Abstract

We reported previously the design of a polar nephelometer that uses a rotational confocal imaging setup to enable fast scanning of the scattering phase function within a field of view of 55°. The full dynamic range of the detection system can be used by increasing the signal- to-noise ratio by means of averaging successive scans. The calibration of the angular response of the instrument is achieved by obtaining the transfer function of the optical detection system using Rayleigh scatterers. Accurate particle sizing of individual polystyrene spheres (ranging from 1.5 to 9  μm in diameter) in aqueous suspension is achieved by maximizing a correlation coefficient between precalculated tables of Mie phase functions and data obtained from the polar nephelometer. Good correlation is achieved between experimental and theoretical data, proving the functioning of the instrument as a fast and convenient particle sizer.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. Steiner, B. Berge, R. Gausmann, J. Rohmann, and E. Rhl, "Fast in situ sizing technique for single levitated liquid aerosols," Appl. Opt. 38, 1523-1529 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Z. Hansen and W. H. Evans, "Polar nephelometer for atmospheric particulate studies," Appl. Opt. 19, 3389-3395 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Z. Ulanowski, R. S. Greenaway, P. H. Kaye, and I. K. Ludlow, "Laser diffractometer for single-particle scattering measurements," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 292-296 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Kaller, "A newpolar nephelometer for measurement of atmospheric aerosols," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 87, 107-117 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Hochrainer, "Further developments of the particle counter sizer PCS-2000," J. Aerosol Sci. 31, Suppl. I, S771-S772 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. Crepel, J.-F. Gayet, J.-F. Fournol, and S. Oshchepkov, "A new airborne polar nephelometer for the measurements of optical and microphysical cloud properties. Part I: Theoretical design," Ann. Geophys. 15, 451-459 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. Crepel, J.-F. Gayet, J.-F. Fournol, and S. Oshchepkov, "A new airborne polar nephelometer for the measurements of optical and microphysical cloud properties. Part II: Preliminary tests," Ann. Geophys. 15, 460-470 (1997).
  8. A. Mennella and F. Prodi, "Optical characterization of size separated aerosol particles of different composition and morphology with a polar nephelometer," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 471-488 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Miller, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, and A. J. Hunt, "Novel bistatic polarization nephelometer for probing scattering through a planar interface," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2089-2095 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Banfield, P. Gierasch, M. Roos-Serote, D. Stam, H. Volten, O. Munoz, M. Mishchenko, and R. Dissly, "Planetary polarization nephelometer," in Workshop Proceedings of the International Planetary Probe Atmospheric Entry and Descent Trajectory Analysis and Science, A.Wilson, ed. (European Space Agency, 2004).
    [PubMed]
  11. D. Banfield, P. Gierasch, and R. Dissly, "Planetary descent probes: polarization nephelometer and hydrogen ortho/para instruments," in Aerospace, 2005 IEEE Conference, (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1-7.
  12. A. J. Hunt and D. R. Huffman, "A new polarization modulated light scattering instrument," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 1753-1762 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. Kaller, "A new polar nephelometer for measurement of atmospheric aerosols," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 87, 107-117 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Jillavenkatesa, S. J. Dapkunas, and L. S. H. Lum, Particle Size Characterization, NIST (Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.) Spec. Publ. 960-1 (2001).
  15. J.-L. Castagner and I. J. Bigio, "Polar nephelometer based on a rotational confocal imaging setup," Appl. Opt. 45, 2232-2239 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. R. Jennings and H. Plummer, "Light-scattering photometer calibration," J. Phys. D 1, 1201-1209 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Bohren and D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, 1983).
  18. B. Maheu, G. Grehan, and G. Gouesbet, "Diffusion de la lumiere par une sphere dans le cas d'un faisceau d'extension finie--1. Théorie de lorenz-mie generalisee: les coefficients gn et leur calcul numerique," J. Aerosol Sci. 19, 47-53 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

2006

2004

W. Kaller, "A newpolar nephelometer for measurement of atmospheric aerosols," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 87, 107-117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Kaller, "A new polar nephelometer for measurement of atmospheric aerosols," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 87, 107-117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

Z. Ulanowski, R. S. Greenaway, P. H. Kaye, and I. K. Ludlow, "Laser diffractometer for single-particle scattering measurements," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 292-296 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. Hochrainer, "Further developments of the particle counter sizer PCS-2000," J. Aerosol Sci. 31, Suppl. I, S771-S772 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1997

O. Crepel, J.-F. Gayet, J.-F. Fournol, and S. Oshchepkov, "A new airborne polar nephelometer for the measurements of optical and microphysical cloud properties. Part I: Theoretical design," Ann. Geophys. 15, 451-459 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Crepel, J.-F. Gayet, J.-F. Fournol, and S. Oshchepkov, "A new airborne polar nephelometer for the measurements of optical and microphysical cloud properties. Part II: Preliminary tests," Ann. Geophys. 15, 460-470 (1997).

1996

D. Miller, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, and A. J. Hunt, "Novel bistatic polarization nephelometer for probing scattering through a planar interface," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2089-2095 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. Mennella and F. Prodi, "Optical characterization of size separated aerosol particles of different composition and morphology with a polar nephelometer," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 471-488 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988

B. Maheu, G. Grehan, and G. Gouesbet, "Diffusion de la lumiere par une sphere dans le cas d'un faisceau d'extension finie--1. Théorie de lorenz-mie generalisee: les coefficients gn et leur calcul numerique," J. Aerosol Sci. 19, 47-53 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1980

1973

A. J. Hunt and D. R. Huffman, "A new polarization modulated light scattering instrument," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 1753-1762 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1968

B. R. Jennings and H. Plummer, "Light-scattering photometer calibration," J. Phys. D 1, 1201-1209 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Banfield, D.

D. Banfield, P. Gierasch, M. Roos-Serote, D. Stam, H. Volten, O. Munoz, M. Mishchenko, and R. Dissly, "Planetary polarization nephelometer," in Workshop Proceedings of the International Planetary Probe Atmospheric Entry and Descent Trajectory Analysis and Science, A.Wilson, ed. (European Space Agency, 2004).
[PubMed]

D. Banfield, P. Gierasch, and R. Dissly, "Planetary descent probes: polarization nephelometer and hydrogen ortho/para instruments," in Aerospace, 2005 IEEE Conference, (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1-7.

Berge, B.

Bigio, I. J.

Bohren, C.

C. Bohren and D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, 1983).

Castagner, J.-L.

Crepel, O.

O. Crepel, J.-F. Gayet, J.-F. Fournol, and S. Oshchepkov, "A new airborne polar nephelometer for the measurements of optical and microphysical cloud properties. Part II: Preliminary tests," Ann. Geophys. 15, 460-470 (1997).

O. Crepel, J.-F. Gayet, J.-F. Fournol, and S. Oshchepkov, "A new airborne polar nephelometer for the measurements of optical and microphysical cloud properties. Part I: Theoretical design," Ann. Geophys. 15, 451-459 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dapkunas, S. J.

A. Jillavenkatesa, S. J. Dapkunas, and L. S. H. Lum, Particle Size Characterization, NIST (Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.) Spec. Publ. 960-1 (2001).

Dissly, R.

D. Banfield, P. Gierasch, and R. Dissly, "Planetary descent probes: polarization nephelometer and hydrogen ortho/para instruments," in Aerospace, 2005 IEEE Conference, (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1-7.

D. Banfield, P. Gierasch, M. Roos-Serote, D. Stam, H. Volten, O. Munoz, M. Mishchenko, and R. Dissly, "Planetary polarization nephelometer," in Workshop Proceedings of the International Planetary Probe Atmospheric Entry and Descent Trajectory Analysis and Science, A.Wilson, ed. (European Space Agency, 2004).
[PubMed]

Evans, W. H.

Fournol, J.-F.

O. Crepel, J.-F. Gayet, J.-F. Fournol, and S. Oshchepkov, "A new airborne polar nephelometer for the measurements of optical and microphysical cloud properties. Part I: Theoretical design," Ann. Geophys. 15, 451-459 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Crepel, J.-F. Gayet, J.-F. Fournol, and S. Oshchepkov, "A new airborne polar nephelometer for the measurements of optical and microphysical cloud properties. Part II: Preliminary tests," Ann. Geophys. 15, 460-470 (1997).

Gausmann, R.

Gayet, J.-F.

O. Crepel, J.-F. Gayet, J.-F. Fournol, and S. Oshchepkov, "A new airborne polar nephelometer for the measurements of optical and microphysical cloud properties. Part I: Theoretical design," Ann. Geophys. 15, 451-459 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Crepel, J.-F. Gayet, J.-F. Fournol, and S. Oshchepkov, "A new airborne polar nephelometer for the measurements of optical and microphysical cloud properties. Part II: Preliminary tests," Ann. Geophys. 15, 460-470 (1997).

Gierasch, P.

D. Banfield, P. Gierasch, and R. Dissly, "Planetary descent probes: polarization nephelometer and hydrogen ortho/para instruments," in Aerospace, 2005 IEEE Conference, (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1-7.

D. Banfield, P. Gierasch, M. Roos-Serote, D. Stam, H. Volten, O. Munoz, M. Mishchenko, and R. Dissly, "Planetary polarization nephelometer," in Workshop Proceedings of the International Planetary Probe Atmospheric Entry and Descent Trajectory Analysis and Science, A.Wilson, ed. (European Space Agency, 2004).
[PubMed]

Gouesbet, G.

B. Maheu, G. Grehan, and G. Gouesbet, "Diffusion de la lumiere par une sphere dans le cas d'un faisceau d'extension finie--1. Théorie de lorenz-mie generalisee: les coefficients gn et leur calcul numerique," J. Aerosol Sci. 19, 47-53 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Greenaway, R. S.

Z. Ulanowski, R. S. Greenaway, P. H. Kaye, and I. K. Ludlow, "Laser diffractometer for single-particle scattering measurements," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 292-296 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grehan, G.

B. Maheu, G. Grehan, and G. Gouesbet, "Diffusion de la lumiere par une sphere dans le cas d'un faisceau d'extension finie--1. Théorie de lorenz-mie generalisee: les coefficients gn et leur calcul numerique," J. Aerosol Sci. 19, 47-53 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, M. Z.

Hochrainer, S.

S. Hochrainer, "Further developments of the particle counter sizer PCS-2000," J. Aerosol Sci. 31, Suppl. I, S771-S772 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D.

C. Bohren and D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, 1983).

Huffman, D. R.

A. J. Hunt and D. R. Huffman, "A new polarization modulated light scattering instrument," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 1753-1762 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, A. J.

D. Miller, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, and A. J. Hunt, "Novel bistatic polarization nephelometer for probing scattering through a planar interface," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2089-2095 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Hunt and D. R. Huffman, "A new polarization modulated light scattering instrument," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 1753-1762 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Jennings, B. R.

B. R. Jennings and H. Plummer, "Light-scattering photometer calibration," J. Phys. D 1, 1201-1209 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Jillavenkatesa, A.

A. Jillavenkatesa, S. J. Dapkunas, and L. S. H. Lum, Particle Size Characterization, NIST (Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.) Spec. Publ. 960-1 (2001).

Kaller, W.

W. Kaller, "A newpolar nephelometer for measurement of atmospheric aerosols," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 87, 107-117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Kaller, "A new polar nephelometer for measurement of atmospheric aerosols," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 87, 107-117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kaye, P. H.

Z. Ulanowski, R. S. Greenaway, P. H. Kaye, and I. K. Ludlow, "Laser diffractometer for single-particle scattering measurements," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 292-296 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ludlow, I. K.

Z. Ulanowski, R. S. Greenaway, P. H. Kaye, and I. K. Ludlow, "Laser diffractometer for single-particle scattering measurements," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 292-296 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lum, L. S. H.

A. Jillavenkatesa, S. J. Dapkunas, and L. S. H. Lum, Particle Size Characterization, NIST (Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.) Spec. Publ. 960-1 (2001).

Maheu, B.

B. Maheu, G. Grehan, and G. Gouesbet, "Diffusion de la lumiere par une sphere dans le cas d'un faisceau d'extension finie--1. Théorie de lorenz-mie generalisee: les coefficients gn et leur calcul numerique," J. Aerosol Sci. 19, 47-53 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mennella, A.

A. Mennella and F. Prodi, "Optical characterization of size separated aerosol particles of different composition and morphology with a polar nephelometer," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 471-488 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D.

D. Miller, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, and A. J. Hunt, "Novel bistatic polarization nephelometer for probing scattering through a planar interface," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2089-2095 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M.

D. Banfield, P. Gierasch, M. Roos-Serote, D. Stam, H. Volten, O. Munoz, M. Mishchenko, and R. Dissly, "Planetary polarization nephelometer," in Workshop Proceedings of the International Planetary Probe Atmospheric Entry and Descent Trajectory Analysis and Science, A.Wilson, ed. (European Space Agency, 2004).
[PubMed]

Munoz, O.

D. Banfield, P. Gierasch, M. Roos-Serote, D. Stam, H. Volten, O. Munoz, M. Mishchenko, and R. Dissly, "Planetary polarization nephelometer," in Workshop Proceedings of the International Planetary Probe Atmospheric Entry and Descent Trajectory Analysis and Science, A.Wilson, ed. (European Space Agency, 2004).
[PubMed]

Oshchepkov, S.

O. Crepel, J.-F. Gayet, J.-F. Fournol, and S. Oshchepkov, "A new airborne polar nephelometer for the measurements of optical and microphysical cloud properties. Part I: Theoretical design," Ann. Geophys. 15, 451-459 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Crepel, J.-F. Gayet, J.-F. Fournol, and S. Oshchepkov, "A new airborne polar nephelometer for the measurements of optical and microphysical cloud properties. Part II: Preliminary tests," Ann. Geophys. 15, 460-470 (1997).

Plummer, H.

B. R. Jennings and H. Plummer, "Light-scattering photometer calibration," J. Phys. D 1, 1201-1209 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Prodi, F.

A. Mennella and F. Prodi, "Optical characterization of size separated aerosol particles of different composition and morphology with a polar nephelometer," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 471-488 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Quinby-Hunt, M. S.

D. Miller, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, and A. J. Hunt, "Novel bistatic polarization nephelometer for probing scattering through a planar interface," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2089-2095 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rhl, E.

Rohmann, J.

Roos-Serote, M.

D. Banfield, P. Gierasch, M. Roos-Serote, D. Stam, H. Volten, O. Munoz, M. Mishchenko, and R. Dissly, "Planetary polarization nephelometer," in Workshop Proceedings of the International Planetary Probe Atmospheric Entry and Descent Trajectory Analysis and Science, A.Wilson, ed. (European Space Agency, 2004).
[PubMed]

Stam, D.

D. Banfield, P. Gierasch, M. Roos-Serote, D. Stam, H. Volten, O. Munoz, M. Mishchenko, and R. Dissly, "Planetary polarization nephelometer," in Workshop Proceedings of the International Planetary Probe Atmospheric Entry and Descent Trajectory Analysis and Science, A.Wilson, ed. (European Space Agency, 2004).
[PubMed]

Steiner, B.

Ulanowski, Z.

Z. Ulanowski, R. S. Greenaway, P. H. Kaye, and I. K. Ludlow, "Laser diffractometer for single-particle scattering measurements," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 292-296 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Volten, H.

D. Banfield, P. Gierasch, M. Roos-Serote, D. Stam, H. Volten, O. Munoz, M. Mishchenko, and R. Dissly, "Planetary polarization nephelometer," in Workshop Proceedings of the International Planetary Probe Atmospheric Entry and Descent Trajectory Analysis and Science, A.Wilson, ed. (European Space Agency, 2004).
[PubMed]

Ann. Geophys.

O. Crepel, J.-F. Gayet, J.-F. Fournol, and S. Oshchepkov, "A new airborne polar nephelometer for the measurements of optical and microphysical cloud properties. Part I: Theoretical design," Ann. Geophys. 15, 451-459 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Crepel, J.-F. Gayet, J.-F. Fournol, and S. Oshchepkov, "A new airborne polar nephelometer for the measurements of optical and microphysical cloud properties. Part II: Preliminary tests," Ann. Geophys. 15, 460-470 (1997).

Appl. Opt.

J. Aerosol Sci.

B. Maheu, G. Grehan, and G. Gouesbet, "Diffusion de la lumiere par une sphere dans le cas d'un faisceau d'extension finie--1. Théorie de lorenz-mie generalisee: les coefficients gn et leur calcul numerique," J. Aerosol Sci. 19, 47-53 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Hochrainer, "Further developments of the particle counter sizer PCS-2000," J. Aerosol Sci. 31, Suppl. I, S771-S772 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

B. R. Jennings and H. Plummer, "Light-scattering photometer calibration," J. Phys. D 1, 1201-1209 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

W. Kaller, "A new polar nephelometer for measurement of atmospheric aerosols," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 87, 107-117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Kaller, "A newpolar nephelometer for measurement of atmospheric aerosols," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 87, 107-117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

Z. Ulanowski, R. S. Greenaway, P. H. Kaye, and I. K. Ludlow, "Laser diffractometer for single-particle scattering measurements," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 292-296 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt.

A. Mennella and F. Prodi, "Optical characterization of size separated aerosol particles of different composition and morphology with a polar nephelometer," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 471-488 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

D. Miller, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, and A. J. Hunt, "Novel bistatic polarization nephelometer for probing scattering through a planar interface," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2089-2095 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Hunt and D. R. Huffman, "A new polarization modulated light scattering instrument," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 1753-1762 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Jillavenkatesa, S. J. Dapkunas, and L. S. H. Lum, Particle Size Characterization, NIST (Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.) Spec. Publ. 960-1 (2001).

C. Bohren and D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, 1983).

D. Banfield, P. Gierasch, M. Roos-Serote, D. Stam, H. Volten, O. Munoz, M. Mishchenko, and R. Dissly, "Planetary polarization nephelometer," in Workshop Proceedings of the International Planetary Probe Atmospheric Entry and Descent Trajectory Analysis and Science, A.Wilson, ed. (European Space Agency, 2004).
[PubMed]

D. Banfield, P. Gierasch, and R. Dissly, "Planetary descent probes: polarization nephelometer and hydrogen ortho/para instruments," in Aerospace, 2005 IEEE Conference, (IEEE, 2005), pp. 1-7.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic of the polar nephelometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transfer function G ( θ ) .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison between calibrated experimental data (dotted curve) and theoretical data (dashed curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) p- and (b) s-polarized intensity (dotted curves) fitted to Mie theory (solid curves). d 0 is the estimated particle diameter from the fit with 1 < correlation < 1 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured mean diameter versus manufacturer mean diameter. (○) Using I p . ( * ) Using I s .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mean value and standard deviation of the correlation coefficient.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Manufacturer's Particle Size Distribution Specifications

Equations (44)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

9   μm
20   μm
125   mm
300   μm
1   μm
1000   μm
10   μm
8000   μm
( < 1   s )
633   nm
632 .8   nm
( x , y )
2 f
( 2.54 c m )
( 5 c m )
5 %
30   nm
I c a l s ( θ )
G ( θ )
G ( θ ) = I th s ( θ ) I cal s ( θ ) ,
I th s ( θ )
30   nm
I s , p ( θ ) = G ( θ ) I exp s , p ( θ ) .
G ( θ )
I th s , p ( θ )
I s , p ( θ )
30   nm
d 0
I s
I p
I t h s ( θ )
G ( θ )
θ = 90 °
I th p ( θ )
I c a l p ( θ )
( 77   μm )
> 0.8
d 0
G ( θ )
d 0
1 <
< 1
I p . ( * )
I s

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