Abstract

Gratings are written holographically with low power (10mW/cm2) 244  nm UV light on thin films of polybutadiene rubber polymer. The increase of hydrophilicity–wettability of polybutadiene films is measured over UV-exposed regions. Sequential fabrication of two orthogonal gratings results in hydrophilic microarrays having applications as functionalized substrates for immobilizing biomolecules. This is demonstrated by immobilizing a phospholipid in a microarray pattern.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Sackmann, "Supported membrane: scientific and practical applications," Science 271, 43-48 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. K. Yee, M. L. Amweg, and A. N. Parikh, "Membrane photolithography: direct micropatterning and manipulation of fluid phospholipid membranes in aqueous phase using deep UV light," Adv. Mater. 16, 1184-1188 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. M. Sansiñena, C. K. Yee, A. Sapuri, B. I. Swanson, A. Redondo, and A. N. Parikh, "Micro-patterning of ionic reservoirs within a double bilayer lipid membrane to fabricate a 2D array of ion-channel switch based electrochemical biosensors," in Technical Proceedings of the 2004 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show (Nano Science and Technology Institute, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 221-223.
  4. D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathi, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohm, "Optically induced surface relief gratings on azoaromatic polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136-138 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. L. Jiang, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, and S. K. Tripathy, "Unusual polarization dependent optical erasure of surface relief gratings on azobenzene polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2502-2504 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Bai and Y. Zhao, "Azobenzene elastomers for mechanically tunable diffraction gratings," Macromolecules 35, 9657-9664 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Takase, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, "Photocrosslinked surface relief gratings on azobenzene-containing copolymer films," Polymer 44, 7345-7351 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. S. Ramanujam, L. Nedelchev, and A. Matharu, "Polarization holographic and surface-relief gratings at 257 nm in an amorphous azobenzene polyester," Opt. Lett. 28, 1072-1074 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Sharma, M. Dokhanian, A. Kassu, and A. N. Parekh, "Photoinduced grating formation in azo-dye-labeled phospholipid thin films using 244 nm light," Opt. Lett. 30, 501-503 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Zhao, S. Bai, D. Dumont, and T. V. Galstian, "Mechanically tunable diffraction gratings recorded on an azobenzene elastomer," Adv. Mater. 14, 512-514 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Zhao, S. Bai, K. Asatryan, and T. Galstian, "Holographic recording in a photoactive elastomer," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 781-788 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, E. Josse, and D. Zyss, "Progress in erasable and permanent polymer based DFB-structures with multicolour tunable laser emission," J. Synth. Met. 121, 1617-1620 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, "Index and relief grating in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers," Chem. Mater. 14, 4178-4185 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Stimulated emission in a periodic structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152-154 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, T. Kelf, and J. B. Baumberg, "Wetting of regularly structured gold surfaces," Langmuir 21, 1753-1757 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. L. McCarley, B. Vaidya, S. Wei, A. F. Smith, A. B. Patel, J. Feng, M. C. Murphy, and S. A. Soper, "Resist-free patterning of surface architectures in polymer-based microanalytical devices," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 842-843 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. Hozumi, T. Masuda, K. Hayashi, H. Sugimura, O. Takai, and T. Kameyama, "Spatially defined surface modification of poly(methyl methacrylate) using 172 nm vacuum ultraviolet light," Langmuir 18, 9022-9027 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. M. Weikart and H. K. J. Yasuda, "Modification, degradation, and stability of polymeric surfaces treated with reactive plasmas," Polym. Sci. A: Polym. Chem. 38, 3028-3042 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. Viallet, E. Daran, and L. Malaquin, "Effects of ultraviolet/ozone treatment on benzocyclobutene films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 766-771 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Th. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, "Formation mechanism and dynamics in polymer surface gratings," Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. Shin and R. Magnusson, "Diffraction by surface relief gratings with conic cross-sectional grating shapes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 1249-1253 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. G. Nuzzo, "Stable antifouling surfaces," Nat. Mater. 2, 207-208 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. G. V. Shivashankar and A. Libchaber, "Biomolecular recognition using submicron laser lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 417-419 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  25. E. A. Smith, W. D. Thomas, L. L. Kiessling, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-carbohydrate interaction," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 6140-6148 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. S. K. Lee, L. G. Cascão-Pereira, R. F. Sala, S. P. Holmes, K. J. Ryan, and T. Becker, "Ion channel switch array: a biosensor for detecting multiple pathogens," Indust. Biotechnol. 1, 26-31 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. P. Blanchard, "Synthetic DNA arrays," in Genetic Engineering, J.K.Setlow, ed. (Plenum, 1998), Vol. 20, pp. 111-123.

2005 (4)

A. Sharma, M. Dokhanian, A. Kassu, and A. N. Parekh, "Photoinduced grating formation in azo-dye-labeled phospholipid thin films using 244 nm light," Opt. Lett. 30, 501-503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, T. Kelf, and J. B. Baumberg, "Wetting of regularly structured gold surfaces," Langmuir 21, 1753-1757 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. McCarley, B. Vaidya, S. Wei, A. F. Smith, A. B. Patel, J. Feng, M. C. Murphy, and S. A. Soper, "Resist-free patterning of surface architectures in polymer-based microanalytical devices," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 842-843 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Lee, L. G. Cascão-Pereira, R. F. Sala, S. P. Holmes, K. J. Ryan, and T. Becker, "Ion channel switch array: a biosensor for detecting multiple pathogens," Indust. Biotechnol. 1, 26-31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. K. Yee, M. L. Amweg, and A. N. Parikh, "Membrane photolithography: direct micropatterning and manipulation of fluid phospholipid membranes in aqueous phase using deep UV light," Adv. Mater. 16, 1184-1188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

H. Takase, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, "Photocrosslinked surface relief gratings on azobenzene-containing copolymer films," Polymer 44, 7345-7351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Ramanujam, L. Nedelchev, and A. Matharu, "Polarization holographic and surface-relief gratings at 257 nm in an amorphous azobenzene polyester," Opt. Lett. 28, 1072-1074 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, S. Bai, K. Asatryan, and T. Galstian, "Holographic recording in a photoactive elastomer," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 781-788 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Smith, W. D. Thomas, L. L. Kiessling, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-carbohydrate interaction," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 6140-6148 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Viallet, E. Daran, and L. Malaquin, "Effects of ultraviolet/ozone treatment on benzocyclobutene films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 766-771 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Nuzzo, "Stable antifouling surfaces," Nat. Mater. 2, 207-208 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (5)

Th. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, "Formation mechanism and dynamics in polymer surface gratings," Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Bai and Y. Zhao, "Azobenzene elastomers for mechanically tunable diffraction gratings," Macromolecules 35, 9657-9664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, "Index and relief grating in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers," Chem. Mater. 14, 4178-4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Hozumi, T. Masuda, K. Hayashi, H. Sugimura, O. Takai, and T. Kameyama, "Spatially defined surface modification of poly(methyl methacrylate) using 172 nm vacuum ultraviolet light," Langmuir 18, 9022-9027 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, S. Bai, D. Dumont, and T. V. Galstian, "Mechanically tunable diffraction gratings recorded on an azobenzene elastomer," Adv. Mater. 14, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, E. Josse, and D. Zyss, "Progress in erasable and permanent polymer based DFB-structures with multicolour tunable laser emission," J. Synth. Met. 121, 1617-1620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. M. Weikart and H. K. J. Yasuda, "Modification, degradation, and stability of polymeric surfaces treated with reactive plasmas," Polym. Sci. A: Polym. Chem. 38, 3028-3042 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

X. L. Jiang, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, and S. K. Tripathy, "Unusual polarization dependent optical erasure of surface relief gratings on azobenzene polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2502-2504 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Shivashankar and A. Libchaber, "Biomolecular recognition using submicron laser lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 417-419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

E. Sackmann, "Supported membrane: scientific and practical applications," Science 271, 43-48 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathi, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohm, "Optically induced surface relief gratings on azoaromatic polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136-138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1971 (1)

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Stimulated emission in a periodic structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152-154 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Abdelsalam, M. E.

M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, T. Kelf, and J. B. Baumberg, "Wetting of regularly structured gold surfaces," Langmuir 21, 1753-1757 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amweg, M. L.

C. K. Yee, M. L. Amweg, and A. N. Parikh, "Membrane photolithography: direct micropatterning and manipulation of fluid phospholipid membranes in aqueous phase using deep UV light," Adv. Mater. 16, 1184-1188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Asatryan, K.

Y. Zhao, S. Bai, K. Asatryan, and T. Galstian, "Holographic recording in a photoactive elastomer," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 781-788 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bai, S.

Y. Zhao, S. Bai, K. Asatryan, and T. Galstian, "Holographic recording in a photoactive elastomer," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 781-788 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, S. Bai, D. Dumont, and T. V. Galstian, "Mechanically tunable diffraction gratings recorded on an azobenzene elastomer," Adv. Mater. 14, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Bai and Y. Zhao, "Azobenzene elastomers for mechanically tunable diffraction gratings," Macromolecules 35, 9657-9664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, P. N.

M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, T. Kelf, and J. B. Baumberg, "Wetting of regularly structured gold surfaces," Langmuir 21, 1753-1757 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Batalla, E.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohm, "Optically induced surface relief gratings on azoaromatic polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136-138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baumberg, J. B.

M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, T. Kelf, and J. B. Baumberg, "Wetting of regularly structured gold surfaces," Langmuir 21, 1753-1757 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, T.

S. K. Lee, L. G. Cascão-Pereira, R. F. Sala, S. P. Holmes, K. J. Ryan, and T. Becker, "Ion channel switch array: a biosensor for detecting multiple pathogens," Indust. Biotechnol. 1, 26-31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard, A. P.

A. P. Blanchard, "Synthetic DNA arrays," in Genetic Engineering, J.K.Setlow, ed. (Plenum, 1998), Vol. 20, pp. 111-123.

Cascão-Pereira, L. G.

S. K. Lee, L. G. Cascão-Pereira, R. F. Sala, S. P. Holmes, K. J. Ryan, and T. Becker, "Ion channel switch array: a biosensor for detecting multiple pathogens," Indust. Biotechnol. 1, 26-31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Corn, R. M.

E. A. Smith, W. D. Thomas, L. L. Kiessling, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-carbohydrate interaction," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 6140-6148 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daran, E.

B. Viallet, E. Daran, and L. Malaquin, "Effects of ultraviolet/ozone treatment on benzocyclobutene films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 766-771 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dokhanian, M.

Dumont, D.

Y. Zhao, S. Bai, D. Dumont, and T. V. Galstian, "Mechanically tunable diffraction gratings recorded on an azobenzene elastomer," Adv. Mater. 14, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Feng, J.

R. L. McCarley, B. Vaidya, S. Wei, A. F. Smith, A. B. Patel, J. Feng, M. C. Murphy, and S. A. Soper, "Resist-free patterning of surface architectures in polymer-based microanalytical devices," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 842-843 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galstian, T.

Y. Zhao, S. Bai, K. Asatryan, and T. Galstian, "Holographic recording in a photoactive elastomer," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 781-788 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Galstian, T. V.

Y. Zhao, S. Bai, D. Dumont, and T. V. Galstian, "Mechanically tunable diffraction gratings recorded on an azobenzene elastomer," Adv. Mater. 14, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Geue, Th.

Th. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, "Formation mechanism and dynamics in polymer surface gratings," Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, K.

A. Hozumi, T. Masuda, K. Hayashi, H. Sugimura, O. Takai, and T. Kameyama, "Spatially defined surface modification of poly(methyl methacrylate) using 172 nm vacuum ultraviolet light," Langmuir 18, 9022-9027 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Henneberg, O.

Th. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, "Formation mechanism and dynamics in polymer surface gratings," Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, S. P.

S. K. Lee, L. G. Cascão-Pereira, R. F. Sala, S. P. Holmes, K. J. Ryan, and T. Becker, "Ion channel switch array: a biosensor for detecting multiple pathogens," Indust. Biotechnol. 1, 26-31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hozumi, A.

A. Hozumi, T. Masuda, K. Hayashi, H. Sugimura, O. Takai, and T. Kameyama, "Spatially defined surface modification of poly(methyl methacrylate) using 172 nm vacuum ultraviolet light," Langmuir 18, 9022-9027 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iskra, K. F.

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, "Index and relief grating in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers," Chem. Mater. 14, 4178-4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X. L.

X. L. Jiang, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, and S. K. Tripathy, "Unusual polarization dependent optical erasure of surface relief gratings on azobenzene polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2502-2504 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Josse, E.

G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, E. Josse, and D. Zyss, "Progress in erasable and permanent polymer based DFB-structures with multicolour tunable laser emission," J. Synth. Met. 121, 1617-1620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kameyama, T.

A. Hozumi, T. Masuda, K. Hayashi, H. Sugimura, O. Takai, and T. Kameyama, "Spatially defined surface modification of poly(methyl methacrylate) using 172 nm vacuum ultraviolet light," Langmuir 18, 9022-9027 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kassu, A.

Kavc, T.

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, "Index and relief grating in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers," Chem. Mater. 14, 4178-4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kelf, T.

M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, T. Kelf, and J. B. Baumberg, "Wetting of regularly structured gold surfaces," Langmuir 21, 1753-1757 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kern, W.

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, "Index and relief grating in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers," Chem. Mater. 14, 4178-4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kiessling, L. L.

E. A. Smith, W. D. Thomas, L. L. Kiessling, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-carbohydrate interaction," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 6140-6148 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. Y.

X. L. Jiang, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, and S. K. Tripathy, "Unusual polarization dependent optical erasure of surface relief gratings on azobenzene polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2502-2504 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathi, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Stimulated emission in a periodic structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152-154 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kranzelbinder, G.

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, "Index and relief grating in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers," Chem. Mater. 14, 4178-4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, E. Josse, and D. Zyss, "Progress in erasable and permanent polymer based DFB-structures with multicolour tunable laser emission," J. Synth. Met. 121, 1617-1620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, J.

X. L. Jiang, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, and S. K. Tripathy, "Unusual polarization dependent optical erasure of surface relief gratings on azobenzene polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2502-2504 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathi, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Langer, G.

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, "Index and relief grating in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers," Chem. Mater. 14, 4178-4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. K.

S. K. Lee, L. G. Cascão-Pereira, R. F. Sala, S. P. Holmes, K. J. Ryan, and T. Becker, "Ion channel switch array: a biosensor for detecting multiple pathogens," Indust. Biotechnol. 1, 26-31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

X. L. Jiang, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, and S. K. Tripathy, "Unusual polarization dependent optical erasure of surface relief gratings on azobenzene polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2502-2504 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathi, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Libchaber, A.

G. V. Shivashankar and A. Libchaber, "Biomolecular recognition using submicron laser lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 417-419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Magnusson, R.

Malaquin, L.

B. Viallet, E. Daran, and L. Malaquin, "Effects of ultraviolet/ozone treatment on benzocyclobutene films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 766-771 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, T.

A. Hozumi, T. Masuda, K. Hayashi, H. Sugimura, O. Takai, and T. Kameyama, "Spatially defined surface modification of poly(methyl methacrylate) using 172 nm vacuum ultraviolet light," Langmuir 18, 9022-9027 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matharu, A.

McCarley, R. L.

R. L. McCarley, B. Vaidya, S. Wei, A. F. Smith, A. B. Patel, J. Feng, M. C. Murphy, and S. A. Soper, "Resist-free patterning of surface architectures in polymer-based microanalytical devices," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 842-843 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy, M. C.

R. L. McCarley, B. Vaidya, S. Wei, A. F. Smith, A. B. Patel, J. Feng, M. C. Murphy, and S. A. Soper, "Resist-free patterning of surface architectures in polymer-based microanalytical devices," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 842-843 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Natansohm, A.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohm, "Optically induced surface relief gratings on azoaromatic polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136-138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Natansohn, A.

H. Takase, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, "Photocrosslinked surface relief gratings on azobenzene-containing copolymer films," Polymer 44, 7345-7351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Natansohn, A. L.

Th. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, "Formation mechanism and dynamics in polymer surface gratings," Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nedelchev, L.

Neger, T.

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, "Index and relief grating in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers," Chem. Mater. 14, 4178-4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nuzzo, R. G.

R. G. Nuzzo, "Stable antifouling surfaces," Nat. Mater. 2, 207-208 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parekh, A. N.

Parikh, A. N.

C. K. Yee, M. L. Amweg, and A. N. Parikh, "Membrane photolithography: direct micropatterning and manipulation of fluid phospholipid membranes in aqueous phase using deep UV light," Adv. Mater. 16, 1184-1188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sansiñena, C. K. Yee, A. Sapuri, B. I. Swanson, A. Redondo, and A. N. Parikh, "Micro-patterning of ionic reservoirs within a double bilayer lipid membrane to fabricate a 2D array of ion-channel switch based electrochemical biosensors," in Technical Proceedings of the 2004 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show (Nano Science and Technology Institute, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 221-223.

Patel, A. B.

R. L. McCarley, B. Vaidya, S. Wei, A. F. Smith, A. B. Patel, J. Feng, M. C. Murphy, and S. A. Soper, "Resist-free patterning of surface architectures in polymer-based microanalytical devices," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 842-843 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pietsch, U.

Th. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, "Formation mechanism and dynamics in polymer surface gratings," Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pogantsch, A.

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, "Index and relief grating in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers," Chem. Mater. 14, 4178-4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, P. S.

Redondo, A.

J. M. Sansiñena, C. K. Yee, A. Sapuri, B. I. Swanson, A. Redondo, and A. N. Parikh, "Micro-patterning of ionic reservoirs within a double bilayer lipid membrane to fabricate a 2D array of ion-channel switch based electrochemical biosensors," in Technical Proceedings of the 2004 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show (Nano Science and Technology Institute, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 221-223.

Rochon, P.

H. Takase, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, "Photocrosslinked surface relief gratings on azobenzene-containing copolymer films," Polymer 44, 7345-7351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohm, "Optically induced surface relief gratings on azoaromatic polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136-138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, P. L.

Th. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, "Formation mechanism and dynamics in polymer surface gratings," Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, K. J.

S. K. Lee, L. G. Cascão-Pereira, R. F. Sala, S. P. Holmes, K. J. Ryan, and T. Becker, "Ion channel switch array: a biosensor for detecting multiple pathogens," Indust. Biotechnol. 1, 26-31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sackmann, E.

E. Sackmann, "Supported membrane: scientific and practical applications," Science 271, 43-48 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sala, R. F.

S. K. Lee, L. G. Cascão-Pereira, R. F. Sala, S. P. Holmes, K. J. Ryan, and T. Becker, "Ion channel switch array: a biosensor for detecting multiple pathogens," Indust. Biotechnol. 1, 26-31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, "Index and relief grating in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers," Chem. Mater. 14, 4178-4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sansiñena, J. M.

J. M. Sansiñena, C. K. Yee, A. Sapuri, B. I. Swanson, A. Redondo, and A. N. Parikh, "Micro-patterning of ionic reservoirs within a double bilayer lipid membrane to fabricate a 2D array of ion-channel switch based electrochemical biosensors," in Technical Proceedings of the 2004 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show (Nano Science and Technology Institute, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 221-223.

Saphiannikova, M. G.

Th. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, "Formation mechanism and dynamics in polymer surface gratings," Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sapuri, A.

J. M. Sansiñena, C. K. Yee, A. Sapuri, B. I. Swanson, A. Redondo, and A. N. Parikh, "Micro-patterning of ionic reservoirs within a double bilayer lipid membrane to fabricate a 2D array of ion-channel switch based electrochemical biosensors," in Technical Proceedings of the 2004 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show (Nano Science and Technology Institute, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 221-223.

Shank, C. V.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Stimulated emission in a periodic structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152-154 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, A.

Shin, D.

Shivashankar, G. V.

G. V. Shivashankar and A. Libchaber, "Biomolecular recognition using submicron laser lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 417-419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. F.

R. L. McCarley, B. Vaidya, S. Wei, A. F. Smith, A. B. Patel, J. Feng, M. C. Murphy, and S. A. Soper, "Resist-free patterning of surface architectures in polymer-based microanalytical devices," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 842-843 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, E. A.

E. A. Smith, W. D. Thomas, L. L. Kiessling, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-carbohydrate interaction," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 6140-6148 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soper, S. A.

R. L. McCarley, B. Vaidya, S. Wei, A. F. Smith, A. B. Patel, J. Feng, M. C. Murphy, and S. A. Soper, "Resist-free patterning of surface architectures in polymer-based microanalytical devices," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 842-843 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugimura, H.

A. Hozumi, T. Masuda, K. Hayashi, H. Sugimura, O. Takai, and T. Kameyama, "Spatially defined surface modification of poly(methyl methacrylate) using 172 nm vacuum ultraviolet light," Langmuir 18, 9022-9027 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, B. I.

J. M. Sansiñena, C. K. Yee, A. Sapuri, B. I. Swanson, A. Redondo, and A. N. Parikh, "Micro-patterning of ionic reservoirs within a double bilayer lipid membrane to fabricate a 2D array of ion-channel switch based electrochemical biosensors," in Technical Proceedings of the 2004 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show (Nano Science and Technology Institute, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 221-223.

Takai, O.

A. Hozumi, T. Masuda, K. Hayashi, H. Sugimura, O. Takai, and T. Kameyama, "Spatially defined surface modification of poly(methyl methacrylate) using 172 nm vacuum ultraviolet light," Langmuir 18, 9022-9027 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takase, H.

H. Takase, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, "Photocrosslinked surface relief gratings on azobenzene-containing copolymer films," Polymer 44, 7345-7351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, W. D.

E. A. Smith, W. D. Thomas, L. L. Kiessling, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-carbohydrate interaction," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 6140-6148 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toussaere, E.

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, "Index and relief grating in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers," Chem. Mater. 14, 4178-4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, E. Josse, and D. Zyss, "Progress in erasable and permanent polymer based DFB-structures with multicolour tunable laser emission," J. Synth. Met. 121, 1617-1620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tripathi, S. K.

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathi, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S. K.

X. L. Jiang, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, and S. K. Tripathy, "Unusual polarization dependent optical erasure of surface relief gratings on azobenzene polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2502-2504 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Turnbull, G. A.

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, "Index and relief grating in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers," Chem. Mater. 14, 4178-4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vaidya, B.

R. L. McCarley, B. Vaidya, S. Wei, A. F. Smith, A. B. Patel, J. Feng, M. C. Murphy, and S. A. Soper, "Resist-free patterning of surface architectures in polymer-based microanalytical devices," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 842-843 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viallet, B.

B. Viallet, E. Daran, and L. Malaquin, "Effects of ultraviolet/ozone treatment on benzocyclobutene films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 766-771 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wei, S.

R. L. McCarley, B. Vaidya, S. Wei, A. F. Smith, A. B. Patel, J. Feng, M. C. Murphy, and S. A. Soper, "Resist-free patterning of surface architectures in polymer-based microanalytical devices," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 842-843 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weikart, C. M.

C. M. Weikart and H. K. J. Yasuda, "Modification, degradation, and stability of polymeric surfaces treated with reactive plasmas," Polym. Sci. A: Polym. Chem. 38, 3028-3042 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yasuda, H. K. J.

C. M. Weikart and H. K. J. Yasuda, "Modification, degradation, and stability of polymeric surfaces treated with reactive plasmas," Polym. Sci. A: Polym. Chem. 38, 3028-3042 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yee, C. K.

C. K. Yee, M. L. Amweg, and A. N. Parikh, "Membrane photolithography: direct micropatterning and manipulation of fluid phospholipid membranes in aqueous phase using deep UV light," Adv. Mater. 16, 1184-1188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sansiñena, C. K. Yee, A. Sapuri, B. I. Swanson, A. Redondo, and A. N. Parikh, "Micro-patterning of ionic reservoirs within a double bilayer lipid membrane to fabricate a 2D array of ion-channel switch based electrochemical biosensors," in Technical Proceedings of the 2004 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show (Nano Science and Technology Institute, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 221-223.

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, S. Bai, K. Asatryan, and T. Galstian, "Holographic recording in a photoactive elastomer," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 781-788 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Bai and Y. Zhao, "Azobenzene elastomers for mechanically tunable diffraction gratings," Macromolecules 35, 9657-9664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, S. Bai, D. Dumont, and T. V. Galstian, "Mechanically tunable diffraction gratings recorded on an azobenzene elastomer," Adv. Mater. 14, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zyss, D.

G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, E. Josse, and D. Zyss, "Progress in erasable and permanent polymer based DFB-structures with multicolour tunable laser emission," J. Synth. Met. 121, 1617-1620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Y. Zhao, S. Bai, K. Asatryan, and T. Galstian, "Holographic recording in a photoactive elastomer," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 781-788 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

Y. Zhao, S. Bai, D. Dumont, and T. V. Galstian, "Mechanically tunable diffraction gratings recorded on an azobenzene elastomer," Adv. Mater. 14, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Yee, M. L. Amweg, and A. N. Parikh, "Membrane photolithography: direct micropatterning and manipulation of fluid phospholipid membranes in aqueous phase using deep UV light," Adv. Mater. 16, 1184-1188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathi, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohm, "Optically induced surface relief gratings on azoaromatic polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136-138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Jiang, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, and S. K. Tripathy, "Unusual polarization dependent optical erasure of surface relief gratings on azobenzene polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2502-2504 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Stimulated emission in a periodic structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152-154 (1971).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Shivashankar and A. Libchaber, "Biomolecular recognition using submicron laser lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 417-419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, "Index and relief grating in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers," Chem. Mater. 14, 4178-4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Indust. Biotechnol. (1)

S. K. Lee, L. G. Cascão-Pereira, R. F. Sala, S. P. Holmes, K. J. Ryan, and T. Becker, "Ion channel switch array: a biosensor for detecting multiple pathogens," Indust. Biotechnol. 1, 26-31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

E. A. Smith, W. D. Thomas, L. L. Kiessling, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-carbohydrate interaction," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 6140-6148 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. McCarley, B. Vaidya, S. Wei, A. F. Smith, A. B. Patel, J. Feng, M. C. Murphy, and S. A. Soper, "Resist-free patterning of surface architectures in polymer-based microanalytical devices," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 842-843 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Synth. Met. (1)

G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, E. Josse, and D. Zyss, "Progress in erasable and permanent polymer based DFB-structures with multicolour tunable laser emission," J. Synth. Met. 121, 1617-1620 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

B. Viallet, E. Daran, and L. Malaquin, "Effects of ultraviolet/ozone treatment on benzocyclobutene films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 766-771 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (2)

A. Hozumi, T. Masuda, K. Hayashi, H. Sugimura, O. Takai, and T. Kameyama, "Spatially defined surface modification of poly(methyl methacrylate) using 172 nm vacuum ultraviolet light," Langmuir 18, 9022-9027 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, T. Kelf, and J. B. Baumberg, "Wetting of regularly structured gold surfaces," Langmuir 21, 1753-1757 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macromolecules (1)

S. Bai and Y. Zhao, "Azobenzene elastomers for mechanically tunable diffraction gratings," Macromolecules 35, 9657-9664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

R. G. Nuzzo, "Stable antifouling surfaces," Nat. Mater. 2, 207-208 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

Th. Geue, M. G. Saphiannikova, O. Henneberg, U. Pietsch, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, "Formation mechanism and dynamics in polymer surface gratings," Phys. Rev. E 65, 052801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Polym. Sci. A: Polym. Chem. (1)

C. M. Weikart and H. K. J. Yasuda, "Modification, degradation, and stability of polymeric surfaces treated with reactive plasmas," Polym. Sci. A: Polym. Chem. 38, 3028-3042 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Polymer (1)

H. Takase, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, "Photocrosslinked surface relief gratings on azobenzene-containing copolymer films," Polymer 44, 7345-7351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. Sackmann, "Supported membrane: scientific and practical applications," Science 271, 43-48 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

J. M. Sansiñena, C. K. Yee, A. Sapuri, B. I. Swanson, A. Redondo, and A. N. Parikh, "Micro-patterning of ionic reservoirs within a double bilayer lipid membrane to fabricate a 2D array of ion-channel switch based electrochemical biosensors," in Technical Proceedings of the 2004 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show (Nano Science and Technology Institute, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 221-223.

A. P. Blanchard, "Synthetic DNA arrays," in Genetic Engineering, J.K.Setlow, ed. (Plenum, 1998), Vol. 20, pp. 111-123.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the holographic setup with a 244 nm UV laser to fabricate SRGs in thin films of polybutadiene on a glass substrate. UV light from a frequency-doubled argon-ion laser is split into two coherent beams ( 2 mW / beam ) with a phase mask (PM). The two UV beams are folded with mirrors (M1 and M2) to interfere at incident angles of 3°–8° on the polybutadiene rubber film for a grating period between 900 and 2300 nm . The grating becomes visible by diffraction of a 5 mW He–Ne laser. One of the first-order diffracted beams is detected with a photodiode and a lock-in amplifier.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental growth of gratings following a holographic UV exposure of 10 ( ) , 20 (○), 30 (♢), and 60 ( + ) s. Most of the grating growth takes place after the UV is blocked. Post-UV growth is fitted theoretically (solid curve) with an exponential function [Eq. (1)] with relaxation times T of 48, 30, 28, and 18 s, respectively. The point where the UV is blocked can be seen as a discontinuity in slope of the growth curve.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Each segment of this curve represents growth over a 5 min duration following a 2 s holographic exposure to UV light. In each segment, the growth of the grating shoots up after the UV is blocked.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of grating growth following 35 s exposure to UV (solid curve) with growth when UV is continuously on. In the former case, the point where UV is blocked is seen as a discontinuity in slope.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Atomic force micrograph of a grating with a period of 2300 nm . Surface relief amplitude of 60 80 nm is 10% of the film thickness ( 700 nm ) .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of ambient humidity on diffraction efficiency of grating. Polybutadiene film is exposed holographically to UV for a period of 1 min. Growth of grating is monitored for 30 min under a relative humidity of 76%. Humidity is then decreased to 55% by letting in dry nitrogen in the fabrication chamber. This results in an increase of diffraction efficiency by 10%–20%.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Increase of hydrophilicity of polybutadiene thin film as it is exposed to increasing amounts of UV energy. Increase of hydrophilicity–wettability is manifested as a decrease of contact angle of a water droplet on polybutadiene film.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Micrographs showing (a) transmission through a polka-dot lithographic mask, which has an array of reflecting squares with a period of 0.15 mm and a transparent grid. (b) UV exposure of polybutadiene film through the polka-dot mask results in an array of hydrophobic squares surrounded by a hydrophilic grid. Sputtered gold film adheres only to hydrophobic areas not exposed to UV light. (c) Hydrophilic dye (Rh6G) adheres only to areas exposed to UV light.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Micrographs showing (a) transmission through an electroformed nickel micromesh with a period of 0.125 mm . (b) UV exposure of polybutadiene film through the mesh results in an array of hydrophilic squares surrounded by a hydrophobic grid. (b) Hydrophilic dye (Rh6G) adheres only to areas exposed to UV light.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Plausible mechanism for fabrication of a hydrophilicity grating. Mechanical weakening of rubber film by UV photodissociation followed by elastic relaxation results in the observed surface relief pattern. Ambient humidity is absorbed by hydrophilic regions, resulting in a decrease of grating contrast as well as diffraction efficiency. Sputtered–evaporated gold gets coated over hydrophobic regions, resulting in an increase of diffraction efficiency as observed.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Optical micrograph of a holographic grating in polybutadiene made by UV light. The grating period is 2300 nm . Rh6G dye preferentially coats the hydrophilic regions and is used to enhance the visual contrast. (b) Fabrication of a microarray by two perpendicular holographic gratings in polybutadiene (period of 900 nm ). The array is made visible by coating it with gold which preferably adheres to hydrophobic regions, i.e., those areas not exposed to UV light.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Phospholipid microarray deposited on a polybutadiene thin film following UV lithography using the mask of Fig 8(a). From a chloroform-based solution, phospholipid adheres only to hydrophobic regions of polybutadiene.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) Evaporation of chloroform solvent results in phospholipid droplets adhering to hydrophobic regions of a holographic polybutadiene grating. (b) Increasing amount of phospholipid solution in chloroform results in a capillary action along the hydrophobic rows of the holographic grating. Grating parameter is 2300 nm .

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Phospholipid microarray is deposited from a chloroform-based solution on two orthogonal gratings on a polybutadiene substrate. The period of gratings is 2.3 μm , and the spot size of deposited phospholipid is less than 1 μm .

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ I ( t ) = Δ I ( ) [ 1 e ( t / T ) ]

Metrics