplee, Jr., S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, H. H. Kieffer, and C. R. McClain, "Comparison of SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar and vicarious calibrations," in Earth Observing Systems XI, J. J. Butler and X. Xiong, eds., Proc. SPIE 6296, 629639 (2006).
  8. A. C. Tribble, R. Lukis, E. Watts, V. A. Borisov, S. A. Demidov, V. A. Denisenko, A. A. Gorodetskiy, V. K. Grishin, S. F. Nauma, V. K. Sergeev, and S. P. Sokolova, "United States and Russian thermal control coating results in low earth orbit," J. Spacecraft Rockets 33, 160-166 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. A. Barnes and E. F. Zalewski, "Reflectance-based calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Calibration coefficients," Appl. Opt. 42, 1629-1647 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. A. Barnes and E. F. Zalewski, "Reflectance-based calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Conversion to radiance," Appl. Opt. 42, 1648-1650 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. X. Xiong, H. Erives, S. Xiong, X. Xie, J. Esposito, J. Sun, and W. Barnes, "Performance of terra MODIS solar diffuser and solar diffuser stability monitor," in Earth Observing Systems X, J. J. Butler, ed., Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820S (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. E. Wolfe, W. Esaias, A. I. Lyapustin, and X. Xiong, "MODIS solar diffuser earthshine modeling and analysis," in Earth Observing Systems XI, J. J. Butler and X. Xiong, eds., Proc. SPIE 6296, 629607 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Xie, X. Xiong, R. E. Wolfe, and A. I. Lyapustin, "Improvement of MODIS RSB calibration by minimizing the earthshine impact on solar diffuser observations," in Earth Observing Systems XI, J. J. Butler and X. Xiong, eds., Proc. SPIE 6296, 629609 (2006).
  14. B. L. Markham, J. L. Barker, E. Kaita, J. Sieferth, and R. Morfitt, "On-orbit performance of the Landsat-7 ETM+ radiometric calibrators," Int. J. Remote Sens. 24, 265-286 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, and C. R. McClain, Prelaunch Acceptance Report for the SeaWiFS Radiometer, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), Vol. 22.

2006 (3)

R. E. Eplee, Jr., S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, H. H. Kieffer, and C. R. McClain, "Comparison of SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar and vicarious calibrations," in Earth Observing Systems XI, J. J. Butler and X. Xiong, eds., Proc. SPIE 6296, 629639 (2006).

R. E. Wolfe, W. Esaias, A. I. Lyapustin, and X. Xiong, "MODIS solar diffuser earthshine modeling and analysis," in Earth Observing Systems XI, J. J. Butler and X. Xiong, eds., Proc. SPIE 6296, 629607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, X. Xiong, R. E. Wolfe, and A. I. Lyapustin, "Improvement of MODIS RSB calibration by minimizing the earthshine impact on solar diffuser observations," in Earth Observing Systems XI, J. J. Butler and X. Xiong, eds., Proc. SPIE 6296, 629609 (2006).

2005 (1)

X. Xiong, H. Erives, S. Xiong, X. Xie, J. Esposito, J. Sun, and W. Barnes, "Performance of terra MODIS solar diffuser and solar diffuser stability monitor," in Earth Observing Systems X, J. J. Butler, ed., Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820S (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. E. Eplee, Jr., R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, "SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit," in Earth Observing Systems IX, W. L. Barnes and J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE 5542, 1-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

A. C. Tribble, R. Lukis, E. Watts, V. A. Borisov, S. A. Demidov, V. A. Denisenko, A. A. Gorodetskiy, V. K. Grishin, S. F. Nauma, V. K. Sergeev, and S. P. Sokolova, "United States and Russian thermal control coating results in low earth orbit," J. Spacecraft Rockets 33, 160-166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. W.

R. E. Eplee, Jr., S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, H. H. Kieffer, and C. R. McClain, "Comparison of SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar and vicarious calibrations," in Earth Observing Systems XI, J. J. Butler and X. Xiong, eds., Proc. SPIE 6296, 629639 (2006).

Barker, J. L.

B. L. Markham, J. L. Barker, E. Kaita, J. Sieferth, and R. Morfitt, "On-orbit performance of the Landsat-7 ETM+ radiometric calibrators," Int. J. Remote Sens. 24, 265-286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, R.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, and R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992), Vol. 3.

Barnes, R. A.

R. E. Eplee, Jr., S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, H. H. Kieffer, and C. R. McClain, "Comparison of SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar and vicarious calibrations," in Earth Observing Systems XI, J. J. Butler and X. Xiong, eds., Proc. SPIE 6296, 629639 (2006).

R. E. Eplee, Jr., R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, "SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit," in Earth Observing Systems IX, W. L. Barnes and J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE 5542, 1-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes and E. F. Zalewski, "Reflectance-based calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Calibration coefficients," Appl. Opt. 42, 1629-1647 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Barnes and E. F. Zalewski, "Reflectance-based calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Conversion to radiance," Appl. Opt. 42, 1648-1650 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, "Calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Direct techniques," Appl. Opt. 40, 6682-6700 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, "Changes in the radiometric stability of SeaWiFS determined from lunar and solar-based measurements," Appl. Opt. 38, 4649-4664 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, and T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), Vol. 23.

R. A. Barnes and R. E. Eplee, "The SeaWiFS solar diffuser," in SeaWiFS Calibration Topics, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1996), Vol. 39, pp. 54-61.

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, and C. R. McClain, Prelaunch Acceptance Report for the SeaWiFS Radiometer, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), Vol. 22.

Barnes, W.

X. Xiong, H. Erives, S. Xiong, X. Xie, J. Esposito, J. Sun, and W. Barnes, "Performance of terra MODIS solar diffuser and solar diffuser stability monitor," in Earth Observing Systems X, J. J. Butler, ed., Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820S (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, and R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992), Vol. 3.

Barnes, W. L.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, and T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), Vol. 23.

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, and C. R. McClain, Prelaunch Acceptance Report for the SeaWiFS Radiometer, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), Vol. 22.

Borisov, V. A.

A. C. Tribble, R. Lukis, E. Watts, V. A. Borisov, S. A. Demidov, V. A. Denisenko, A. A. Gorodetskiy, V. K. Grishin, S. F. Nauma, V. K. Sergeev, and S. P. Sokolova, "United States and Russian thermal control coating results in low earth orbit," J. Spacecraft Rockets 33, 160-166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Demidov, S. A.

A. C. Tribble, R. Lukis, E. Watts, V. A. Borisov, S. A. Demidov, V. A. Denisenko, A. A. Gorodetskiy, V. K. Grishin, S. F. Nauma, V. K. Sergeev, and S. P. Sokolova, "United States and Russian thermal control coating results in low earth orbit," J. Spacecraft Rockets 33, 160-166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Denisenko, V. A.

A. C. Tribble, R. Lukis, E. Watts, V. A. Borisov, S. A. Demidov, V. A. Denisenko, A. A. Gorodetskiy, V. K. Grishin, S. F. Nauma, V. K. Sergeev, and S. P. Sokolova, "United States and Russian thermal control coating results in low earth orbit," J. Spacecraft Rockets 33, 160-166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Endres, D.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, and R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992), Vol. 3.

Eplee, R. E.

R. E. Eplee, Jr., S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, H. H. Kieffer, and C. R. McClain, "Comparison of SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar and vicarious calibrations," in Earth Observing Systems XI, J. J. Butler and X. Xiong, eds., Proc. SPIE 6296, 629639 (2006).

R. E. Eplee, Jr., R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, "SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit," in Earth Observing Systems IX, W. L. Barnes and J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE 5542, 1-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, "Calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Direct techniques," Appl. Opt. 40, 6682-6700 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, "Changes in the radiometric stability of SeaWiFS determined from lunar and solar-based measurements," Appl. Opt. 38, 4649-4664 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes and R. E. Eplee, "The SeaWiFS solar diffuser," in SeaWiFS Calibration Topics, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1996), Vol. 39, pp. 54-61.

Erives, H.

X. Xiong, H. Erives, S. Xiong, X. Xie, J. Esposito, J. Sun, and W. Barnes, "Performance of terra MODIS solar diffuser and solar diffuser stability monitor," in Earth Observing Systems X, J. J. Butler, ed., Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820S (2005).
[CrossRef]

Esaias, W.

R. E. Wolfe, W. Esaias, A. I. Lyapustin, and X. Xiong, "MODIS solar diffuser earthshine modeling and analysis," in Earth Observing Systems XI, J. J. Butler and X. Xiong, eds., Proc. SPIE 6296, 629607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Esaias, W. E.

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, and C. R. McClain, Prelaunch Acceptance Report for the SeaWiFS Radiometer, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), Vol. 22.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, and R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992), Vol. 3.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, and T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), Vol. 23.

Esposito, J.

X. Xiong, H. Erives, S. Xiong, X. Xie, J. Esposito, J. Sun, and W. Barnes, "Performance of terra MODIS solar diffuser and solar diffuser stability monitor," in Earth Observing Systems X, J. J. Butler, ed., Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820S (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gorodetskiy, A. A.

A. C. Tribble, R. Lukis, E. Watts, V. A. Borisov, S. A. Demidov, V. A. Denisenko, A. A. Gorodetskiy, V. K. Grishin, S. F. Nauma, V. K. Sergeev, and S. P. Sokolova, "United States and Russian thermal control coating results in low earth orbit," J. Spacecraft Rockets 33, 160-166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grishin, V. K.

A. C. Tribble, R. Lukis, E. Watts, V. A. Borisov, S. A. Demidov, V. A. Denisenko, A. A. Gorodetskiy, V. K. Grishin, S. F. Nauma, V. K. Sergeev, and S. P. Sokolova, "United States and Russian thermal control coating results in low earth orbit," J. Spacecraft Rockets 33, 160-166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, B.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, and R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992), Vol. 3.

Holmes, A. W.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, and T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), Vol. 23.

Hooker, S. B.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, and R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992), Vol. 3.

Kaita, E.

B. L. Markham, J. L. Barker, E. Kaita, J. Sieferth, and R. Morfitt, "On-orbit performance of the Landsat-7 ETM+ radiometric calibrators," Int. J. Remote Sens. 24, 265-286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, H. H.

R. E. Eplee, Jr., S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, H. H. Kieffer, and C. R. McClain, "Comparison of SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar and vicarious calibrations," in Earth Observing Systems XI, J. J. Butler and X. Xiong, eds., Proc. SPIE 6296, 629639 (2006).

Lukis, R.

A. C. Tribble, R. Lukis, E. Watts, V. A. Borisov, S. A. Demidov, V. A. Denisenko, A. A. Gorodetskiy, V. K. Grishin, S. F. Nauma, V. K. Sergeev, and S. P. Sokolova, "United States and Russian thermal control coating results in low earth orbit," J. Spacecraft Rockets 33, 160-166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lyapustin, A. I.

R. E. Wolfe, W. Esaias, A. I. Lyapustin, and X. Xiong, "MODIS solar diffuser earthshine modeling and analysis," in Earth Observing Systems XI, J. J. Butler and X. Xiong, eds., Proc. SPIE 6296, 629607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, X. Xiong, R. E. Wolfe, and A. I. Lyapustin, "Improvement of MODIS RSB calibration by minimizing the earthshine impact on solar diffuser observations," in Earth Observing Systems XI, J. J. Butler and X. Xiong, eds., Proc. SPIE 6296, 629609 (2006).

Markham, B. L.

B. L. Markham, J. L. Barker, E. Kaita, J. Sieferth, and R. Morfitt, "On-orbit performance of the Landsat-7 ETM+ radiometric calibrators," Int. J. Remote Sens. 24, 265-286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

R. E. Eplee, Jr., S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, H. H. Kieffer, and C. R. McClain, "Comparison of SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar and vicarious calibrations," in Earth Observing Systems XI, J. J. Butler and X. Xiong, eds., Proc. SPIE 6296, 629639 (2006).

R. E. Eplee, Jr., R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, "SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit," in Earth Observing Systems IX, W. L. Barnes and J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE 5542, 1-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, "Calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Direct techniques," Appl. Opt. 40, 6682-6700 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, "Changes in the radiometric stability of SeaWiFS determined from lunar and solar-based measurements," Appl. Opt. 38, 4649-4664 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, and R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992), Vol. 3.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, and T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), Vol. 23.

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, and C. R. McClain, Prelaunch Acceptance Report for the SeaWiFS Radiometer, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), Vol. 22.

Meister, G.

R. E. Eplee, Jr., R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, "SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit," in Earth Observing Systems IX, W. L. Barnes and J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE 5542, 1-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, and R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992), Vol. 3.

Morfitt, R.

B. L. Markham, J. L. Barker, E. Kaita, J. Sieferth, and R. Morfitt, "On-orbit performance of the Landsat-7 ETM+ radiometric calibrators," Int. J. Remote Sens. 24, 265-286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nauma, S. F.

A. C. Tribble, R. Lukis, E. Watts, V. A. Borisov, S. A. Demidov, V. A. Denisenko, A. A. Gorodetskiy, V. K. Grishin, S. F. Nauma, V. K. Sergeev, and S. P. Sokolova, "United States and Russian thermal control coating results in low earth orbit," J. Spacecraft Rockets 33, 160-166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Patt, F. S.

Schmidt, G. M.

Sergeev, V. K.

A. C. Tribble, R. Lukis, E. Watts, V. A. Borisov, S. A. Demidov, V. A. Denisenko, A. A. Gorodetskiy, V. K. Grishin, S. F. Nauma, V. K. Sergeev, and S. P. Sokolova, "United States and Russian thermal control coating results in low earth orbit," J. Spacecraft Rockets 33, 160-166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sieferth, J.

B. L. Markham, J. L. Barker, E. Kaita, J. Sieferth, and R. Morfitt, "On-orbit performance of the Landsat-7 ETM+ radiometric calibrators," Int. J. Remote Sens. 24, 265-286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sokolova, S. P.

A. C. Tribble, R. Lukis, E. Watts, V. A. Borisov, S. A. Demidov, V. A. Denisenko, A. A. Gorodetskiy, V. K. Grishin, S. F. Nauma, V. K. Sergeev, and S. P. Sokolova, "United States and Russian thermal control coating results in low earth orbit," J. Spacecraft Rockets 33, 160-166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

X. Xiong, H. Erives, S. Xiong, X. Xie, J. Esposito, J. Sun, and W. Barnes, "Performance of terra MODIS solar diffuser and solar diffuser stability monitor," in Earth Observing Systems X, J. J. Butler, ed., Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820S (2005).
[CrossRef]

Svitek, T.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, and T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), Vol. 23.

Tribble, A. C.

A. C. Tribble, R. Lukis, E. Watts, V. A. Borisov, S. A. Demidov, V. A. Denisenko, A. A. Gorodetskiy, V. K. Grishin, S. F. Nauma, V. K. Sergeev, and S. P. Sokolova, "United States and Russian thermal control coating results in low earth orbit," J. Spacecraft Rockets 33, 160-166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Watts, E.

A. C. Tribble, R. Lukis, E. Watts, V. A. Borisov, S. A. Demidov, V. A. Denisenko, A. A. Gorodetskiy, V. K. Grishin, S. F. Nauma, V. K. Sergeev, and S. P. Sokolova, "United States and Russian thermal control coating results in low earth orbit," J. Spacecraft Rockets 33, 160-166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, R. E.

R. E. Wolfe, W. Esaias, A. I. Lyapustin, and X. Xiong, "MODIS solar diffuser earthshine modeling and analysis," in Earth Observing Systems XI, J. J. Butler and X. Xiong, eds., Proc. SPIE 6296, 629607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, X. Xiong, R. E. Wolfe, and A. I. Lyapustin, "Improvement of MODIS RSB calibration by minimizing the earthshine impact on solar diffuser observations," in Earth Observing Systems XI, J. J. Butler and X. Xiong, eds., Proc. SPIE 6296, 629609 (2006).

Xie, X.

X. Xie, X. Xiong, R. E. Wolfe, and A. I. Lyapustin, "Improvement of MODIS RSB calibration by minimizing the earthshine impact on solar diffuser observations," in Earth Observing Systems XI, J. J. Butler and X. Xiong, eds., Proc. SPIE 6296, 629609 (2006).

X. Xiong, H. Erives, S. Xiong, X. Xie, J. Esposito, J. Sun, and W. Barnes, "Performance of terra MODIS solar diffuser and solar diffuser stability monitor," in Earth Observing Systems X, J. J. Butler, ed., Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820S (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, S.

X. Xiong, H. Erives, S. Xiong, X. Xie, J. Esposito, J. Sun, and W. Barnes, "Performance of terra MODIS solar diffuser and solar diffuser stability monitor," in Earth Observing Systems X, J. J. Butler, ed., Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820S (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, X.

X. Xie, X. Xiong, R. E. Wolfe, and A. I. Lyapustin, "Improvement of MODIS RSB calibration by minimizing the earthshine impact on solar diffuser observations," in Earth Observing Systems XI, J. J. Butler and X. Xiong, eds., Proc. SPIE 6296, 629609 (2006).

R. E. Wolfe, W. Esaias, A. I. Lyapustin, and X. Xiong, "MODIS solar diffuser earthshine modeling and analysis," in Earth Observing Systems XI, J. J. Butler and X. Xiong, eds., Proc. SPIE 6296, 629607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiong, H. Erives, S. Xiong, X. Xie, J. Esposito, J. Sun, and W. Barnes, "Performance of terra MODIS solar diffuser and solar diffuser stability monitor," in Earth Observing Systems X, J. J. Butler, ed., Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820S (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zalewski, E. F.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

B. L. Markham, J. L. Barker, E. Kaita, J. Sieferth, and R. Morfitt, "On-orbit performance of the Landsat-7 ETM+ radiometric calibrators," Int. J. Remote Sens. 24, 265-286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Spacecraft Rockets (1)

A. C. Tribble, R. Lukis, E. Watts, V. A. Borisov, S. A. Demidov, V. A. Denisenko, A. A. Gorodetskiy, V. K. Grishin, S. F. Nauma, V. K. Sergeev, and S. P. Sokolova, "United States and Russian thermal control coating results in low earth orbit," J. Spacecraft Rockets 33, 160-166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (5)

R. E. Eplee, Jr., R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, "SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit," in Earth Observing Systems IX, W. L. Barnes and J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE 5542, 1-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, Jr., S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, H. H. Kieffer, and C. R. McClain, "Comparison of SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar and vicarious calibrations," in Earth Observing Systems XI, J. J. Butler and X. Xiong, eds., Proc. SPIE 6296, 629639 (2006).

X. Xiong, H. Erives, S. Xiong, X. Xie, J. Esposito, J. Sun, and W. Barnes, "Performance of terra MODIS solar diffuser and solar diffuser stability monitor," in Earth Observing Systems X, J. J. Butler, ed., Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820S (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Wolfe, W. Esaias, A. I. Lyapustin, and X. Xiong, "MODIS solar diffuser earthshine modeling and analysis," in Earth Observing Systems XI, J. J. Butler and X. Xiong, eds., Proc. SPIE 6296, 629607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, X. Xiong, R. E. Wolfe, and A. I. Lyapustin, "Improvement of MODIS RSB calibration by minimizing the earthshine impact on solar diffuser observations," in Earth Observing Systems XI, J. J. Butler and X. Xiong, eds., Proc. SPIE 6296, 629609 (2006).

Other (4)

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, and T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), Vol. 23.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, and R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992), Vol. 3.

R. A. Barnes and R. E. Eplee, "The SeaWiFS solar diffuser," in SeaWiFS Calibration Topics, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1996), Vol. 39, pp. 54-61.

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, and C. R. McClain, Prelaunch Acceptance Report for the SeaWiFS Radiometer, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), Vol. 22.

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Lunar calibration time series. The radiometric corrections contained in the calibration table are the inverses of the fits. The vertical scale of the plot for bands 1–4 in (a) is different from the vertical scale of the plot for bands 5–8 in (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectance of YB71 paint. The paint is spectrally flat over the wavelength range of SeaWiFS. The measurements are from the SeaWiFS Calibration and Acceptance Data Package, prepared by the instrument manufacturer (Santa Barbara Remote Sensing) for NASA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

BRDF of the solar diffuser. (a) BRDF at normal incidence for all eight bands. (b) Response at a 0° elevation angle as a function of azimuth angle, normalized to the response at a 0° azimuth angle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Azimuthal angles of solar irradiance on the diffuser. (a) Effects of both the solar analema and the orbit node drift are apparent. (b) Drift of the satellite's orbit node crossing. The first SeaWiFS image was obtained at 16:26:30 UT on 4 September 1997.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Solar diffuser time series. Band 1 has the maximum change in diffuser reflectance over time while band 6 has the minimum change in reflectance.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Azimuthal angle corrections for the diffuser time series. Both corrections show the two-cycle annual periodicities and the secular trend.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Diffuser time series corrected for azimuthal angles. The time series show the trends in diffuser reflectance. The high-frequency noise is due to limitations in empirical corrections for the azimuthal angle variations.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Diffuser time series for bands 1 and 2. The solar diffuser time series are fit by decaying exponential functions with 200 day time constants. The exponentials fit the reflectance trends through the noise from the azimuthal angle corrections.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Diffuser time series for bands 3 and 4.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Diffuser time series for bands 5 and 6.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Diffuser time series for bands 7 and 8.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Residuals of diffuser reflectance fits. The residuals are within 2% for each band. The residuals show both low-frequency and high-frequency signals, though the low-frequency signals are more pronounced for bands 5–8.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Fits to diffuser reflectances. The exponential fits to the diffuser reflectance time series have time constants of 200 days.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Noise estimate time series for bands 1 and 6. The noise estimates are the standard deviations of the mean solar radiances for the individual diffuser observations.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

SNRs for bands 1 and 2. The SNR time series are fit by linear functions of time to estimate the change in SNR over the mission. That change is shown in each plot.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

SNRs for bands 3 and 4.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

SNRs for bands 5 and 6.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

SNRs for bands 7 and 8.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 SeaWiFS Bands a

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Table 2 Regression Results for Band 1 a

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Table 3 SeaWiFS Prelaunch SNRs a

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Table 4 SeaWiFS On-Orbit Mean Noise Estimates a

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Table 5 SeaWiFS On-Orbit SNRs a

Equations (5)

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r ( λ , t ) = r 0 ( λ ) + r 1 ( λ ) cos [ A ( t ) ] + r 2 ( λ ) sin [ A ( t ) ] + r 3 ( λ ) Ω ( t ) ,
f ( λ , t ) = a 0 ( λ ) a 1 ( λ ) { 1 exp [ - a 2 ( λ ) ( t t 0 ) ] } ,
L ( λ , t ) = L ( λ , t ) / r ( λ , t ) / f ( λ , t ) ,
SNR ( λ ,   t ) = L ( λ ,   t ) σ [ L ( λ ,   t ) ] ,
L d i f f ( λ ) = L ( λ , t 0 : t 1 ) ,

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