Abstract

We present the optical effects of different tests that simulate the aerospace environment on the liquid-crystal variable retarders (LCVRs) used in the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment postfocal instrument of the SUNRISE payload within the NASA Long Duration Balloon program. Analysis of the influence of vacuum, temperature, vibration, and gamma and ultraviolet radiation is performed by measuring the effects of these tests on the optical retardance, the response time, the wavefront distortion, and the transmittance, including some in situ measurements. Outgassing measurements of the different parts of the LCVRs are also shown. From the results obtained it can be concluded that these optical devices are suitable and seem to be excellent candidates for aerospace platforms.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. F. Drouillard II, P. A. Searcy, S. R. Davis, R. J. Uberna, R. A. Herke, M. H. Anderson, S. D. Rommel, E. B. Anthony, and V. B. Damiao, "Polarimetry using liquid crystal variable retarders," in Emerging Optoelectronic Applications, E. G. Jabbour and J. T. Rantala, eds., Proc. SPIE 5363, 86-97 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Laude-Boulesteix, A. De Martino, B. Drévillon, and L. Schwartz, "Mueller polarimetric imaging system with liquid crystals," Appl. Opt. 43, 2824-2832 (2004).
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2004 (5)

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

I. Chirtoc, M. Chirtoc, C. Glorieux, and J. Thoen, "Determination of the order parameter and its critical exponent for nCB (n = 5-8) liquid crystals from refractive index data," Liq. Cryst. 31, 229-204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Drouillard II, P. A. Searcy, S. R. Davis, R. J. Uberna, R. A. Herke, M. H. Anderson, S. D. Rommel, E. B. Anthony, and V. B. Damiao, "Polarimetry using liquid crystal variable retarders," in Emerging Optoelectronic Applications, E. G. Jabbour and J. T. Rantala, eds., Proc. SPIE 5363, 86-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Garcia-Caurel, A. De Martino, and B. Drévillon, "Spectroscopic Mueller polarimeter based on liquid crystal devices," Thin Solid Films 455, 120-123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Laude-Boulesteix, A. De Martino, B. Drévillon, and L. Schwartz, "Mueller polarimetric imaging system with liquid crystals," Appl. Opt. 43, 2824-2832 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

K. Shinoda, K. Ichimoto, T. Fukuda, and J. Shin, "A Universal Polarimeter Using Liquid Crystal Variable Retarders at the Norikura Solar Observatory," Rep. Natl. Astron. Obsv. Jpn. 5, 97-106 (2001).

2000 (2)

A. Hofmann, "Liquid-crystal-based Stokes polarimeter," in Polarization Analysis, Measurement, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, and D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE 4133, 44-54 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno, "Polarimetry using liquid-crystal variable retarders: theory and calibration," J. Opt. A , Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 216-222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

A. Graham, G. Kopp, C. Vargas-Aburto, and R. Uribe, "Preliminary space environment tests of nematic liquid crystals," in Photonics for Space Environments IV, E. W. Taylor, ed., Proc. SPIE 2811, 46-50 (1996).

F. Berghmans, M. Decréton, K. Zdrodowski, T. Nasilowski, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, "Radiation effects on nematic liquid crystal devices," in Photonics for Space Environments IV, E. W. Taylor, ed., Proc. SPIE 2811, 2-11 (1996).

1995 (1)

L. J. November and L. M. Wilkins, "Liquid crystal polarimeter: a solid state imager for solar vector magnetic fields," Opt. Eng. 34, 1659-1668 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

I. Haller, "Thermodynamic and static properties of liquid crystals," Prog. Solid State Chem. 10, 103-112 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

Álvarez-Herrero, A.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Anderson, M. H.

T. F. Drouillard II, P. A. Searcy, S. R. Davis, R. J. Uberna, R. A. Herke, M. H. Anderson, S. D. Rommel, E. B. Anthony, and V. B. Damiao, "Polarimetry using liquid crystal variable retarders," in Emerging Optoelectronic Applications, E. G. Jabbour and J. T. Rantala, eds., Proc. SPIE 5363, 86-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anthony, E. B.

T. F. Drouillard II, P. A. Searcy, S. R. Davis, R. J. Uberna, R. A. Herke, M. H. Anderson, S. D. Rommel, E. B. Anthony, and V. B. Damiao, "Polarimetry using liquid crystal variable retarders," in Emerging Optoelectronic Applications, E. G. Jabbour and J. T. Rantala, eds., Proc. SPIE 5363, 86-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, "Theory and analysis of measurements in ellipsometer systems," in Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1977), pp. 169-173.

Bashara, N. M.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, "Theory and analysis of measurements in ellipsometer systems," in Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1977), pp. 169-173.

Belenguer, T.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Berghmans, F.

F. Berghmans, M. Decréton, K. Zdrodowski, T. Nasilowski, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, "Radiation effects on nematic liquid crystal devices," in Photonics for Space Environments IV, E. W. Taylor, ed., Proc. SPIE 2811, 2-11 (1996).

Bonet, J. A.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Bueno, J. M.

J. M. Bueno, "Polarimetry using liquid-crystal variable retarders: theory and calibration," J. Opt. A , Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 216-222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chidlaw, R.

R. A. Gonsalves and R. Chidlaw, "Wavefront sensing by phase retrieval," in Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Applications of Digital Image Processing III, A.G.Tescher, ed. (Bellingham, 1979), Vol. 207, pp. 27-29.

Chirtoc, I.

I. Chirtoc, M. Chirtoc, C. Glorieux, and J. Thoen, "Determination of the order parameter and its critical exponent for nCB (n = 5-8) liquid crystals from refractive index data," Liq. Cryst. 31, 229-204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chirtoc, M.

I. Chirtoc, M. Chirtoc, C. Glorieux, and J. Thoen, "Determination of the order parameter and its critical exponent for nCB (n = 5-8) liquid crystals from refractive index data," Liq. Cryst. 31, 229-204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cobo, B. Ruiz

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Collados, M.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Damiao, V. B.

T. F. Drouillard II, P. A. Searcy, S. R. Davis, R. J. Uberna, R. A. Herke, M. H. Anderson, S. D. Rommel, E. B. Anthony, and V. B. Damiao, "Polarimetry using liquid crystal variable retarders," in Emerging Optoelectronic Applications, E. G. Jabbour and J. T. Rantala, eds., Proc. SPIE 5363, 86-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davis, S. R.

T. F. Drouillard II, P. A. Searcy, S. R. Davis, R. J. Uberna, R. A. Herke, M. H. Anderson, S. D. Rommel, E. B. Anthony, and V. B. Damiao, "Polarimetry using liquid crystal variable retarders," in Emerging Optoelectronic Applications, E. G. Jabbour and J. T. Rantala, eds., Proc. SPIE 5363, 86-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

de Gennes, P. G.

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Clarendon, 1993).

De Martino, A.

E. Garcia-Caurel, A. De Martino, and B. Drévillon, "Spectroscopic Mueller polarimeter based on liquid crystal devices," Thin Solid Films 455, 120-123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Laude-Boulesteix, A. De Martino, B. Drévillon, and L. Schwartz, "Mueller polarimetric imaging system with liquid crystals," Appl. Opt. 43, 2824-2832 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Decréton, M.

F. Berghmans, M. Decréton, K. Zdrodowski, T. Nasilowski, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, "Radiation effects on nematic liquid crystal devices," in Photonics for Space Environments IV, E. W. Taylor, ed., Proc. SPIE 2811, 2-11 (1996).

del Toro Iniesta, J. C.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Domingo, V.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Drévillon, B.

E. Garcia-Caurel, A. De Martino, and B. Drévillon, "Spectroscopic Mueller polarimeter based on liquid crystal devices," Thin Solid Films 455, 120-123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Laude-Boulesteix, A. De Martino, B. Drévillon, and L. Schwartz, "Mueller polarimetric imaging system with liquid crystals," Appl. Opt. 43, 2824-2832 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drouillard, T. F.

T. F. Drouillard II, P. A. Searcy, S. R. Davis, R. J. Uberna, R. A. Herke, M. H. Anderson, S. D. Rommel, E. B. Anthony, and V. B. Damiao, "Polarimetry using liquid crystal variable retarders," in Emerging Optoelectronic Applications, E. G. Jabbour and J. T. Rantala, eds., Proc. SPIE 5363, 86-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eubanks, A. G.

Fukuda, T.

K. Shinoda, K. Ichimoto, T. Fukuda, and J. Shin, "A Universal Polarimeter Using Liquid Crystal Variable Retarders at the Norikura Solar Observatory," Rep. Natl. Astron. Obsv. Jpn. 5, 97-106 (2001).

Garcia-Caurel, E.

E. Garcia-Caurel, A. De Martino, and B. Drévillon, "Spectroscopic Mueller polarimeter based on liquid crystal devices," Thin Solid Films 455, 120-123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gasent, J. L.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Glorieux, C.

I. Chirtoc, M. Chirtoc, C. Glorieux, and J. Thoen, "Determination of the order parameter and its critical exponent for nCB (n = 5-8) liquid crystals from refractive index data," Liq. Cryst. 31, 229-204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gonsalves, R. A.

R. A. Gonsalves and R. Chidlaw, "Wavefront sensing by phase retrieval," in Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Applications of Digital Image Processing III, A.G.Tescher, ed. (Bellingham, 1979), Vol. 207, pp. 27-29.

Graham, A.

A. Graham, G. Kopp, C. Vargas-Aburto, and R. Uribe, "Preliminary space environment tests of nematic liquid crystals," in Photonics for Space Environments IV, E. W. Taylor, ed., Proc. SPIE 2811, 46-50 (1996).

Gu, C.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 1999).

Haller, I.

I. Haller, "Thermodynamic and static properties of liquid crystals," Prog. Solid State Chem. 10, 103-112 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Heredero, R. L.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Herke, R. A.

T. F. Drouillard II, P. A. Searcy, S. R. Davis, R. J. Uberna, R. A. Herke, M. H. Anderson, S. D. Rommel, E. B. Anthony, and V. B. Damiao, "Polarimetry using liquid crystal variable retarders," in Emerging Optoelectronic Applications, E. G. Jabbour and J. T. Rantala, eds., Proc. SPIE 5363, 86-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herranz, M.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Hofmann, A.

A. Hofmann, "Liquid-crystal-based Stokes polarimeter," in Polarization Analysis, Measurement, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, and D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE 4133, 44-54 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ichimoto, K.

K. Shinoda, K. Ichimoto, T. Fukuda, and J. Shin, "A Universal Polarimeter Using Liquid Crystal Variable Retarders at the Norikura Solar Observatory," Rep. Natl. Astron. Obsv. Jpn. 5, 97-106 (2001).

Jerónimo, J. M.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Jiménez, A. C. López

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Jochum, L.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Kopp, G.

A. Graham, G. Kopp, C. Vargas-Aburto, and R. Uribe, "Preliminary space environment tests of nematic liquid crystals," in Photonics for Space Environments IV, E. W. Taylor, ed., Proc. SPIE 2811, 46-50 (1996).

Laude-Boulesteix, B.

Lorenzo, J. Castillo

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Mathew, S.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Mellado, P.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Menéndez, M.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Morales, R.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Nasilowski, T.

F. Berghmans, M. Decréton, K. Zdrodowski, T. Nasilowski, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, "Radiation effects on nematic liquid crystal devices," in Photonics for Space Environments IV, E. W. Taylor, ed., Proc. SPIE 2811, 2-11 (1996).

Nicoletta, C. A.

November, L. J.

L. J. November and L. M. Wilkins, "Liquid crystal polarimeter: a solid state imager for solar vector magnetic fields," Opt. Eng. 34, 1659-1668 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pastor, C.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Pillet, V. Martínez

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Prost, J.

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Clarendon, 1993).

Ramos, G.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Reina, M.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Restaino, S. R.

S. R. Restaino, "On the use of liquid crystals for adaptive optics," in Optical Applications of Liquid Crystals, L. Vicari, ed. (Institute of Physics, 2003), pp. 118-147.

Rodríguez, J.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Rodríguez, P.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Rommel, S. D.

T. F. Drouillard II, P. A. Searcy, S. R. Davis, R. J. Uberna, R. A. Herke, M. H. Anderson, S. D. Rommel, E. B. Anthony, and V. B. Damiao, "Polarimetry using liquid crystal variable retarders," in Emerging Optoelectronic Applications, E. G. Jabbour and J. T. Rantala, eds., Proc. SPIE 5363, 86-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez, A.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Schwartz, L.

Searcy, P. A.

T. F. Drouillard II, P. A. Searcy, S. R. Davis, R. J. Uberna, R. A. Herke, M. H. Anderson, S. D. Rommel, E. B. Anthony, and V. B. Damiao, "Polarimetry using liquid crystal variable retarders," in Emerging Optoelectronic Applications, E. G. Jabbour and J. T. Rantala, eds., Proc. SPIE 5363, 86-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.

K. Shinoda, K. Ichimoto, T. Fukuda, and J. Shin, "A Universal Polarimeter Using Liquid Crystal Variable Retarders at the Norikura Solar Observatory," Rep. Natl. Astron. Obsv. Jpn. 5, 97-106 (2001).

Shinoda, K.

K. Shinoda, K. Ichimoto, T. Fukuda, and J. Shin, "A Universal Polarimeter Using Liquid Crystal Variable Retarders at the Norikura Solar Observatory," Rep. Natl. Astron. Obsv. Jpn. 5, 97-106 (2001).

Thienpont, H.

F. Berghmans, M. Decréton, K. Zdrodowski, T. Nasilowski, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, "Radiation effects on nematic liquid crystal devices," in Photonics for Space Environments IV, E. W. Taylor, ed., Proc. SPIE 2811, 2-11 (1996).

Thoen, J.

I. Chirtoc, M. Chirtoc, C. Glorieux, and J. Thoen, "Determination of the order parameter and its critical exponent for nCB (n = 5-8) liquid crystals from refractive index data," Liq. Cryst. 31, 229-204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Trujillo, J. L. Medina

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Uberna, R. J.

T. F. Drouillard II, P. A. Searcy, S. R. Davis, R. J. Uberna, R. A. Herke, M. H. Anderson, S. D. Rommel, E. B. Anthony, and V. B. Damiao, "Polarimetry using liquid crystal variable retarders," in Emerging Optoelectronic Applications, E. G. Jabbour and J. T. Rantala, eds., Proc. SPIE 5363, 86-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Uribe, R.

A. Graham, G. Kopp, C. Vargas-Aburto, and R. Uribe, "Preliminary space environment tests of nematic liquid crystals," in Photonics for Space Environments IV, E. W. Taylor, ed., Proc. SPIE 2811, 46-50 (1996).

Vargas-Aburto, C.

A. Graham, G. Kopp, C. Vargas-Aburto, and R. Uribe, "Preliminary space environment tests of nematic liquid crystals," in Photonics for Space Environments IV, E. W. Taylor, ed., Proc. SPIE 2811, 46-50 (1996).

Veretennicoff, I.

F. Berghmans, M. Decréton, K. Zdrodowski, T. Nasilowski, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, "Radiation effects on nematic liquid crystal devices," in Photonics for Space Environments IV, E. W. Taylor, ed., Proc. SPIE 2811, 2-11 (1996).

Villanueva, J.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

Wilkins, L. M.

L. J. November and L. M. Wilkins, "Liquid crystal polarimeter: a solid state imager for solar vector magnetic fields," Opt. Eng. 34, 1659-1668 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 2001).

Yang, D. K.

S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 2001).

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 1999).

Zdrodowski, K.

F. Berghmans, M. Decréton, K. Zdrodowski, T. Nasilowski, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, "Radiation effects on nematic liquid crystal devices," in Photonics for Space Environments IV, E. W. Taylor, ed., Proc. SPIE 2811, 2-11 (1996).

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. A (1)

J. M. Bueno, "Polarimetry using liquid-crystal variable retarders: theory and calibration," J. Opt. A , Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 216-222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

I. Chirtoc, M. Chirtoc, C. Glorieux, and J. Thoen, "Determination of the order parameter and its critical exponent for nCB (n = 5-8) liquid crystals from refractive index data," Liq. Cryst. 31, 229-204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

L. J. November and L. M. Wilkins, "Liquid crystal polarimeter: a solid state imager for solar vector magnetic fields," Opt. Eng. 34, 1659-1668 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

T. F. Drouillard II, P. A. Searcy, S. R. Davis, R. J. Uberna, R. A. Herke, M. H. Anderson, S. D. Rommel, E. B. Anthony, and V. B. Damiao, "Polarimetry using liquid crystal variable retarders," in Emerging Optoelectronic Applications, E. G. Jabbour and J. T. Rantala, eds., Proc. SPIE 5363, 86-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Hofmann, "Liquid-crystal-based Stokes polarimeter," in Polarization Analysis, Measurement, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, and D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE 4133, 44-54 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Solid State Chem. (1)

I. Haller, "Thermodynamic and static properties of liquid crystals," Prog. Solid State Chem. 10, 103-112 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Natl. Astron. Obsv. Jpn. (1)

K. Shinoda, K. Ichimoto, T. Fukuda, and J. Shin, "A Universal Polarimeter Using Liquid Crystal Variable Retarders at the Norikura Solar Observatory," Rep. Natl. Astron. Obsv. Jpn. 5, 97-106 (2001).

Thin Solid Films (1)

E. Garcia-Caurel, A. De Martino, and B. Drévillon, "Spectroscopic Mueller polarimeter based on liquid crystal devices," Thin Solid Films 455, 120-123 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

"Space product assurance: thermal vacuum outgassing test for the screening of space materials," European Cooperation for Space Standardization Secretariat, European Space Agency Bulletin No. ECSS-Q-70-02A (1999).

S. R. Restaino, "On the use of liquid crystals for adaptive optics," in Optical Applications of Liquid Crystals, L. Vicari, ed. (Institute of Physics, 2003), pp. 118-147.

V. Martinez Pillet, M. Collados, J. Sanches Almeida, V. Gonzalez, A. Cruz-Lopez, A. Manescau, E. Joven, E. Paes, J. J. Diaz, O. Feeney, V. Sanchez, G. B. Scharmer, and D. Soltau, "LPSP & TIP: full Stokes polarimeters for the Canary Islands observatories," in Proceedings of High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations and Techniques, T. Rimmele, R.R. Radick, and K.S. Balasubramaniam, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, 1999), Vol. 183, pp. 264-272.

V. Martínez Pillet, J. A. Bonet, M. Collados, L. Jochum, S. Mathew, J. L. Medina Trujillo, B. Ruiz Cobo, J. C. del Toro Iniesta, A. C. López Jiménez, J. Castillo Lorenzo, M. Herranz, J. M. Jerónimo, P. Mellado, R. Morales, J. Rodríguez, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, R. L. Heredero, M. Menéndez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, C. Pastor, A. Sánchez, J. Villanueva, V. Domingo, J. L. Gasent, and P. Rodríguez, "The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment for the SUNRISE balloon Antarctica project," in Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes, J. C. Mather, ed., Proc. SPIE 5487, 1152-1164 (2004).

R. A. Gonsalves and R. Chidlaw, "Wavefront sensing by phase retrieval," in Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Applications of Digital Image Processing III, A.G.Tescher, ed. (Bellingham, 1979), Vol. 207, pp. 27-29.

A. Graham, G. Kopp, C. Vargas-Aburto, and R. Uribe, "Preliminary space environment tests of nematic liquid crystals," in Photonics for Space Environments IV, E. W. Taylor, ed., Proc. SPIE 2811, 46-50 (1996).

F. Berghmans, M. Decréton, K. Zdrodowski, T. Nasilowski, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, "Radiation effects on nematic liquid crystal devices," in Photonics for Space Environments IV, E. W. Taylor, ed., Proc. SPIE 2811, 2-11 (1996).

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Clarendon, 1993).

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, "Theory and analysis of measurements in ellipsometer systems," in Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1977), pp. 169-173.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 1999).

S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 2001).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

LCVR structure and dimensions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ellipsometer configuration for retardance and response time measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Setup for optical retardance and response time (photo on the left) and wavefront error measurements (photo and schematic on the right).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Retardance measurements of one LCVR-V at + 20 ° C , + 33.5 ° C , + 40 ° C , 20 ° C , and + 20 ° C after having undergone seven temperature cycles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Retardance versus absolute temperature including fits of the experimental data with Haller's approximation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Retardance versus temperature for different V p applied: 0, 4, 8, and 14   V .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Response times versus temperature for different voltage changes. Curves show the fit of the experimental data. Case 3 and Case 4 data have been multiplied by 5 to be able to visualize the plot better.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Wavefront error (rms) versus temperature when V p = 0   V (in λ units: the Fizeau interferometer has a HeNe laser, λ = 633   nm ).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Transmittance of two LCVRs before and after the thermal-vacuum test: (a) Data of the LCVR after the whole time thermal-vacuum test for retardance-response measurements and two months after the finalization of the test (no voltage was applied to the LCVR); (b) data of the LCVR after the thermal-vacuum test for wavefront error measurements.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Retardance versus peak voltage after irradiation of 10, 20, and 54   krad for complete voltage range.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Transmittance measured after different total doses of γ irradiation. Inset, transmittance versus total dose for λ = 525.5 (IMaX working wavelength).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Transmittance versus wavelength and ESH of two LCVRs before and after different exposures to UV irradiation.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 General Environmental Test Conditions

Tables Icon

Table 2 Outgassing Results of Each Component

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S = 3 2 cos 2 θ 1 2 ,
δ = δ 0 S = δ 0 ( 1 T T c ) β ,
τ = A e B / [ k ( T T 0 ) ] ,

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