Abstract

We describe the results of a comparison of reference standards between three National Metrology Institutes: the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA), the National Metrology Institute of Japan∕National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ∕AIST, Japan), and the Federal Office of Metrology (METAS, Switzerland). Open-beam- (free field) and optical-fiber-based measurements at wavelengths of 1302 and 1546nm are reported. Three laboratories' reference standards are compared by means of two temperature-controlled, optical trap detectors. Measurement results show the largest differences of less than 4.2 parts in 103, which is within the expanded (k=2) uncertainty for the laboratories' reference standards.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. I. Vayshenker, H. Haars, X. Li, J. H. Lehman, and D. J. Livigni, "Comparison of optical-power meters between NIST and PTB," Metrologia 37, 349-350 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. Vayshenker, H. Haars, X. Li, J. H. Lehman, and D. J. Livigni, "Optical fiber-power meter comparison between NIST and PTB," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 108, 391-394 (2003).
  3. J. H. Lehman, I. Vayshenker, D. J. Livigni, and J. Hadler, "Intramural comparison of NIST laser and optical fiber power calibrations," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 109, 291-298 (2004).
  4. D. J. Livigni, High Accuracy Laser Power and Energy Meter Calibration Service, NIST Special Publication 250-62 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2003).
  5. T. Inoue, I. Yokoshima, and A. Hiraide, "Highly sensitive calorimeter for microwatt-level laser power measurements," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-36, 623-626 (1987).
  6. J. H. Lehman and X. Li, "A transfer standard for optical fiber power metrology," Appl. Opt. 38, 7164-7166 (1999).
  7. J. H. Lehman and C. L. Cromer, "Optical trap detector for calibration of optical fiber powermeters: coupling efficiency," Appl. Opt. 31, 6531-6536 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Vayshenker, X. Li, D. J. Livigni, T. R. Scott, and C. L. Cromer, Optical Fiber Power Meter Calibrations at NIST, NIST Special Publication 250-54 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2000).
  9. C. A. Hamilton, G. W. Day, and R. J. Phelan, Jr., An Electrically Calibrated Pyroelectric Radiometer System, National Bureau of Standards Technology Note 678 (National Bureau of Standards, 1976).
  10. Y. Suzuki, N. Chida, A. Murata, and T. Inoue, "A calorimeter for optical fiber power standard and advantages in calibration of optical fiber power meters," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-42, 430-433 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (International Organization for Standardization, 1993).
  12. B. N. Taylor and C. E. Kuyatt, Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results, NIST Technical Note 1297 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1993).

2004 (1)

J. H. Lehman, I. Vayshenker, D. J. Livigni, and J. Hadler, "Intramural comparison of NIST laser and optical fiber power calibrations," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 109, 291-298 (2004).

2003 (1)

I. Vayshenker, H. Haars, X. Li, J. H. Lehman, and D. J. Livigni, "Optical fiber-power meter comparison between NIST and PTB," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 108, 391-394 (2003).

2002 (1)

J. H. Lehman and C. L. Cromer, "Optical trap detector for calibration of optical fiber powermeters: coupling efficiency," Appl. Opt. 31, 6531-6536 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

I. Vayshenker, H. Haars, X. Li, J. H. Lehman, and D. J. Livigni, "Comparison of optical-power meters between NIST and PTB," Metrologia 37, 349-350 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. H. Lehman and X. Li, "A transfer standard for optical fiber power metrology," Appl. Opt. 38, 7164-7166 (1999).

1993 (1)

Y. Suzuki, N. Chida, A. Murata, and T. Inoue, "A calorimeter for optical fiber power standard and advantages in calibration of optical fiber power meters," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-42, 430-433 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

T. Inoue, I. Yokoshima, and A. Hiraide, "Highly sensitive calorimeter for microwatt-level laser power measurements," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-36, 623-626 (1987).

Chida, N.

Y. Suzuki, N. Chida, A. Murata, and T. Inoue, "A calorimeter for optical fiber power standard and advantages in calibration of optical fiber power meters," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-42, 430-433 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cromer, C. L.

J. H. Lehman and C. L. Cromer, "Optical trap detector for calibration of optical fiber powermeters: coupling efficiency," Appl. Opt. 31, 6531-6536 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Vayshenker, X. Li, D. J. Livigni, T. R. Scott, and C. L. Cromer, Optical Fiber Power Meter Calibrations at NIST, NIST Special Publication 250-54 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2000).

Day, G. W.

C. A. Hamilton, G. W. Day, and R. J. Phelan, Jr., An Electrically Calibrated Pyroelectric Radiometer System, National Bureau of Standards Technology Note 678 (National Bureau of Standards, 1976).

Haars, H.

I. Vayshenker, H. Haars, X. Li, J. H. Lehman, and D. J. Livigni, "Optical fiber-power meter comparison between NIST and PTB," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 108, 391-394 (2003).

I. Vayshenker, H. Haars, X. Li, J. H. Lehman, and D. J. Livigni, "Comparison of optical-power meters between NIST and PTB," Metrologia 37, 349-350 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hadler, J.

J. H. Lehman, I. Vayshenker, D. J. Livigni, and J. Hadler, "Intramural comparison of NIST laser and optical fiber power calibrations," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 109, 291-298 (2004).

Hamilton, C. A.

C. A. Hamilton, G. W. Day, and R. J. Phelan, Jr., An Electrically Calibrated Pyroelectric Radiometer System, National Bureau of Standards Technology Note 678 (National Bureau of Standards, 1976).

Hiraide, A.

T. Inoue, I. Yokoshima, and A. Hiraide, "Highly sensitive calorimeter for microwatt-level laser power measurements," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-36, 623-626 (1987).

Inoue, T.

Y. Suzuki, N. Chida, A. Murata, and T. Inoue, "A calorimeter for optical fiber power standard and advantages in calibration of optical fiber power meters," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-42, 430-433 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Inoue, I. Yokoshima, and A. Hiraide, "Highly sensitive calorimeter for microwatt-level laser power measurements," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-36, 623-626 (1987).

Kuyatt, C. E.

B. N. Taylor and C. E. Kuyatt, Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results, NIST Technical Note 1297 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1993).

Lehman, J. H.

J. H. Lehman, I. Vayshenker, D. J. Livigni, and J. Hadler, "Intramural comparison of NIST laser and optical fiber power calibrations," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 109, 291-298 (2004).

I. Vayshenker, H. Haars, X. Li, J. H. Lehman, and D. J. Livigni, "Optical fiber-power meter comparison between NIST and PTB," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 108, 391-394 (2003).

J. H. Lehman and C. L. Cromer, "Optical trap detector for calibration of optical fiber powermeters: coupling efficiency," Appl. Opt. 31, 6531-6536 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Vayshenker, H. Haars, X. Li, J. H. Lehman, and D. J. Livigni, "Comparison of optical-power meters between NIST and PTB," Metrologia 37, 349-350 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lehman and X. Li, "A transfer standard for optical fiber power metrology," Appl. Opt. 38, 7164-7166 (1999).

Li, X.

I. Vayshenker, H. Haars, X. Li, J. H. Lehman, and D. J. Livigni, "Optical fiber-power meter comparison between NIST and PTB," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 108, 391-394 (2003).

I. Vayshenker, H. Haars, X. Li, J. H. Lehman, and D. J. Livigni, "Comparison of optical-power meters between NIST and PTB," Metrologia 37, 349-350 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lehman and X. Li, "A transfer standard for optical fiber power metrology," Appl. Opt. 38, 7164-7166 (1999).

I. Vayshenker, X. Li, D. J. Livigni, T. R. Scott, and C. L. Cromer, Optical Fiber Power Meter Calibrations at NIST, NIST Special Publication 250-54 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2000).

Livigni, D. J.

J. H. Lehman, I. Vayshenker, D. J. Livigni, and J. Hadler, "Intramural comparison of NIST laser and optical fiber power calibrations," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 109, 291-298 (2004).

I. Vayshenker, H. Haars, X. Li, J. H. Lehman, and D. J. Livigni, "Optical fiber-power meter comparison between NIST and PTB," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 108, 391-394 (2003).

I. Vayshenker, H. Haars, X. Li, J. H. Lehman, and D. J. Livigni, "Comparison of optical-power meters between NIST and PTB," Metrologia 37, 349-350 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Livigni, High Accuracy Laser Power and Energy Meter Calibration Service, NIST Special Publication 250-62 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2003).

I. Vayshenker, X. Li, D. J. Livigni, T. R. Scott, and C. L. Cromer, Optical Fiber Power Meter Calibrations at NIST, NIST Special Publication 250-54 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2000).

Murata, A.

Y. Suzuki, N. Chida, A. Murata, and T. Inoue, "A calorimeter for optical fiber power standard and advantages in calibration of optical fiber power meters," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-42, 430-433 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phelan, R. J.

C. A. Hamilton, G. W. Day, and R. J. Phelan, Jr., An Electrically Calibrated Pyroelectric Radiometer System, National Bureau of Standards Technology Note 678 (National Bureau of Standards, 1976).

Scott, T. R.

I. Vayshenker, X. Li, D. J. Livigni, T. R. Scott, and C. L. Cromer, Optical Fiber Power Meter Calibrations at NIST, NIST Special Publication 250-54 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2000).

Suzuki, Y.

Y. Suzuki, N. Chida, A. Murata, and T. Inoue, "A calorimeter for optical fiber power standard and advantages in calibration of optical fiber power meters," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-42, 430-433 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, B. N.

B. N. Taylor and C. E. Kuyatt, Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results, NIST Technical Note 1297 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1993).

Vayshenker, I.

J. H. Lehman, I. Vayshenker, D. J. Livigni, and J. Hadler, "Intramural comparison of NIST laser and optical fiber power calibrations," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 109, 291-298 (2004).

I. Vayshenker, H. Haars, X. Li, J. H. Lehman, and D. J. Livigni, "Optical fiber-power meter comparison between NIST and PTB," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 108, 391-394 (2003).

I. Vayshenker, H. Haars, X. Li, J. H. Lehman, and D. J. Livigni, "Comparison of optical-power meters between NIST and PTB," Metrologia 37, 349-350 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Vayshenker, X. Li, D. J. Livigni, T. R. Scott, and C. L. Cromer, Optical Fiber Power Meter Calibrations at NIST, NIST Special Publication 250-54 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2000).

Yokoshima, I.

T. Inoue, I. Yokoshima, and A. Hiraide, "Highly sensitive calorimeter for microwatt-level laser power measurements," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-36, 623-626 (1987).

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. H. Lehman and C. L. Cromer, "Optical trap detector for calibration of optical fiber powermeters: coupling efficiency," Appl. Opt. 31, 6531-6536 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (2)

Y. Suzuki, N. Chida, A. Murata, and T. Inoue, "A calorimeter for optical fiber power standard and advantages in calibration of optical fiber power meters," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-42, 430-433 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Inoue, I. Yokoshima, and A. Hiraide, "Highly sensitive calorimeter for microwatt-level laser power measurements," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-36, 623-626 (1987).

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (2)

I. Vayshenker, H. Haars, X. Li, J. H. Lehman, and D. J. Livigni, "Optical fiber-power meter comparison between NIST and PTB," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 108, 391-394 (2003).

J. H. Lehman, I. Vayshenker, D. J. Livigni, and J. Hadler, "Intramural comparison of NIST laser and optical fiber power calibrations," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 109, 291-298 (2004).

Metrologia (1)

I. Vayshenker, H. Haars, X. Li, J. H. Lehman, and D. J. Livigni, "Comparison of optical-power meters between NIST and PTB," Metrologia 37, 349-350 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

D. J. Livigni, High Accuracy Laser Power and Energy Meter Calibration Service, NIST Special Publication 250-62 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2003).

J. H. Lehman and X. Li, "A transfer standard for optical fiber power metrology," Appl. Opt. 38, 7164-7166 (1999).

ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (International Organization for Standardization, 1993).

B. N. Taylor and C. E. Kuyatt, Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results, NIST Technical Note 1297 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1993).

I. Vayshenker, X. Li, D. J. Livigni, T. R. Scott, and C. L. Cromer, Optical Fiber Power Meter Calibrations at NIST, NIST Special Publication 250-54 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2000).

C. A. Hamilton, G. W. Day, and R. J. Phelan, Jr., An Electrically Calibrated Pyroelectric Radiometer System, National Bureau of Standards Technology Note 678 (National Bureau of Standards, 1976).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Germanium-trap detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

NIST measurement system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

NMIJ∕AIST measurement system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

METAS measurement system.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Results of NIST and NMIJ∕AIST Comparison Using Open Beams and Trap Detector 1

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of NMIJ∕AIST and METAS Results Relative to NIST's Using an Optical Fiber Connector

Metrics