Abstract

We have experimentally investigated the mode dispersion property and refractive index sensitivity of dual-peak long-period fiber gratings (LPGs) that were sensitized by hydrofluoric acid (HF) etching. The nature of the coupled cladding modes close to the dispersion turning point makes the dual-peak LPGs ultrasensitive to cladding property, permitting a fine tailoring of the mode dispersion and index sensitivity by the light cladding etching method using HF acid of only 1% concentration. As an implementation of an optical biosensor, the etched device was used to detect the concentration of hemoglobin protein in a sugar solution, showing a sensitivity as high as 20nm/1%.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Vengsarkar, P. Lemaire, J. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-64 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Vengsarkar, J. Pedrezzani, J. Judkins, P. Lemaire, N. Bergano, and C. Davidson, "Long-period fiber grating-based gain equalizers," Opt. Lett. 21, 336-338 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. Bhatia and A. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors," Opt. Lett. 21, 692-694 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Patrick, A. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long-period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1606-1611 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics near the dispersion turning points of long-period fiber gratings in B/Ge codoped fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 1755-1757 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 255-266 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Kim, Y. Jeong, S. Kim, J. Kwon, N. Park, and B. Lee, "Control of the characteristics of a long-period grating by cladding etching," Appl. Opt. 39, 2038-2042 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fiber grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Optical chemsensors utilizing long-period fiber gratings UV-inscribed in D-fiber with enhanced sensitivity through cladding etching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1352-1354 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and external refractive index by use of a hybrid grating in D fiber with enhanced sensitivity by HF etching," Appl. Opt. 44, 178-182 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and D. Huang, "Dual resonant peaks of LP015 cladding mode in long-period gratings," Electron. Lett. 15, 649-651 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, "High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fiber grating to surrounding refractive index changes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1580-1581 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "High-sensitivity optical chemsonsor based on etched D-fibre Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 40, 232-234 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Chen, B. F. Yun, and Y. P. Cui, "Cladding mode resonances of etch-eroded fiber Bragg grating for ambient refractive index sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133902 (2006).
  16. A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, H. Yi, W. E. Bentley, and M. Dagenais, "Detecting hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2006

N. Chen, B. F. Yun, and Y. P. Cui, "Cladding mode resonances of etch-eroded fiber Bragg grating for ambient refractive index sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133902 (2006).

2005

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, H. Yi, W. E. Bentley, and M. Dagenais, "Detecting hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and external refractive index by use of a hybrid grating in D fiber with enhanced sensitivity by HF etching," Appl. Opt. 44, 178-182 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Optical chemsensors utilizing long-period fiber gratings UV-inscribed in D-fiber with enhanced sensitivity through cladding etching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1352-1354 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "High-sensitivity optical chemsonsor based on etched D-fibre Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 40, 232-234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

2000

S. Kim, Y. Jeong, S. Kim, J. Kwon, N. Park, and B. Lee, "Control of the characteristics of a long-period grating by cladding etching," Appl. Opt. 39, 2038-2042 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fiber grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and D. Huang, "Dual resonant peaks of LP015 cladding mode in long-period gratings," Electron. Lett. 15, 649-651 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, "High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fiber grating to surrounding refractive index changes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1580-1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1996

Bennion, I.

Bentley, W. E.

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, H. Yi, W. E. Bentley, and M. Dagenais, "Detecting hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bergano, N.

Bhatia, V.

V. Bhatia and A. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors," Opt. Lett. 21, 692-694 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vengsarkar, P. Lemaire, J. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bucholtz, F.

Chen, N.

N. Chen, B. F. Yun, and Y. P. Cui, "Cladding mode resonances of etch-eroded fiber Bragg grating for ambient refractive index sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133902 (2006).

Chen, X.

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and external refractive index by use of a hybrid grating in D fiber with enhanced sensitivity by HF etching," Appl. Opt. 44, 178-182 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "High-sensitivity optical chemsonsor based on etched D-fibre Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 40, 232-234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Optical chemsensors utilizing long-period fiber gratings UV-inscribed in D-fiber with enhanced sensitivity through cladding etching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1352-1354 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K.

K. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fiber grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chryssis, A. N.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, H. Yi, W. E. Bentley, and M. Dagenais, "Detecting hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y. P.

N. Chen, B. F. Yun, and Y. P. Cui, "Cladding mode resonances of etch-eroded fiber Bragg grating for ambient refractive index sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133902 (2006).

Dagenais, M.

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, H. Yi, W. E. Bentley, and M. Dagenais, "Detecting hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, C.

Dong, X.

K. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fiber grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

A. Vengsarkar, P. Lemaire, J. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and D. Huang, "Dual resonant peaks of LP015 cladding mode in long-period gratings," Electron. Lett. 15, 649-651 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, "High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fiber grating to surrounding refractive index changes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1580-1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. Y.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and D. Huang, "Dual resonant peaks of LP015 cladding mode in long-period gratings," Electron. Lett. 15, 649-651 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y.

Jiang, S.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and D. Huang, "Dual resonant peaks of LP015 cladding mode in long-period gratings," Electron. Lett. 15, 649-651 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, "High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fiber grating to surrounding refractive index changes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1580-1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Judkins, J.

A. Vengsarkar, J. Pedrezzani, J. Judkins, P. Lemaire, N. Bergano, and C. Davidson, "Long-period fiber grating-based gain equalizers," Opt. Lett. 21, 336-338 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vengsarkar, P. Lemaire, J. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A.

Kim, S.

Kwon, J.

Lee, B.

Lee, R. K.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. B.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. M.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, H. Yi, W. E. Bentley, and M. Dagenais, "Detecting hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P.

A. Vengsarkar, J. Pedrezzani, J. Judkins, P. Lemaire, N. Bergano, and C. Davidson, "Long-period fiber grating-based gain equalizers," Opt. Lett. 21, 336-338 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vengsarkar, P. Lemaire, J. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

K. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fiber grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ng, M.

K. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fiber grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, N.

Patrick, H.

Pedrezzani, J.

Saini, S. S.

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, H. Yi, W. E. Bentley, and M. Dagenais, "Detecting hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, "High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fiber grating to surrounding refractive index changes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1580-1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and D. Huang, "Dual resonant peaks of LP015 cladding mode in long-period gratings," Electron. Lett. 15, 649-651 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shu, X.

X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 255-266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics near the dispersion turning points of long-period fiber gratings in B/Ge codoped fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 1755-1757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and D. Huang, "Dual resonant peaks of LP015 cladding mode in long-period gratings," Electron. Lett. 15, 649-651 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, "High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fiber grating to surrounding refractive index changes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1580-1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J.

A. Vengsarkar, P. Lemaire, J. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-64 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A.

Wang, Q.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and D. Huang, "Dual resonant peaks of LP015 cladding mode in long-period gratings," Electron. Lett. 15, 649-651 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yi, H.

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, H. Yi, W. E. Bentley, and M. Dagenais, "Detecting hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yun, B. F.

N. Chen, B. F. Yun, and Y. P. Cui, "Cladding mode resonances of etch-eroded fiber Bragg grating for ambient refractive index sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133902 (2006).

Zhang, L.

Zhou, K.

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and external refractive index by use of a hybrid grating in D fiber with enhanced sensitivity by HF etching," Appl. Opt. 44, 178-182 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "High-sensitivity optical chemsonsor based on etched D-fibre Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 40, 232-234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Optical chemsensors utilizing long-period fiber gratings UV-inscribed in D-fiber with enhanced sensitivity through cladding etching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1352-1354 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and D. Huang, "Dual resonant peaks of LP015 cladding mode in long-period gratings," Electron. Lett. 15, 649-651 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, "High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fiber grating to surrounding refractive index changes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1580-1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Chen, B. F. Yun, and Y. P. Cui, "Cladding mode resonances of etch-eroded fiber Bragg grating for ambient refractive index sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133902 (2006).

Electron. Lett.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and D. Huang, "Dual resonant peaks of LP015 cladding mode in long-period gratings," Electron. Lett. 15, 649-651 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, "High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fiber grating to surrounding refractive index changes," Electron. Lett. 35, 1580-1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "High-sensitivity optical chemsonsor based on etched D-fibre Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 40, 232-234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fiber grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, H. Yi, W. E. Bentley, and M. Dagenais, "Detecting hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Optical chemsensors utilizing long-period fiber gratings UV-inscribed in D-fiber with enhanced sensitivity through cladding etching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1352-1354 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) (a) Simulated phase curves of a dual-peak LPFG of 160 μ m period for reduced cladding radii from 62.5 to 51.5 μ m . (b) Spectral evolution of a dual-peak LPFG with a period of 158 μ m under increased (arrow direction) UV exposure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) (a) Spectral evolution of a dual-peak LPFG of 158 μm period during a 67   min etching experiment, showing repeating processes of the generation of conjugated modes from higher to lower orders. (b) Plotted wavelength shift of LPFG resonances against etched cladding radius, showing similar trends to the simulated results in Fig. 1(a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) (a) Dual-peak wavelengths against etching time showing a shift toward the dispersion tuning point; (b) SRI-induced spectral separation of the dual peaks for etched (N, N ) and unetched (M, M ) gratings (the curves have been offset).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) (a) Spectral evolution of N peak of the lightly etched dual-peak LPG with different hemoglobin concentrations; (b) N peak wavelength shifts against hemoglobin concentration.

Equations (66)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

20 nm / 1%
500 μ m
1600   nm
( 160 μ m )
λ = ( n c o e f f n c l , m e f f ) Λ ,
n c o e f f
n c l , m e f f
d λ / d Λ ̣
160 μ m
51.5 μ m
( d λ / d Λ ̣ < 0 )
( d λ / d Λ ̣ > 0 )
( 140 160 μ m )
158 μ m
5   min
0.21 μ m / min
158 μ m
1700   nm
1634.4   nm
L P 010
L P 011
L P 012
L P 012
L P 012
L P 012
L P 011
L P 011
L P 010
L P 010
L P 010
L P 09
m = 12
1389.1   nm
48.5 μ m
d λ / d Λ ̣ < 0
d λ / d Λ ̣ > 0
m = 11
+ 88.7
156.3 nm / μ m
56.5 μ m
292.3 nm / μ m
55.9 μ m
20   mm
147 μ m
96.5   min
1.1 μ m
61.4 μ m
M
493.6   nm
N
98.1   nm
N
373.9   nm
M
185.4   nm
5   ml
19.8   nm
20  nm / 1%
0.1   nm
20   nm / 1%
160 μ m
51.5 μ m
158 μ m
67   min
N
M

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